SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 MARCH 2019

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 MARCH 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic– Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1) Was Jawaharlal Nehru right in adopting the principle of non-alignment as the corner-stone of India’s foreign policy? Examine.(250 words)

Bipin Chandra-  India after Independence

 

Why this question:

The question is about analyzing the importance of the principle of non-alignment as the corner-stone of India’s foreign policy by Jawaharlal Nehru post-independence.

Directive word:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Key demands of the question:

The answer should provide for a close examination of India’s foreign policy as adopted by Jawaharlal Nehru post-independence against the backdrop of world war II, and how exactly Nehru took over the nation with the hope of forging amicable relationship with countries of the world.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start by pointing out the importance of the policy, how it started – India became the first country to begin a policy that was new in the history of international relations – the policy of Non-Alignment which was founded in 1961 in Belgrade and was ably supported by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, President Sukarno of Indonesia and Joseph Broz Tito of Yugoslavia.

Body

Discuss the following important factors :

  • Trace the backdrop of the NAM and its origin.
  • Importance of the policy – Nehru’s pacifism and his strong support of the United Nations. what way he pioneered the policy of non-alignment.
  • professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the US and the USSR.
  • technique to maintain world peace.
  • Factors responsible for adopting Non alignment.
  • struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics

Keywords:

India’s economic backwardness, neutralism, decolonized nation, 1955 Bandung Conference, Lusaka Conference (third conference) 1970, Havana Declaration   etc.

Conclusion

Conclude with contemporary relevance of the NAM.

Introduction:

India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries. India’s foreign policy was neither negative nor positive. India became the first country to begin a policy that was new in the history of international relations – the policy of Non-Alignment which was founded in 1961 in Belgrade and was ably supported by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, President Sukarno of Indonesia and Joseph Broz Tito of Yugoslavia.

Body:

Origin:

  • The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral.
  • The movement represented the interests and priorities of developing countries. The Movement has its origin in the Asia-Africa Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955.

Importance of the policy:

  • It identifies the right of independent judgment, the struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism, and the use of moderation in relations with all big powers as the three basic elements that have influenced its approach.
  • The policy of non-alignment was based on the five principles of Panchasheel, which directed international conduct. These principles which were envisaged and formulated in 1954, were mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; non interference in each other’s military and internal affairs; mutual non aggression; equality and mutual benefit and finally, peaceful coexistence and economic cooperation
  • The policy of non-alignment meant the acceptance of the inevitability of war but on the conviction that it could be avoided.
  • The non-aligned movement emerged from India’s initiative for formulating an independent foreign policy.
  • This independent foreign policy was based on a solid moral and sound political foundation.
  • The non-alignment was a strategy designed to maximise newly independent India’s gains from the world system. Nonalignment did not mean to choose to become a hermit kingdom.

Factors responsible for adopting Non alignment:

  • During its initial years of independence itself, India played a very active role in peaceful resolution of some complex international issues and persistently lobbied in United Nations for disarmament.
  • The core idea was that, the very sense of India, with its history and civilisation attributes, demands the pursuit of an independent foreign policy.
  • Decisions relating to India’s vital interests should not be externally determined.
  • Maintaining and, if possible, expanding the country’s strategic autonomy is a continuing objective.
  • All these made the idea of non-alignment, the initial basic tenet in India’s foreign policy, a mechanism providing link between the coordinated actions of the anti- imperialist and anti-colonial forces.
  • It was an assertion of independence in foreign affairs, as a process of weakening of power blocs, as a symbol of defiance against big power domination and as a diplomatic innovation in the phase of politics of confrontation and cold war.
  • India’s economic backwardness was a major factor for the adoption of the policy of non-alignment. Foreign aid was an important component for the development of India’s embryonic economy and therefore aid was welcome from all parts of the world – UK, Germany, USA, Japan and USSR. India was tied up with both the east as well as the west for economic development.
  • Nehru once said that “We should either be strong enough to produce some effect or we should not interfere at all“, which demonstrates a realistic awareness of the limits of India’s ability to influence events

The critics of Non-alignment say that the biggest failure of the policy was the India’s failure to deal with China in 1962. It was said that India could move closer to US to counter the abject poverty, grim state of economy and problems in foreign trade. However, these were problems of India as a state and not India as a country with independent foreign policy. The failure was not of non-alignment, but of an economy spiralling out of control (the concurrence with the China war/ pushing of India’s Five Year Plans off schedule) and they had become articles of faith than strategies.

Conclusion:

As the first Prime Minister of India, Nehru managed to transcend regional boundaries and emerged as a global statesman. He supervised India’s foreign policy with other countries and created a political incubator for the new country to develop.

NAM should be seen as “Strategic Autonomy” which is much needed in today’s world than in past. However, in today’s context, India needs more engagements with all players as world has become more inter dependent than in the past.


