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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 FEBRUARY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 FEBRUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic–  changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1) Examine the impact of rapidly declining insect population?(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review. The articles talks about this alarming possibility and its impact.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the causes behind the rapidly declining population and discuss the widespread ramifications of such a scenario on the ecosystem. Thereafter, it expects us to throw in a word of caution and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review.

Body

  • Highlight the magnitude of the problem – More than 40% of insect species are declining and a third are endangered, the analysis found. The rate of extinction is eight times faster than that of mammals, birds and reptiles. The total mass of insects is falling by a precipitous 2.5% a year, according to the best data available, suggesting they could vanish within a century.
  • Discuss the causes
    • The way we produce our food
    • Heavy use of insecticides and pesticides
  • Discuss the impact on ecosystem
    • Affects the food chain
    • Pollination in plants etc

Conclusion – highlight the graveness of the situation and discuss way forward.

Introduction:

The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review. Butterflies and moths are among the worst hit.

Body:

Magnitude of the problem:

  • Worldwide, a 2014 summary of global declines in biodiversity and abundance estimated a 45 percent drop in the abundance of invertebrates, most of which are insects.
  • More than 40% of insect species are declining and a third are endangered, the analysis found.
  • The rate of extinction is eight times faster than that of mammals, birds and reptiles.
  • The total mass of insects is falling by a precipitous 2.5% a year, according to the best data available, suggesting they could vanish within a century.
  • The 2.5% rate of annual loss over the last 25-30 years is “shocking”. “It is very rapid. In 10 years there will be a quarter less, in 50 years only half left and in 100 years you will have none.”
  • the number of widespread butterfly species fell by 58% on farmed land in England between 2000 and 2009.
  • The number of honeybee colonies in the US was 6 million in 1947, but 3.5 million have been lost since.
  • There are more than 350,000 species of beetle and many are thought to have declined, especially dung beetles.
  • a research team from the U.S. and Mexico reported a startling decline between 1976 and 2013 in the weight of insects and other arthropods collected at select sites in Puerto Rico.

Causes:

  • Widespread use of insecticides is one obvious one. Industrial-scale, intensive agriculture is the one that is killing the ecosystems. New classes of insecticides introduced in the last 20 years, including neonicotinoids and fipronil, have been particularly damaging as they are used routinely and persist in the environment
  • Habitat loss and degradation: Changing environmental conditions have led to a proliferation of tree-harming insects such as the mountain pine beetle in North America.
  • Declines in or disappearance of plants or animals that specific insects depend on for food and shelter
  • Displacement by non-native species: non-native species such as Japanese beetles in the U.S., Asian hornets in Europe and the polyphagous shot hole borer in South Africa tend to show rapid population rises as they invade new territories.
  • Air, water and light pollution – nitrification due to fossil-fuel burning
  • The global spread of insect diseases.
  • Urbanization and Climate change due increasing global warming, human overpopulation and overconsumption. The rising temperatures due to climate change are thought to be a significant factor in the decline

Impacts:

  • Insects are at the heart of every food web: One of the biggest impacts of insect loss is on the many birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish that eat insects. If this food source is taken away, all these animals starve to death.
  • Pollination: they pollinate the large majority of plant species.
  • keep the soil healthy
  • Recycle nutrients: some of the insects are scavengers which help in decomposing the organic materials and recycle the nutrients
  • Control pests: Pests are controlled as they are preyed upon by insects.

Way forward:

  • Many scientists say, we need to get a better handle on what’s currently out there in terms of species and numbers so we have a baseline for measuring change and a notion of what might need protecting.
  • Scientists are calling for developing a better sense of trends in abundance and diversity through studies that are repeated over time at the same location, resampling in areas where baselines were established decades ago.
  • Conservationists are also calling for boosting awareness of the value of insects in the eyes of everyday people.
  • Reduced usage of synthetic and chemical fertilizers, practice sustainable agricultural methods like organic farming, ZBNF etc.

Conclusion:

Insects are linchpins of the living world, carrying out numerous functions that make life possible. Love them or loathe them, we humans cannot survive without insects.


