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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 MARCH 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 MARCH 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: The salient aspects of Art forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1) Indian music not just showcases the diversity of dialect and intellect but also is an evidence of diversity in taste. Comment.(250 words)

Why this question:

The question is to examine the significance Indian Music as to in what way it is just not an art form but an evidence of multilinguals and diversity of taste witnessed in the Indian society.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in the significance of Music as an artform and most importantly its role as a multilingual manifestation of our society and an agent signifying taste of the Indian culture.

Directive word:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about the  Music as an artform in India.

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • Have a discussion on – India, a land of many tongues.
  • Bring out the diversity of music vis-à-vis  India’s linguistic diversity justified by it.
  • Explain how music and its connection with different dialects signify local culture and taste and thus the diversity therein.
  • Such questions are best answered with examples.

Conclusion –

Conclude by re-asserting importance of Music and need to preserve it as a cultural heritage of India.

Introduction:

Music has always been an important part of Indian life. The range of musical phenomenon in India extends from simple melodies to what is one of the most well- developed “systems” of classical music in the world. The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmy, Indian rock and Indian pop. India’s classical music tradition, including Hindustani music and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life.

Body:

India is one of unique countries in the world that has the legacy of diversity of languages. The Constitution of India has recognised 22 official languages. Multilingualism is the way of life in India as people in different parts of the country speak more than one language from their birth and learns additional languages during their life time. Though officially there are 122 languages, Peoples Linguistic Survey of India has identified 780 languages, of which 50 are extinct in past five decades.

Diversity in Indian Music:

  • Music has always been an important aspect in the lives of Indian people.
  • India’s rich cultural diversity has greatly contributed to various forms of folk music.
  • Almost every region in India has its own folk music, which reflects the way of life.
  • From the peppy bhangra of Punjab to Garba of Gujarat to Bhavageete of Karnataka, the tradition of folk music in India is indeed great.
  • Folk music is closely associated with farming and other such professions and evolved to alleviate the hardship and break the monotony of the routine life.
  • Even though folk music lost its popularity with the advent of contemporary music like pop and rap, but no traditional festival or celebration is complete without folk music.
  • While the reason behind its origin and the method of usage remains more or less the same throughout India, the style in which it is sung and the way in which it is perceived differs depending upon the culture of different Indian states.
  • Many of these folk songs were composed by great poets and writers belonging to different parts of the country.
  • For instance, the Rabindra Sangeet or Tagore songs of Bengal are a collection of songs that were originally written by eminent poet Rabindranath Tagore.
  • Folk songs also played a crucial role in socio-religious reforms in many parts of South India.
  • Religious leaders like Adi Shankaracharya used many such songs to spread his message throughout the country.
  • Similarly, folk songs sung by other religious leaders gave identity to the villages they originally came from and gradually, these songs were cherished and celebrated by the people of their respective areas as their own.
  • Also, many folk songs are associated with a dance form, which is usually performed while singing these songs. Today, almost every Indian state/region has a folk song of its own and some of them are associated with a dance form as well.
  • The great diversity of Indian traditions has given birth to a variety of musical instruments. Some of these instruments are played solo while others are used as accompanying instruments to the soloists and dancers.
  • There are instruments that are strictly devotional and ritualistic like the conch and the Khol drum. The evolution of most musical instruments is evident in the ancient cave paintings and sculptures of historic temples.

Conclusion:

Indian music in particular is one of the oldest and finest forms of human expression. The varied human passions like agony, ecstasy, sorrow, hope and desire find expression in the subtle notes of music. Music in India is organic with newer forms evolving from the older one over time.


Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography.

2) Explain the concept of discordant drainage? Do structure and lithological aspects always control drainage systems? Explain with examples. (250 words)

 

Why this question:

The question is based on the concept of types of drainage system and role of structure and lithological aspects as a control factor on them.

Key demands of the question:

The answer must provide for a brief discussion on what is meant by Discordant drainage system with examples and then evaluate the role of structure and lithological aspects as a control factor on the formation of a drainage system.

Directive word

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by definition of a drainage system.

