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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 March 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 March 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues,
poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.


General Studies – 1


Topic:  Salient features of world’s physical geography.

1) What do you understand by “Bombogenesis” or “Bomb cyclone” ? Examine why Great Plains of USA are experiencing unusually extreme flood conditions these days.(250 words)

Reference

Indianexpress

Reference

Why this question:

Bomb cyclone is a concept in Geography that was recently seen in the news. Hence, it is important to know the concept from the point of view of GS paper I.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to discuss in detail the concept of bomb cyclones; their origin, formation, process, effect and consequences and also why the Great Plains of USA are experiencing unusually extreme flood conditions recently.

Directive word:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain Briefly the significance of such a phenomena, or quote the recent onset of these cyclones in USA.

Body:

Discuss the recent incidences – In 2018, two winter storms hit the northeastern coast of the U.S. that were classified as bomb cyclones – one in January and another in March and again last week they were reported in the great plains of USA.

Discuss – How are bomb cyclones formed? How long does a bomb cyclone last? What causes Bombogenesis? Then discuss its impact and what can be done to ensure preparedness to such natural inevitabilities.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of disaster management in the context of cyclones.


Topic– Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2) Municipal Solid Waste Management poses the utmost challenge in Urban planning. Comment. (250 words)

Timesofindia

Why this question:

Urban areas have been recognized as “engines of inclusive economic growth”. However managing solid waste is one of biggest challenges of the urban areas of all sizes, from mega-cities to the small towns and large villages. The quality of waste management services is a good indicator of a city’s governance. Thus it becomes important for us to assess and analyse such a scenario from exam point of view.

Key demands of the question:

The question expects us to discuss the specific challenge of Municipal solid waste and how it is one of the biggest challenges concerning the Metropolitan planning in India.

Directive word

Comment –  here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon

Keywords:

Integrated Sustainable Waste Management System, global good practice in waste collection, Waste treatment and disposal, Waste Management and Governance etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Briefly suggest – Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning.

Body

The body of the answer address the following dimensions:

  • Quote facts that justify the menace of solid waste management, like Over 377 million urban people live in 7,935 towns and cities and generate 62 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per annum. Only 43 million tonnes (MT) of the waste is collected, 11.9 MT is treated and 31 MT is dumped in landfill sites.
  • Point at the flawed system of waste disposal and management.
  • Then move on to discuss what can be done ; concept of common waste treatment facility, technological advancement for processing, treatment and disposal of solid waste, long term urban governance strategies with renewed vision.

Conclusion

Conclude with importance of waste management in urban planning.


Topic– Poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3) Examine the causes and consequences of forced migration of population being witnessed across the world. Also analyse Indian government’s present management of migration in the light of recently signed Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, of the United Nations. (250 words)

epw

Reference

Why this question:

The question is in the context of rising trends of forced migration being witnessed across the world. Amidst this, recently government of India has signed the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, a non-binding agreement for the better management of migration, of the United Nations.

demand of the question:

This question seeks to examine the implications of forced migration across the world and analyse the Indian government’s present management of migration in the light of the compacts’ objectives.

Directive word:

ExamineWhen asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Keywords:

forced migration, Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), Migration Governance, Vulnerabilities of the migrant workforce etc.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by highlighting the alarming issue of forced migrants.

Body

Discuss the following –

Forced Migration – sudden exogenous large number of arrival of migrants Causes-  War, trade, pilgrimages, drought and famine, development programs, land tenure system, and because of natural and manmade calamities, human trafficking, ethnic cleansing etc

Case studies –  Flow of forced migrants from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea, Somalia, Mali Case study of Rohingya etc.

Consequences – Radicalization Political instability Food crisis (immediate) Spread of diseases Unrest or terrorist attacks Stress on public services and infrastructure in poor economies Fiscal implications.

Then discuss how analysis of the Indian government’s present management of migration in the light of the compacts’ objectives shows the need for a revamp in the state’s approach.

Conclusion

Conclude with importance of policies for migrants and that India’s step in this direction keeping all shortcomings aside, and with proper implementation and monitoring of the GCM objectives in the country can change the migration scenario drastically.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

4) Discuss  the constitutional procedure involved in selecting a successor in case of death of a sitting chief minister.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Reference

Why this question:

The question is in the backdrop of new chief minister Pramod Sawant facing a floor test in the legislative assembly of Goa necessitated by the death of sitting chief minister Manohar Parrikar.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain the procedure involved in electing the chief minister in case of death of the sitting chief minister in office.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with importance of chief minister of a state in the polity of any state machinery in a line or two.