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

2) Critically analyze whether strengthening MGNREGA would prove more beneficial than investing in PM KISAN?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article compares and contrasts MGNREGA scheme with PM KISAN and makes a point in favour of universal schemes as opposed to targeted scheme. The article provides a refreshing analysis of the PM KISAN scheme which had been keeping the editorials column busy since its announcement in union budget.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the pros and cons of the MGNREGA vis a vis PM Kisan. What the question is looking for is your reasoned arguments and the final view that you have on the basis of those arguments over whether a universal scheme makes more sense than a targeted one.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the PM KISAN and MGNREGA and how they are both important in the welfare paradigm of the country.

Body

  • Explain in detail about the MGNREGA and PM KISAN scheme
  • Compare and contrast the two covering points such as
    • Intended beneficiaries
    • Income potential under the two
    • Impact on women
    • Bureaucratic efficiency
    • Universal vs targeted
  • Give your view on the basis of these arguments over what would make more sense

 

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.

Introduction:

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) is a recently launched cash transfer scheme. To allay some misgivings of the agrarian distress, the vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land up to 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of ₹ 6,000 per year.

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

Farmers’ distress needs urgent attention but one need to analyse if the PM-KISAN is a reasonable solution.

Body:

Comparison between PM-KISAN and MGNREGA:

  • Income potential:
    • MGNREGA earnings for a household is more than a year’s income support through PM-KISAN
    • For example, if two members of a household in Jharkhand work under MGNREGA (picture) for 30 days, they would earn ₹10,080 and a household of two in Haryana would earn ₹16,860 in 30 days.
  • Universal vs targeted:
    • PM-KISAN is a targeted cash transfer programme and MGNREGA is a universal programme.
    • There is also substantial evidence to demonstrate that universal schemes are less prone to corruption than targeted schemes.
    • In targeted programmes, it is very common to have errors of exclusion, i.e., genuine beneficiaries get left out.
    • Such errors go unrecorded and people continue to be left out.
  • Intended beneficiaries:
    • Any rural household willing to do manual work is eligible under the MGNREGA.
    • According to the 2011 Socio-Economic and Caste Census, around 40% of rural households are landless and depend on manual labour.
    • The landless can earn through the MGNREGA but are not eligible for the PM-KISAN scheme.
    • Notwithstanding the meagre amount, the PM-KISAN might be pitting the landless against a small farmer.
  • Impact on various sections:
    • It is unclear how tenant farmers, those without titles, and women farmers would be within the ambit of the PM-KISAN scheme.
    • MGNREGA ensures women empowerment by providing equal wages and reservation for women.
    • It also aims at reducing rural- urban migration and creation and maintenance of rural assets and environmental protection.
  • Bureaucratic efficiency:
    • Repeated changes in processes result in a hurried bureaucratic reorientation on the ground, and much chaos among workers and field functionaries alike.
    • Field functionaries are pushed to meet stiff targets.
    • Being short-staffed and inadequately trained, results in many technical and unforeseen errors.

Issues with MGNREGA:

  • Aadhar has been hastily implemented for the MGNREGA. Several MGNREGA payments have been rejected, diverted, or frozen as a consequence.
  • The delay in the payment of wages which is captured in the system is intentionally suppressed to avoid paying delay compensation.
  • There are numerous cases of MGNREGS payments getting diverted to Airtel wallets and ICICI bank accounts.
  • In a recently concluded survey on common service centres in Jharkhand for Aadhar-based payments, it was found that 42% of the biometric authentications failed in the first attempt, compelling them to come later.
  • the MGNREGA wage rates in 18 States have been kept lower than the States’ minimum agricultural wage rates.
  • While ₹75,000 crore has been earmarked for PM-KISAN, the MGNREGA continues to be pushed to a severe crisis.