Body

Discuss the following aspects in the answer:

  • What is a Discordant drainage system? – The river follows its initial path irrespective of the changes in topography i.e. it does not correlate to the topology [surface relief features] and geology [geological features based on both Endogenetic movements and exogenetic movements] of the area.
  • Explain the types : Discordant drainage patterns are classified into two main types: antecedent and superimposed.
  • Factors otherwise Influencing drainage patterns  – Topography, Geology, landforms etc.
  • Then move on to explain role of structure and lithology ; explain how these factors do not control the patter in case of Discordant drainage pattern.
  • Substantiate your answer with examples and suitable diagrams wherever necessary.

Conclusion

Conclude with significance of controlling factors in formation of a drainage pattern.

Introduction:

In geomorphology, drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land. Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. A drainage basin is the topographic region from which a stream receives runoff, throughflow, and groundwater flow.

Body:

A drainage pattern is described as discordant if it does not correlate to the surface relief features and geological features based on both Endogenic movements and exogenic movements of the area. In a discordant drainage pattern, the river follows its initial path irrespective of the changes in topography.

Discordant drainage patterns are classified into two main types: antecedent and superimposed.

Antecedent Drainage or Inconsequent Drainage:

  • A part of a river slope and the surrounding area gets uplifted and the river sticks to its original slope, cutting through the uplifted portion like a saw (Vertical erosion or Vertical down cutting), and forming deep gorges: this type of drainage is called Antecedent drainage.
  • Example: Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra and other Himalayan rivers that is older than the Himalayas themselves. There are usually called as antecedent rivers.
  • The rivers cut through the newly formed landform and maintain the same path.
  • The soil formed is weak and it is easily eroded by the rivers.

Superimposed Drainage:

  • When a river flowing over a softer rock stratum reaches the harder basal rocks but continues to follow the initial slope, it seems to have no relation with the harder rock bed. This type of drainage is called superimposed drainage.
  • Usually, the drainage patterns (dendritic, trellis, etc.) are strongly influenced by the hardness and softness of the rock and patterns of faults or fractures.
  • Sometimes, however, the land rises rapidly relative to the base level of the stream. This increases the gradient of the stream and therefore, gives the stream more erosive power.
  • The stream has enough erosive power that it cuts its way through any kind of bedrock, maintaining its former drainage pattern.
  • It is a drainage pattern which exhibits discordance with the underlying rock structure because it originally developed on a cover of rocks that has now disappeared due to denudation.
  • Consequently, river directions relate to the former cover rocks and, as the latter were being eroded, the rivers have been able to retain their courses unaffected by the newly exposed structures.
  • The stream pattern is thus superposed on, or placed on structural features that were previously buried.
  • The Damodar, the Subarnarekha, the Chambal, the Banas and the rivers flowing at the Rewa Plateau present some good examples of superimposed drainage.
  • Rivers cut deeper through the existing landform and maintain the same path.
  • The rivers have high erosive power so that they can cut through the underlying strata.

The factors of structure and lithology do not control the pattern in case of Discordant drainage due to high erosive power as seen in the above explanations.

Conclusion:

India has many antecedent and superimposed river systems due to its varying topography and geology.


Topic-Salient features of world’s physical geography.

3) Explain the meridional circulation of the atmosphere and its importance in world climate.(250 words)

 

Why this question:

Question is based on the concept of Meridional circulation of the atmosphere and it significance in World climate.

Demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the role of Meridional circulation of the atmosphere and it role in determining the aspects of World climate.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with what is Tri-Cellular Meridional Circulation of atmosphere.

Body

Discuss the following points in detail:

  • The concept of Meridional circulation in detail. – There is cellular circulation of air at each meridian (longitude). Surface winds blow from high pressure areas to low pressure areas but in the upper atmosphere the general direction of air circulation is opposite to the direction of surface winds. Explain the three cells associated in detail with diagrams.
  • Discuss its significance – meridional circulation plays a vital role in  the transfer of energy and in maintaining the heat budget of the earth. The belt of doldrums or the inter-tropical convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the most important and uninterrupted belt of convergence on the surface of earth. The development of tropical cyclones, temperate cyclones, and anticyclones is also the result of meridional circulation. Etc.

Conclusion

Conclude with how distribution patterns of precipitation and climatic types are also largely controlled by the tricellular meridional circulation.