Body:

Discuss that In India, a chief minister is the elected head of government. According to the Constitution of India, the Governor is a state’s de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the state legislative assembly in a state, the state’s governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints and swears in the chief minister.

The governor may exercise situational discretion if no party has clear majority. He may ask a leader to become chief minister and then prove his majority on floor of the house.

In case the chief minister dies and no successor is present then the governor may appoint one at his discretion but if the ruling party has a nominee then the governor has no choice but to appoint that person.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of constitution and appreciate its foresightedness in situations of inevitability.


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5) List down the highlights of National Health Policy, 2017. What are the challenges facing it? What strategies can be adopted for ensuring quality health care in India? Discuss.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article covers primarily the hurdles and issues being faced by the National Health Policy, 2017, it gives a good overview of NHP. It thus is important from mains point of view and to prepare health related topics of GS paper II.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must highlight the key goals of the policy, discuss in detail the challenges and the necessary strategies that need to be adopted for ensuring quality health care in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly highlight the positives of the NHP 2017 .

Body:

Answers must discuss the following aspects :

  • Highlight the salient features of the policy.
  • Explain the positives and lacunas.
  • Discuss the challenges therein – information asymmetry, lack of penetration of private healthcare in vulnerable areas etc.
  • What should be done? –  More health professionals need to be deployed for primary care in rural areas, involving private sector, robust health data etc.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance of such a health policy and need for development of infrastructure conducive for it.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Issues relating to intellectual property rights.

6) India needs a robust IPR Policy to have growth and development. comment.  (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question:

The article highlights the fact that India has posted highest growth in patent applications in 2018. Thus signifying India’s participation in the international patent system, this necessitates us to analyse the need for a robust IPR Policy in India.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must trace the issues related to intellectual property rights in India and discuss why we are still lacking a robust IPR regime that can harness India’s potential in global race of patenting.

Directive word:

Commenthere we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by highlighting the current scenario of Indian patent system.

Body:

In brief discuss the following points :

  • What are Patents? Importance of Patents.
  • Discuss the present India’s National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy; its objectives.
  • The need for robust IPR policy in India is amidst the fact that emerging countries faces fresh challenges from the developed world and mega regional trade agreements.
  • Discuss the issues associated with the current policy and what needs to be done to make it more robust.

Conclusion:

Conclude with necessity of having a robust IPR policy in India.


Topic : Disaster and disaster management.

7) Discuss the need for Disaster risk reduction in India. What are the challenges involved and explain the global efforts in this direction.(250 words) 

pib

The hindu

Why this question:

An International Workshop on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (IWDRI) has  been organized by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in collaboration with United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), and in partnership with the Global Commission on Adaptation, United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. Thus the question is important from this point of perspective for GS Paper III.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the need for Disaster risk reduction in India, the associated challenges and way forward with special emphasis on global efforts in this direction.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of disaster management or quote a fact that signifies or highlights the same.

Body:

Define first what you understand by DRR, detail upon its significance .

Then explain the need for inclusive disaster risk management, discuss the factors holding back the process of risk reduction; the challenges involved.

Such questions are best answered with the aid of case studies.

Then move on to narrate global efforts in this direction – International Workshop on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (IWDRI), 3rd Indo-Japan Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic:   Ethics and Human Interface. Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration.

8) Explain what you understand by ethical due diligence.How is it an important value for a civil servant? How would you indoctrinate it?(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is about  the concept of ethical due diligence, its importance in civil or public services.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must explain in detail the concept of ethical due diligence, discuss its significance and in the later part of the answer one has to explain how as an individual(as a civil servant) you would inculcate it in your daily life.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of ethics in life.

Body:

Discuss the concept of due diligence – Diligence is steadfast application, assiduousness and industry—the virtue of hard work. It is one of the seven heavenly virtues. Diligent behaviour is indicative of a work ethic — a belief that work is good in itself.

Then highlight its importance in civil services – why is it essential to profess due diligence? To what extent is it required by civil servants etc.

You can bring in the concept of Diligence in Buddhism, brief upon it.

Discuss how to inculcate it – a strong motivation towards work and by attempting to think of work not only as a means to achieve something bigger and better like prestige, social status, power but as a reward in itself. Hence, this inculcation can only be an intrinsic one by a change in attitude and mindset towards work. While attitude alignment can be done by rewards and punishments coming from an external source, the transcendence of external gratification can only come from within.

Conclusion:

Re-assert  the importance of due diligence in services.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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