Concerns with PM-KISAN:

  • The success of the PM-KISAN is contingent on there being reliable digital land records and reliable rural banking infrastructure, which are both are questionable.
  • Lack of universality of financial inclusion is another impediment in rural areas.
  • According to National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development’s (Nabard) All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey (Nafis) small and marginal farmers earned Rs 79,802-1,19,878 in 2015-16. This means that the Rs 6,000 annual direct income transfer under PM-KISAN would be only about 5-8% of their existing income levels.
  • The Agrarian crisis is not just of low incomes in agriculture. The genesis of the current crisis lies in the faulty and ad hoc export-import policy, lack of infrastructure and cartelisation and collusion in agricultural markets, which have prevented farmers from realizing the market prices for agricultural produce.
  • By taking away precious fiscal resources, it makes the farmer more vulnerable to both market as well as non-market induced risks.

Way Forward:

  • The MGNREGA is neither an income support programme nor just an asset creation programme but it has the principles of combination of both to strengthen the rural economy as well as democracy.
  • MGNREGA works have demonstrably strong multiplier effects are yet another reason to improve its implementation.
  • It is a labour programme meant to strengthen participatory democracy through community works. It is a legislative mechanism to strengthen the constitutional principle of the right to life.
  • The Supreme Court in the Swaraj Abhiyan vs. Union of India case stated that said that the delay caused in stage-2 was not taken into account for the purpose of payment of compensation.
  • Incorporation of ICT infrastructure at grassroots level, so that the data is available in public leading to better transparency and accountability.
  • Social audits, mandated by law under MGNREGA, should be strengthened to reduce the data suppression and under-representation of job demand.

Conclusion:

It is in some of these contexts that strengthening an existing universal programme such as the MGNREGA would have been a prudent move instead of introducing a hasty targeted cash transfer programme. At a time of such acute distress, there is a need to the Central government to improve the existing universal infrastructure of the MGNREGA before plunging into a programme pretending to augment farmers’ income.


Topic – Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

3) Examine whether the Wahhabi Salafi influence on the practice of Islam in India merits concern from an internal security standpoint?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the distinct nature of Indian Islam and how the radical Wahhabi – Salafi ideology is bearing influence on the practice of Islam in India, accelerated by recent events and pose a threat to national security.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the distinct nature of Indian Islam and how it has so far been at odds with the more radical version practiced in West Asia particularly Saudi Arabia. Discuss the reasons why such influences are stronger on the practice of Islam in India and discuss its impact on national security. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that through the rise of ISIS etc, security analysts in India were secure in the knowledge that moderate nature of Indian Islam immunes us from the threat of religion based extremism emanating from inside the country.

Body

  • Explain about the Wahhabi – Salafi ideology and how it is more radical
  • Discuss about the distinct nature of Islam practiced in the country moderated by influences of Sufism and the reasons why it is coming under the influence of radical ideology – migration, perceived underdevelopment, religious tensions etc
  • Discuss about the impact which such a situation might have on the internal security of the country
  • Highlight what must be done to nip the problem in its bud

Conclusion – Discuss the importance of taking early measures and discuss the way forward.

Introduction:

The occasional acts of terrorism outside of Jammu and Kashmir, which for historical reasons forms a special case, attributed to young Indian Muslims have appeared intermittently in the press. In addition, several recent reports suggest that global jihadi organisations such as the Islamic State and Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) have recruited a few Indian Muslim youth primarily by exploiting the latter’s local grievances to serve their own global goals. Since 2014, only 75 Indians have so far joined ISIS despite India having world’s second largest Muslim population.

Body:

The Wahhabi – Salafi ideology:

  • Wahhabism is a conservative movement within Islam’s Sunni branch.
  • It’s named after its founder, theologian Mohamed ibn Abdul Wahhab, who was born in the 18th century in what is now Saudi Arabia.
  • Wahhab advocated a return to a “purer” form of Islam, focusing on its origins and the absolute sovereignty of God.
  • That means banning the cult of saints and forbidding tobacco, alcohol and shaving.
  • Their mosques are plain and public prayer attendance is strictly enforced.
  • Wahhabism is extensively practised in Saudi Arabia, but has since spread. However, the term Wahhabism is derogatory.
  • Many therefore prefer to call themselves salafis, in reference to the salaf – the first, second and third generation of people who lived at the time of the Prophet Muhammad.
  • Wahhabism has become known as an intolerant and aggressive form of Islam, both by Muslims and outsiders.
  • The movement was associated with violence from the beginning: Wahhab himself was expelled from his home town for his attempts at puritanical reform and for attacking the tombs of early Muslims.
  • Jihad was declared against Muslims who refused to adopt the ways of the salaf.
  • After Wahhab’s death, his followers became more violent, murdering their way across the land and, in 1803, forcing Mecca to surrender.