 

Introduction:

Meridional circulation is a general airflow pattern from north to south, or from south to north, along with the Earth’s longitude lines (perpendicular to a zonal flow, which is east-west). The wind belts girdling the planet are organised into three cells in each hemisphere: The Hadley cell, the Ferrel cell, and the Polar cell. These cells exist in both the northern and southern hemispheres.

Body:

  • Tropical Cell:
    • It is also called Hadley cell. High rate of heating at equator results in the ascent of wind.
    • These ascending warm and moist wind release latent heat after condensation which causes further ascent of the winds.
    • After, reaching the height of 8 to 12 kilometers in the troposphere over the equator diverse northward and southward.
    • Surface winds/trade winds blow from subtropical high pressure belt to equatorial low pressure belt in order to replace the ascending air at the equator.
    • Antitrade (upper air moving in direction opposite of surface winds) descends near 30 degree – 35 degree latitudes to cause subtropical high pressure belt. After, ascending they blow towards equator where they again heated up and ascend.
  • Polar Front Cell/ Mid Latitude Cell:
    • Winds blow from subtropical high pressure belt but winds because at most westerly due to coriolis force.
    • Regularity and continuity of westerlies are frequently disturbed by temperature cyclones, migratory extra tropical cyclones and anti-cyclones.
    • Warm air ascends along the polar front which in more regular and continuous in the middle troposphere.
  • Polar Cell:
    • Atmospheric circulation prevailing between 60 degree and poles. Cold winds, knows as polar easterlies, blow from polar high pressure areas to sub-polar or mid-latitude low pressure belt.
    • Central direction of surface polar winds become easterly (east to west) due to Coriolis force.
    • The winds ascend upward due to the rotation of the earth at the sub polar low pressure belt and after reaching middle troposphere they turn pole ward and equator ward.
    • The pole ward upper air descends at the poles and reinforces the polar high pressure. Thus complete polar cell is formed.

Importance of the Meridonial Circulation of Atmosphere:

  • The meridional circulation plays a vital role in the transfer of energy and in maintaining the heat budget of the earth.
  • The belt of doldrums or the inter-tropical convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the most important and uninterrupted belt of convergence on the surface of earth.
  • In the subtropical high pressure belt there are numerous areas of divergence which make significant contribution to meridional circulation.
  • Areas of convergence and divergence of mean surface wind over the oceans produce innumerable complexities in the climate of the world.
  • The low pressure and high pressure distribution and the shifting of pressure belts over the Earth’s surface virtually control air movement around the world.
  • The development of tropical cyclones, temperate cyclones, and anticyclones is also the result of meridional circulation.
  • The area of divergence and convergence are known as centres of action, for it is along their boundaries that most of the cyclones and anticyclones move out from one region to another.
  • The distribution patterns of participation and climatic types are also largely controlled by the tricellular meridional circulation
  • The mechanism of origin of Indian Monsoon is closely influenced by these cells.
  • The origin of tornados and vertical disturbances are the results or heat transfer in the Hadley Cells.
  • The formation of hot deserts, horse latitudes, roaring forties are because of the meridional circulation of the atmosphere.

Conclusion:

In brief, the seasons, climates, climatic belts, vegetation belts, and the life style of people in the different regions of the world are directly or indirectly influenced by the Tricellular atmospheric circulation.


Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

4) The MCC Is not legally binding and there is no great punishment or penalty for violating it. unless the violation can be prosecuted under sections of the Indian Penal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure At the least. In such a context how is the party in power expected to conduct itself when MCC is in operation? Discuss. (250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question:

On 27th March, India successfully tested A-SAT. This news was addressed by Prime Minister Narendra himself, the opposition is now accusing PM Modi of violating the model code of conduct. Under such circumstances the election commission had directed a committee to examine the matter. Thus it becomes necessary for us to evaluate the conduct of party in power when MCC is in action.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to discuss and analyse the role of party in power in the context of Model code of conduct in action, One has to evaluate what are the privileges and limitations that the party in power can exercise.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with brief introductory lines on importance of Model code of conduct in conducting free and fair elections in a Democracy.

Body:

  • Narrate the context of the question, provide for a backgrounder.
  • Take cues from the article and quote the conclusion made by the committee appointed by the election commission of India.
  • Then move on to discuss what are the do’s and don’ts prescribed by the MCC.
  • What should be the general conduct of parties and politicians during the period of MCC. – Limit criticism of political parties to their policies and programmes. They should not use caste and communal feelings to secure votes, Processions Organizers must coordinate with those of other candidates and parties to ensure there is no clash between them etc.
  • One can also choose to criticize that there was no grave national emergency involved, requiring the PM to urgently address the nation. The event was meant to claim an achievement to impress voters.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of MCC and how it should evolve better to ensure much fairer and free elections.

Introduction:

Model code of conduct is the guidelines issued by the Election Commission of India for conduct of political parties and candidates during elections mainly with respect to speeches, polling day, polling booths, election manifestos, processions and general conduct. It aims to ensure free and fair elections.

Body:

The Election Commission (EC) gave a clean chit to Prime Minister for his address to the nation announcing the success of ‘Mission Shakti’. Stating that the Prime Minister’s address has not violated the Model Code of Conduct (MCC), the poll watchdog said that public broadcasters — Doordarshan and All India Radio — were not used to air the speech. The Opposition claimed that the Prime Minister’s address was a violation of the poll code and had complained to ECI.

A committee of four officers was directed to examine the matter thoroughly in “light of the Model Code of Conduct” to ensure official machinery and the government office were not misused to the advantage of the ruling party.

Former Chief Election Commissioner Dr SY Quraishi also criticised Prime Minister’s speech on India’s Anti Satellite Test capability (ASAT), saying it was not in conformity with ethics and spirit of the model code of conduct for the upcoming Lok Sabha elections. It is primarily aimed at giving a level playing field to all the contesting candidates.

Do’s and Don’ts for the Government:

  • The government cannot transfer bureaucrats and officials. Officials transferred in this period cannot take charge of their new position
  • The government cannot announce any new scheme that is to be available publicly
  • However, the government can continue the implementation of schemes that have been approved and whose disbursement has started before the election
  • However, governments can use funds at will to announce schemes and relief measures in times of natural or man-made disasters.
  • The government cannot hold auctions for licenses and issue tenders during the MCC

Do’s and Don’ts for Ministers:

  • The MCC makes certain provision to separate the governmental machinery that ministers use in their ministerial capacity, who will in all likelihood hit the campaign train for their political parties at the time of elections.
  • Ministers cannot combine electioneering visits with their political visits. The only exception to this rule is the Prime Minister.
  • Ministers cannot use official vehicles for political activity. It can only be used to commute to those venues that the minister is doing as a representative of the government. None of any ministers’ cars can have sirens.
  • Ministers cannot announce any sop or financial grants under discretionary funds when the MCC is in force.
  • No fresh grants of fund to be made under the MP/MLA/MLC Local Area Fund.
  • Ministers cannot authorize advertisements depicting the achievements of governments in papers or in electronic media at the expense of public funds. Such information must be at the expense of the minister or the party.
  • Ministers cannot lay foundations, or make any ad-hoc appointments. Such undertakings need to be executed by civil servants if and when the need arises, without involving any political functionary.
  • Ministers and political functionaries from outside a constituency who came in with the propose to campaign cannot stay there starting 48 hours ending with the hour of the conclusion of the polls.

Do’s and Don’ts for political parties:

  • Political parties need to inform the police of all campaign and propaganda it wishes to undertake to the local authorities/police
  • Organizers of rallies cannot take action against miscreants inhibiting party rallies/campaigns/roadshows. Such actions is to be taken only by the police
  • Parties cannot campaign in areas where other parties are organising political events
  • No potential contestant can go to file his/her nomination with pomp/celebration
  • Loudspeakers cannot be used between 10 PM to 6AM. Even outside this period, police permission is needed for the use of loudspeakers
  • Political parties must cease all display of all election matter 48 hours ending with the hour of the conclusion of the polls

Conclusion:

MCC has an indisputable legitimacy and parties across the political spectrum have generally adhered to its letter and spirit. The immaculate independence of the EC and its uncompromising attitude towards enforcing the code, combined with the perception among parties that following the code far outweighs the costs accrued if violated by other parties, especially the ruling one, have led to the success of the MCC since its inception.