Distinct nature of Islam practiced in the country:

  • Traditionally Indian Islam has been greatly influenced by Sufi teachings and is, therefore, tolerant and accepting of religious diversity.
  • Visitors to major Sufi shrines, such as those of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer and Nizamuddin Aulia in Delhi, where people of all confessions come to pray and seek blessings, can testify to the syncretic spirit of Indian Islam.
  • Consequently, it harbours natural defences against extremism in belief and practice.

Causes for rising threat to Internal Security:

  • The ideological infiltration of Wahhabism/Salafism has eroded some of these defences and made a section of Muslims more insular and, therefore, open to extremist ideas.
  • The spectacular rise of Hindutva or Hindu nationalism from the 1990s has had a major psychological impact on a section of Muslim youth, prompting their estrangement from the national mainstream.
  • Inter-religious riots in which Muslims suffered disproportionately had been common in India since Independence. In some cases the police killed Muslim youth in fake encounters.
  • The Hashimpura massacre in Uttar Pradesh by members of the Provincial Armed Constabulary in 1987 was the most macabre example of such incidents.
  • The demolition in 1992 of the Babri mosque by a Hindu mob under the direction of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) luminaries and the riots that ensued, in which scores of Muslims lost their lives, shook the confidence of many Muslims in the secular character of the Indian state.
  • The lynching of Mohammad Akhlaq in Dadri, in western Uttar Pradesh, in 2015 on suspicion that he had stored beef in his house was the most chilling example of such incidents. It was followed by additional acts of mob violence carried out with relative impunity by the so-called gau rakshak (cow protector) vigilantes.
  • This series of actions and reactions makes it evident that the growth of Hindu nationalism has acted as a major stimulus for the radicalisation of a section of Muslim society in India and that the two phenomena feed off each other.

Way forward:

  • Opinion leaders and religious scholars from within the Muslim community have the primary duty to confront and defeat the malign Wahhabi-Salafi influence on Indian Muslims.
  • The impact of the growth of Hindu nationalism on the Muslim psyche can be countered only by the policies and actions of the governing elites at the Centre and in the States.
  • Quick and impartial action against those responsible for creating mayhem in the name of religion, to reassure Muslims that the state will not shirk its responsibility of providing them physical security and ensuring that they are treated with fairness and dignity.
  • The social media platforms which are rampant and easily influencing the youths should be monitored and the youths to be inducted in the proper rehabilitation of the identified personnel.
  • Improving Intelligence collection and information exchange between countries through bilateral agreements can help combat terrorism.
  • Strong anti-money laundering acts and monitoring through Financial Intelligence Units to curb the flow of Black money.

 


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

4) Discuss the contribution of John Stuart Mill towards ethics and moral philosophy. (250 words)

Reference

Reference

Directive  word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to  write in detail about John Stuart Mill, his philosophy and thoughts  and his general contribution towards the field of ethics and moral of  moral philosophy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-   write a few introductory lines about the   John Stuart Mill. e.g Mention about Mill’s  early life, education and famous works.

Body-

Discuss in points,  the philosophy of John Stuart Mill  and his contribution towards ethics and moral philosophy. E.g

  • His System of Logic 1843 was an ambitious attempt to give an account not only of logic, as the title suggests, but of the methods of science and their applicability to social as well as purely natural phenomena.
  • Mill’s conception of logic was not entirely that of modern logicians; besides formal logic, what he called “the logic of consistency”, he thought that there was a logic of proof, that is, a logic that would show how evidence proved or tended to prove the conclusions we draw from the evidence.
  • That led him to the analysis of causation, and to an account of inductive reasoning that remains the starting point of most modern discussions.
  • In his Principles of Political Economy, 1848, a work of Mill’s reflections on the difference between what economics measured and what human beings really valued:
  • Mill  argued that we should sacrifice economic growth for the sake of the environment, and should limit population.
  • The Subjection of Women 1869 was thought to be excessively radical in Mill’s time but is now seen as a classic statement of liberal feminism. Its essential case is that if freedom is a good for men etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

The ethical theory of John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) is most extensively articulated in his classical text Utilitarianism (1861). Its goal is to justify the utilitarian principle as the foundation of morals. This principle says actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote overall human happiness. So, Mill focuses on consequences of actions and neither on rights nor ethical sentiments.

Body:

The philosophy of John Stuart Mill and his contribution towards ethics and moral philosophy

  • Utilitarianism:
    • Mill defines “utilitarianism” as the creed that considers a particular “theory of life” as the “foundation of morals” His view of theory of life was monistic: There is one thing, and one thing only, that is intrinsically desirable, namely pleasure.
    • In contrast to a form of hedonism that conceives pleasure as a homogeneous matter, Mill was convinced that some types of pleasure are more valuable than others in virtue of their inherent qualities. For this reason, his position is often called “qualitative hedonism”.
  • Harm Principle:
    • Harm principle basically lays down the principle of individual freedom and its limitation. Mill distinguishes human actions between self regarding actions (which only affect him) and other regarding actions (which affect others in the society).
    • He advocates of no interference of state in self regarding action as it would withhold the individuals potential in development. As far as ‘other regarding actions’ are concerned state has the right to interfere but with caution, as freedom is at the core of human society, and is so crucial for a dignified human life, it should only be constrained in special circumstances.
    • For minor harm, Mill recommends only social disapproval and not the force of law. The ‘harm caused’ must be ‘serious’ enough to use force of law. But we must make sure that the constraints imposed are not so severe that they destroy freedom itself.
  • Liberal feminism:
    • The essential case is that if freedom is a good for men, it is for women, and that every argument against this view drawn from the supposedly different “nature” of men and women has been superstitious special pleading.
    • If women have different natures, the only way to discover what they are is by experiment, and that requires that women should have access to everything to which men have access.
    • Only after as many centuries of freedom as there have been centuries of oppression will we really know what our natures are.
  • System of Logic:
    • Mill’s conception of logic was not entirely that of modern logicians; besides formal logic, what he called “the logic of consistency”, he thought that there was logic of proof, that is, a logic that would show how evidence proved or tended to prove the conclusions we draw from the evidence.
    • That led him to the analysis of causation, and to an account of inductive reasoning that remains the starting point of most modern discussions.
  • Environmentalism:
    • Its philosophical interest lay in Mill’s reflections on the difference between what economics measured and what human beings really valued: leading Mill to argue that we should sacrifice economic growth for the sake of the environment, and should limit population as much to give ourselves breathing space as in order to fend off the risk of starvation for the overburdened poor.
    • Mill also allowed that conventional economic analysis could not show that socialism was unworkable, and suggested as his own ideal an economy of worker-owned cooperatives.

Conclusion:

Mill occupies an unusually important position in the history of western moral and political philosophy. Viewed in historical context, both utilitarianism and liberalism have exerted considerable progressive influence on the scope of moral concern, the design of public institutions, the responsibilities of government, and the interests and rights of the governed.


Topic-  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

5) Kant’s moral philosophy is entwined with his political philosophy. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Kant’s philosophy and describe in detail about the important views of Kant on moral philosophy and political philosophy and the relation between the two.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Kant. e.g mention that the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) can be divided into two major branches- theoretical and practical. Both of these branches have been enormously influential in the subsequent history of philosophy.