TopicGovernment policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5) Discuss the key proposals of island protection zone (IPZ) 2019 recently notified for Andaman and Nicobar . Discuss the Concerns raised over relaxation of certain norms under it. (250 words)

Hindustantimes

why this question:

The union environment ministry has notified island protection zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar recently. The legal changes in the IPZ are aligned with the Niti Aayog’s proposal for holistic development in the Islands which is being taken forward under the guidance of the Island Development Agency. Thus the question is important to ponder upon from the point of view of GS paper II and III.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss at length the key features of the policy, its certain effects upon social and environmental aspects of Andaman and Nicobar region. Analyse in  detail the policy and concerns associated and give a firm opinion along with suggestions as to what should be the way forward.

Directive word:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Narrate a brief background of the context of the question  – salient features of the policy.

Body:

In brief discuss –

  • Key features of notified island protection zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar – allows eco-tourism projects 20 metres from the high tide line (HTL) in smaller islands like Baratang, Havelock and Car Nicobar, and at 50 metres in larger ones, allows for eco-tourism activities like mangrove walks, tree huts and nature trails in island coastal regulation zone, allows a number of new activities in the inter-tidal zone between low tide line and HTL etc.
  • Discuss the social and environment impact associated with it – displacement of tribal pockets, Community concerns, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement etc.
  • Environmental aspect – Environmental pollution, critically fragile ecological areas, eco-tourism, activities in the inter-tidal zone , construction activities, clearance systems etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done, suggest way forward.  

Introduction:

The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has notified Island Protection Zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar. The legal changes in the IPZ are aligned with the Niti Aayog’s proposal for holistic development in the Islands which is being taken forward under the guidance of the Island Development Agency.

Body:

Key highlights of IPZ 2019:

 

  • It allows eco-tourism projects 20 metres from the high tide line (HTL) in smaller islands like Baratang, Havelock and Car Nicobar, and at 50 metres in larger ones.
  • It allows for eco-tourism activities like mangrove walks, tree huts and nature trails in island coastal regulation zone IA (classified as the most eco-sensitive region of the islands which includes turtle nesting grounds, marshes, coral reefs etc).
  • The notification also allows for construction of roads, roads on stilts by reclaiming land in exceptional cases for defence installations, public utilities or strategic purposes in eco-sensitive zones.
  • It states that in case construction of such roads pass through mangroves, a minimum three times the mangrove area destroyed during the construction process shall be taken up for compensatory plantation of mangroves elsewhere.
  • It also allows a number of new activities in the inter-tidal zone between low tide line and HTL.
  • This includes land reclamation and bunding for foreshore facilities like ports, harbours, jetties, wharves, quays, sea links etc, transfer of hazardous substances from ships to ports, manual mining of atomic minerals, and mining of sand for construction purposes with permission from local authorities in non-eco-sensitive sites.

Concerns:

  • The notification relaxes development norms in the islands compared to the IPZ notification of 2011, which stipulated a no-development zone (NDZ) of 200 metres from the HTL for all islands.
  • This brings the norms for Andaman and Nicobar at par with coastal regulation zone (CRZ) norms for other islands close to the mainland and backwater islands where an NDZ only 20 metres from HTL has been stipulated.
  • Only pipelines, transmission lines, trans-harbor links to be laid in the eco-sensitive zone were permitted. Now road construction is allowed.
  • the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India pointed out that the frequent amendments, made to the notification, have paved way for commercial and industrial expansion in coastal areas, while natural disasters have become more frequent causing severe loss to human lives and property.
  • The changes introduced have impact on the fragile ecology of this region like our marine biodiversity including corals and turtle nesting sites.

Conclusion:

Promulgation and enactment of a new Act for protection of the coastal zones—with clear classification of various zones, after due consultations with the fishing communities, stakeholders, scientists and the department concerned—is the need of the hour.


Topic : Disaster and disaster management.

6) It is not only the intensity of environmental disasters that makes disasters devastating but poverty also has a huge bearing. Critically analyse.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question:

The article evaluates the tropical cyclone  Idai that recently rampaged south-eastern Africa – one of the worst disasters ever to strike the southern hemisphere. It evaluates the reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in this context.

Key demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the that the intensity of environmental disasters is not alone due to the natural or man made causes but also because of the alarming problem of poverty that has huge influence on its intensity.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon the recent event of cyclone Idai, its devastating impact on the region.