Body-

Discuss in points the Kant’s philosophy and how his thoughts on moral and political philosophy are intertwined. E.g

  • His theoretical philosophy, which includes metaphysics, is based on the rational understanding of the concept of nature.
  • The second, his practical philosophy, comprising ethics and political philosophy, is based on the concept of freedom.
  • According to Kant, ethics, like metaphysics, is a priori, meaning that our moral duty is determined independently of empirical considerations. Kant’s ethics can therefore be contrasted with ethical views such as utilitarianism that hold that the morality of acts is derived from their consequences. In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant outlines his fundamental ethical principle, which he calls the “categorical imperative.”
  • The moral principle is “imperative” because it commands, and it is “categorical” because it does so unconditionally, that is, irrespective of the particular inclinations and circumstances of the actor.
  • Freedom, for Kant, is thus not the “freedom” to follow one’s inclinations. Instead, freedom implies morality, and morality implies freedom.
  • Kant is critical of political thinkers, such as Machiavelli, who believe that amoral or immoral means are permissible in politics. Still, although Kant argues that morality is obligatory in politics, he does not believe that people’s actual political behavior is controlled by duty.
  • Kant does not argue merely that individuals enter the state or social contract for prudential reasons, because their interests are best served by the state, but also that we have an obligation to respect human freedom, and this requires us to create a Rechtsstaat if one does not already exist etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

The philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) can be divided into two major branches. His theoretical philosophy, which includes metaphysics, is based on the rational understanding of the concept of nature. The second, his practical philosophy, comprising ethics and political philosophy, is based on the concept of freedom.

Body:

Kant’s political philosophy is entwined with his moral philosophy.

  • Kantian ethics or Deontological ethics developed as a result of Enlightenment rationalism is based on the view that the only intrinsically good thing is a good will; an action can only be good if its maxim – the principle behind it – is duty to the moral law.
  • Political activity is ultimately governed by moral principles based on human autonomy. Therefore, in his essay “On the Common Saying: ‘This May be True in Theory, But it does not Apply in Practice,’” Kant is critical of political thinkers, such as Machiavelli, who believe that amoral or immoral means are permissible in politics.
  • Although Kant argues that morality is obligatory in politics, he does not believe that people’s actual political behavior is controlled by duty.
  • One of the most important political acts required by duty is the establishment of a state based upon law, a Rechtsstaat.
  • In the Doctrine of Right (the second part of the Metaphysics of Morals), Kant tells us that the only innate right is “freedom, insofar as it can coexist with the freedom of every other in accordance with a universal law.”
  • Human freedom and dignity must be respected, and this is possible only within a constitutional state governed by law, which protects the civil rights of individuals.
  • Kant’s emphasis on lawful government and civil rights connects him to the natural rights thinking of predecessors such as Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.
  • Kant argues that subjects always have a duty to obey their governments, though they may use their public reason to criticize them.
  • Kant’s political philosophy is characterized by a disjunction between the realm of political principle and the material motives of much human behavior.
  • Kant’s views on international relations exhibit the same tension between principle and fact. Kant argues that a state of perpetual peace is required morally.
  • Although political institutions are brought about by the wicked elements in the human constitution, Kant hopes that such institutions might have some rehabilitative effects on their subjects. As he writes in “Perpetual Peace”: “A good constitution is not to be expected from morality, but, conversely, a good moral condition of a people is to be expected only under a good constitution.”
  • Kant argues that the mere possibility of perpetual peace and of the coincidence of happiness and morality is enough to oblige us to make these ideals our ends.
  • The establishment of a lawful and peaceful state “does not require that we know how to attain the moral improvement of men but only that we should know the mechanism of nature in order to use it on men, organizing the conflict of the hostile intentions present in a people in such a way that they must compel themselves to submit to coercive laws.”

Conclusion:

Kant’s views represent what is called the moral conception of rights. This position rests upon two arguments. First we should be treating others as we would like to be treated ourselves. Second we should make sure that we don’t treat the other person as means to our ends. We should not treat people as we treat a pen, a car or a horse. This is we should respect people not because they are useful to us but because they are after all human beings.


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6) For Jiddu Krishnamurti, education is educating the ” whole person, as a whole, within the whole”. Elaborate.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Elaborate- It demands us to add more information to or explain something that has been said.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the philosophy and thoughts of Krishnamurti on education- what it means, how it should be imparted etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about Jiddu  Krishnamurti. E.g At the age of 15, Krishnamurti accompanied Miss Annie Besant to England in 1911. Like his father he also became a member of the Theosophical Society. In 1912, he wrote a book entitled ‘Education as Service’ in which he described the life of an ideal school.

Body-

Discuss about his philosophy on education in detail. E.g

  • For Krishnamurti education is:

(i) Educating the whole person.

(ii) Educating the person as a whole (not as an assemblage of parts).

(iii) Educating the person within a whole. (As part of society, humanity, nature, etc.).

  • For him education is about preparation for the whole life and not preparation for part of life (like work).
  • Jiddu Krishnamurthy, like Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekanand and others founded his own educational institutions to put into practice what he preached.
  • Education should awaken the capacity to be self aware and not merely, indulge in gratifying self expression.
  • The right kind of education is not concerned with any ideology, however much it offers to future Utopia. It is not based on any system, however carefully thought out, nor is it a means of conditioning the individual in some special manner.
  • Education in the true sense is of helping the individual to be mature and free, to flower greatly in love and goodness. T
  • For Jiddu Krishnamurti, the intentions of education must be the inner transformation and liberation of the human being and, from that, society would be transformed etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

Jiddu Krishnamurti was an Indian philosopher, speaker and writer. In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and withdrew from the Theosophy organization behind it. His interests included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society.

Body:

He did not expound any philosophy or religion, but rather talked of the things that concern all of us in our everyday lives, of the problems of living in modern society with its violence and corruption, of the individual’s search for security and happiness, and the need for mankind to free itself from inner burdens of fear, anger, hurt, and sorrow.

Jiddu Krishnamurti’s philosophy on education:

  • Education is
    • Jiddu Krishnamurti’s interest in education was long standing and always passionate. In what is perhaps his first book, “Education as Service” (1912), we see his concern for education and the introduction of a few themes that remain in his work.
    • The whole task is to awaken the individual. The Aim of education should, therefore, be to encourage every pupil to find out for himself his peculiar individual talent and develop it as fully as possible.
    • Education is essentially a medium of manifesting in Man what is inherently hidden inside his being. The right education is that which makes the child to grow in maturity of understanding through self-knowing.
    • Education has to discharge its function in preparing the pupil to fathom that plenitude of life at its consummation.
    • The purpose of education is to bring about freedom, love, “the flowering of goodness” and the complete transformation of society.
    • The intentions of education must be the inner transformation and liberation of the human being and, from that, society would be transformed.
    • Each person needs to explore themselves and reveal themselves to themselves rather than be shaped into something by others.
  • Education is not
    • Education is  not  only  learning  from  books,  memorizing  some  facts,  but  also  learning how to look, how to listen to what the books are saying, whether they are saying something true or false.
    • Education is  not  only  learning  from  books,  memorizing  some  facts,  but  also  learning how to look, how to listen to what the books are saying, whether they are saying something true or false.
    • He condemned the present system of mass education and advocates individual pupil-teacher relationship.
    • The education that sharpens the human intellect alone is lopsided and therefore, falls short of the harmonious development and deeper dimensions of man.
    • ‘educational centres’ instead of ‘schools’ : the educational centres that he founded were also meant to be places for adults to learn.

Relevance in today’s India:

Education in India is facing multiple issues from infrastructure to teaching quality. There is a lack of value-based education and mostly depends on rote-learning than critical thinking.

Conclusion:

From the time of his break with the Theosophical Society in 1929 (dissolution speech) until his death in 1986, Krishnamurti spoke throughout the world to large audiences and to individuals about the need for a radical change in mankind. He is regarded globally as one of the greatest thinkers and religious teachers of all time.