Body:

Discuss the following aspects :

  • Explain in short the causes and consequences of the disaster.
  • Discuss that It is not only the intensity of environmental disasters that makes them devastating – poverty also has a huge bearing on how things play out. Houses in poorer areas often are less stable, storm barriers may be weaker, sanitation is often a problem, emergency services will be poorly resourced – and preventing disease outbreaks may be hindered by the poor state of public health services. The list of disadvantages goes on and on.
  • You can have a case study from Indian context.
  • Conclude what needs to be done and suggest way forward in terms of – policy measures, community actions etc.

Conclusion:

Re-assert the significance of disaster management and importance of development and vis-à-vis eradication of poverty .

Introduction:

The tropical cyclone rampaging south-eastern Africa has been described as one of the worst disasters ever to strike the southern hemisphere, with up to 2.6 million people potentially affected in Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The death toll may not be known for months, but it is already likely to have run to hundreds and possibly thousands of people. The brunt of the disaster has been borne by the coastal city of Beira in central Mozambique, 90 per cent of which has been reportedly destroyed.

Body:

Environmental disasters fall into two general categories.

  • Some disasters are caused by natural climate or weather events.
  • These include wild fires, landslides, floods, earthquakes, droughts, tornadoes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.
  • Although the causes of these natural environmental disasters do not involve human activities, in some cases the effects are worsened by the influence of people.
  • A second category of environmental disasters includes those caused by human activities.
  • Examples of human-induced environmental disasters include oil spills, chemical spills, and nuclear incidents.
  • In addition, wars and terrorist activities can be disastrous to ecosystems.
  • In many cases, environmental disasters caused by humans have longer lasting effects on the environment than catastrophes brought on by natural events.

Impacts of environmental disasters:

  • Natural disasters  can  have  a  life-altering impact  on  the  individuals,  families  and society. 
  • But the  effect  of  natural  disasters  can  be  felt  at  the  community,  city  and state level, or many times can impact an entire country
  • Disasters not only  reveal  underlying  social, economic,  political  and  environmental  problems,  but  unfortunately  contribute  to worsening 
  • Disasters create substantial environmental degradation and ecological imbalance, hinder socioeconomic development and retard the process of improving the quality of life of the people.

However, it is not only the intensity of environmental disasters that makes disasters devastating but poverty also has a huge bearing. Natural catastrophes are as much a result of poverty and weak government as plate tectonics and weather – that’s why they hit the world’s poor hardest.

  • Population increase, climate change, increasing urbanization and environmental degradation are some of the drivers of future disaster risk for poor people worldwide. In recent decades, there has been a rise in both the number and impact of natural disasters.
  • Developing countries are most exposed to the risks of disasters as their inhabitants often lack the ability to cope with or adapt to such events.
  • As more than half the world’s population lives in cities, poorly planned and managed urban development is a key driver of disaster risk.
  • Poor housing, lack of health facilities and infrastructure put nearly one billion urban dwellers living in informal settlements at risk of disasters.
  • The lives and livelihoods of people living in flood plains, low lying coastal areas and steep slopes are particularly in danger.
  • Deforestation, overgrazing and land degradation have damaged ecosystems and are exacerbating the risks of disasters such as floods or landslides.
  • Very often, it is women who are most affected by disasters. More women than men are injured or killed during hurricanes and floods.
  • Sanitation is often a problem and it is an dangerous source of diseases post disaster. Old aged, women and children will be highly vulnerable.
  • Emergency services will be poorly resourced post disaster which will increase the mortality rates.

Redistribution of wealth from Richer to poorer nations: A scheme of climate financing

  • Richer countries in the world have responsibility in changing the current approach to disaster aid.
  • In major donor countries such as the US and UK, the guiding modus operandi of disaster relief has been reactive as opposed to proactive measures.
  • Earmarking more resources for disaster prevention and preparedness than on emergency responses such as humanitarian interventions in post disaster situations.
  • Donor countries need to prioritise identifying the most vulnerable people both before and after a disaster, and ensure they receive the required support and are granted the agency to be actively involved in the process.
  • Besides the high-profile attempts to reduce global emissions, countries such as the UK should be offering support to poorer countries with everything from building flood defences to supporting social services to transferring technology.
  • They should be forgiving national debt, redistributing wealth or at least giving them preferential trade deals to help them adapt to climate change themselves. This requires a rethinking not just of humanitarian aid but of development assistance in general.

Other measures:

  • Poverty alleviation measures like assured income, better health and education facilities need to be provided across the globe to reduce the North-South disparities.
  • Developing Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) frameworks for addressing the sustainability and optimal utilisation of coastal resources as also cyclone impact minimisation plans.
  • Ensuring cyclone resistant design standards are incorporated in the rural/ urban housing schemes in coastal areas
  • Implementing coastal flood zoning, flood plain development and flood inundation management and regulatory plans.
  • Coastal bio-shields spread, preservation and restoration/ regeneration plans.
  • There is a need for private sector participation in designing and implementing policies, plans, and standards.
  • Need of Disaster Management program to be inclusive including women, civil society, and academia.

Conclusion:

Climate change and the resultant disasters are a reality. Nations should prepare to mitigate and deflect the destruction caused by disasters. We need to employ technology, strict following of command structure and most importantly the participation and cooperation of local communities in the affected area


Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

7) Explain the essentials of information sharing and citizen charter in public service.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon

 

Why this question:

The question is in the context of essentials of information sharing and citizen charter in public service.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the aspects of information sharing in public services and significance of citizen charter in public service.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines define what is information sharing and citizen’s charter.

Body:

Explain the following –

  • What is meant by citizen charter? – document which represents a systematic effort to focus on the commitment of the Organization towards its Citizens in respects of Standard of Services, Information, Choice and Consultation, Non-discrimination and Accessibility, Grievance Redress, Courtesy and Value for Money.
  • What are the objectives of citizen charter?
  • Information sharing and its role in good governance – An information-driven society leads to transparency and accountability.
  • Give examples and justify their role in public services.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of these in public services and good  Governance in general.

Introduction:

The Right to Information Act, 2005 empowers citizens to get information from any ‘public authority’. The basic objective of the RTI Act is to empower the citizens, promote transparency and accountability in the working of the Government and make our democracy work for the people in real sense.

A Citizens’ Charter represents the commitment of the Organisation towards standard, quality and time frame of service delivery, grievance redress mechanism, transparency and accountability. The concept of Citizens Charter enshrines the trust between the service provider and its users.

Body:

The basic objective of the Citizens Charter is to empower the citizen in relation to public service delivery.

Information sharing and its role in good governance:

  • Fighting corruption: By reducing the secrecy in which decisions are taken and disclosure of the information and thereby transparency increases. This helps in fighting the corruption and its various evil faces.
  • Making governments more efficient: The responsibility of the governments increases as they have to be accountable to people about their decisions. This brings in the true essence of democracy which enables citizens to more fully participate in public life. The public trust and the credibility of the government will increase.
  • Encouraging investment: It eases the business environment. The investors gain more confidence and are willing to invest and expand better.
  • Empowerment of citizens: Helps persons exercise their fundamental human rights and fight in case it is impinged.
  • Strengthening operations: To strengthen institutions, modernize the public administration and address civil unrest.
  • Reduce Information Asymmetry: To ensure that every citizen is able to access the credible and right information which helps in his overall development.

Way forward:

 

  • Repealing of the Official Secret Act as iterated by 2nd
  • Introducing an oath of transparency for bureaucrats and politicians.
  • To use of multi-media campaigns in local languages for awareness of benefits of information sharing.
  • The benefits of setting up regional offices far outweigh the initial capital costs involved in setting them up. So there is a need to set up regional offices to reduce the geographical reach issues.
  • The role of the Centre/State Government is to facilitate the Public Authorities in implementation of the Act. This can happen through providing support to Public Authorities for training, development of software applications, e-Training modules, generating awareness amongst citizens etc.
  • Effective use of Media – print, electronic to reduce the information asymmetry. Increasing the data protection standards to safeguard the privacy of individuals.
  • Social audit as a tool for information sharing and transparency in rural employment programmes should be promoted.
  • E-Governance as a tool at all levels of governance should be adopted to curb corruption, increase transparency and accountability.

Conclusion:

The words of Sir Francis Bacon — “Knowledge is power” — aptly bring out the essence of importance of Information. Information sharing is the key to the Government’s goal of delivering better, more efficient public services that are coordinated around the needs of the individual. It is essential to enable early intervention and preventative work, for safeguarding and promoting welfare and for wider public protection.