To understand life is to understand ourselves and that is both the beginning and the end of education


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) The most central theme in Tagore’s philosophy is the human being, his or her potential and the question of how this potential can be reached. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve into the Tagore’s philosophy, highlight its salient aspects and discuss in detail about the importance and role of a human being.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  R.N Tagore. E.g Rabindranath Tagore was not a systematic philosopher, but the worldview behind his works and his ideas are complex as well as original. He developed a spiritual humanism that connected ancient Indian philosophical ideas with Western ideas and gave them his own original twist.

Body-

Discuss in points, his philosophy about the human being- its role, objectives etc. E.g

  • He believed that human beings could fulfil their potential and find freedom and fulfilment through love, knowledge and freedom, if they succeeded in connecting their narrow self with the universal Being.
  • For Tagore, the beginning of the world is a story of creation as well as evolution. He uses scientific models, while ascribing the forces that cause evolution to God’s powers. For Tagore, God has two aspects: One is a monotheistic personal God, the other is brahman, which can be translated as being, consciousness, bliss, supreme reality, and All.
  • Humans are, according to Tagore, freer than any other being on Earth: they have reached an unprecedented high level of physical freedom regarding their senses, their tools as well as their habitat,
  • But humans use their unique mental abilities not only for the necessities of life but also for trying “to prove that they are not a mere living catalogue of endless wants; that there is in them an ideal of perfection, a sense of unity, which is a harmony between parts and a harmony with surroundings
  • Tagore’s approach can be summarized as “spiritual humanism,”[27] because it is a form of spirituality rooted in this world and centred on human beings.
  • He argued that the goal of unity between self and world does not entail denying the individual-human and the loss of the self. He wanted to retain individuality despite the imperative of overcoming the self.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

Rabindranath Tagore was not a systematic philosopher, but the worldview behind his works and his ideas are complex as well as original. He developed a spiritual humanism that connected ancient Indian philosophical ideas with Western ideas and gave them his own original twist. He believed that human beings could fulfil their potential and find freedom and fulfilment through love, knowledge and freedom, if they succeeded in connecting their narrow self with the universal Being.

Body:

Tagore’s philosophy:

  • Tagore’s approach can be summarized as “spiritual humanism,” because it is a form of spirituality rooted in this world and centred on human beings.
  • The basic tenets of ‘spiritual humanism’ encourage the spiritual experience of oneness with the universe and love for all humanity.
  • Spiritual humanism is purely a humanistic approach in which human relationship is worshipped as God.
  • Spiritual humanism is a logical and radical approach to the problems and conflicts of society, fuses with traditional religious behavior it uses a scientific enquiry into the age-old ideologies of society.
  • Spiritual humanism considers people as equal and does not believe in caste, race and gender discrimination and gives importance to happy and healthy livings.
  • Nature plays a significant role in shaping the behavior of human beings, so Spiritual Humanism talks about preservation of natural resources and celebration of season and cycles with rituals.
  • Spiritual humanism emphasizes the adoration of past, present and future; today is the sum total of past and it determines the future, so if we would have sown the seed in the past, our today is beautiful and our future will be secure.
  • He uses scientific models, while ascribing the forces that cause evolution to God’s powers.
  • The uniquely human surplus, being a “fund of emotional energy which is not all occupied with his self-preservation,” allows humans to reflect and to be creative and therefore to formulate ideals that are of permanent value and transcend the limitations of finiteness.
  • He argued that the goal of unity between self and world does not entail denying the individual-human and the loss of the self.
  • He wanted to retain individuality despite the imperative of overcoming the self. Humans will find fulfilment and freedom when they overcome their narrow self but, at the same time, retain individuality.
  • Though Tagore’s writings are mostly poetic rather than philosophical treatises, he has a comprehensive, consistent and original worldview that permeates all of his works, ideas and activism.
  • In the centre of it stands the human being and his or her potential, which can be achieved through a unity of the individual with the larger community, with nature, with the world.

Conclusion:

Tagore’s ideals of humanism and a world without barriers are more relevant today. Tagore favoured the “higher ideology of universalism” as opposed to nationalism and patriotism, which he thought were constricting the higher ideals of oneness of humankind and a world without borders.