Topic– Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2) linguistic diversity post-independence proved to be a source of social and political strife, Discuss. Has the formation of linguistic States strengthened the cause of Indian Unity today?(250 words)

Bipin Chandra – India after Independence

 

Why this question:

Language created a great problem in post-independent era and continues to be one of the heavy weights on country’s political system. Thus the question measures language as a parameter of social and political strife and in what way formation of linguistic states has strengthened the cause of unity in India.

demand of the question:

The answer must bring out trace the linguistic diversity as a foundation of social and political conflict in the country. Later one has to analyze in what way the linguistic diversity of the country and reorganization of the nation based on it has strengthened the cause of Indian unity.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Narrate the background of events – the country was divided into more than 500 princely territories and the provinces of British India at the time of independence. After accession into the Union, there came the tacky issue of integrating the kingdoms and provinces into feasible administrative units.

Body

Comment on – The way Dhar commission, and then the JVP commission rejected the reorganization of states on linguistic basis despite demand for the same.

Fazl Ali commission or States Reorganization Commission, in 1953, allowed that in principle, while giving primacy to administrative convenience. Then move on to discuss how it strengthened the cause of Indian unity.

Later bring out how  the linguistic reorganization also led to several unintended consequences such as regionalism, linguistic chauvinism and foundation of the “Sons of the soil” doctrine. Quote some examples.

Keywords:

Potti Sriramulu, linguistic recognition of the state etc.

Conclusion

conclude – linguistic reorganization also led to several unintended consequences such as regionalism, linguistic chauvinism and foundation of the “Sons of the soil” doctrine. But the political leadership of newly independent India had the foresight to visualize the consequences of not acquiescing to popular aspirations. Their decision to linguistically reorganize the states has therefore removed one important factor that would’ve jeopardized India’s integrity and thus strengthened the cause of Indian unity.

Introduction:

Linguistic diversity created a great problem in post-independent era and continues to be one of the lingering issues on country’s political system. During the days of freedom struggle national leaders always promised the masses that states will be reorganized on the basis of languages, so that each language got full opportunity to develop and grow.

B.N. Rau perhaps rightly said that, “One of the most difficult problems in the framing of India’s new constitution will be to satisfy the demand for linguistic provinces and other demands of a like nature.”

Body:

In independent India there are various commissions and committees to resolve the issue of language in India to make a peaceful transition like Dhar commission, J.V.P. committee and then state reorganization committees have been set up to study this. The Dhar and JVP committees rejected the idea of reorganization of states on linguistic basis despite demand for the same.

With heightened violence and incessant demands in states of Andhra Pradesh leading to death of a Gandhian, Potti Sriramulu, the struggle took a major turn. Fazl Ali commission or States Reorganization Commission, in 1953, allowed that in principle, while giving primacy to administrative convenience.

Linguistic diversity as a source of Political Strife:

  • Since independence in 1947, linguistic affinity has served as a basis for organizing interest groups; the “language question” itself has become an increasingly sensitive political issue.
  • Efforts to reach a consensus on a single national language that transcends the myriad linguistic regions and is acceptable to diverse language communities have been largely unsuccessful.
  • One movement that stood out was that for a Dravidian state. Spearheaded largely by middle-class Tamil intellectuals such as Periyar and C.N. Annadurai, its agitations steadily progressed from opposing Brahmanism and unilateral imposition of Hindi across southern Indian states to secession from independent India
  • Political issues as recent as in West Bengal with demands for a separate Gorkhaland shows how it is still persistent.
  • Demand for a separate state predominantly reflects the regional aspiration of the people of a geographical region. Example: Bodoland Demand in Assam
  • Politicians have used it as a tool to create a wedge between people of neighbouring states.
  • Formation of regional parties like AIADMK, DMK, Trinamool congress etc. gave voice to regional concerns in parliamentary domain.

Linguistic diversity as source of Social Strife:

  • India has a long history of linguistic unrest, for example creation of Andhra Pradesh post-independence, separation of Maharashtra and Gujarat etc.
  • There is a north-south divide on the basis of language and it will stir whenever government thinks to promote official language as such. This causes the regionalism feeling at large.
  • Sons of Soil Doctrine underlies the view that a state specifically belongs to the main linguistic group inhabiting it or that the state constitutes the exclusive ‘homeland’ of its main language speakers who are the ‘sons of the soil’ or the ‘local residents’. Ex: Shiv Sena and Mumbai; north east India – As an example of understanding how population pressure due to migration creates competition over resources, consider some of the traditional Bodo-inhabited areas in Northwest Assam.
  • Masses who speak their language feel discriminated when there is an official language present in the state and they get imposed. For example: tribal languages in the Jharkhand and any other states.
  • Discrimination of state government and central governments in the employments based on language is bitterly accepted.
  • Education is not in the native languages, especially in the tribal languages. This is greatest barrier which further alienates them from the society.
  • Erosion of national feeling in the long run.

Linguistic States and Indian Unity:

  • The Division of states linguistic basis removed the major discord and disharmony among people. For ex. separation of Andhra from Madras addressed the agitation and protest by Telugu people.
  • Creation of state which are homogeneous in nature improved the functioning of the state and govt. has been able to better connect with the masses in the language in which they understand. For ex. creation of Gujarat from Bombay resulted into betterment of people. This brought satisfaction and further caused the Indian Unity.
  • It did not affect the federal structure of the India as afraid. Rather it led to creation of state regional parties which can raise their voice in the Parliament. Hence, a more cooperative federalism and participative democracy thrived epitomizing unity in diversity.
  • Articles 30 and 347 of Indian Constitution provide constitutional protection to linguistic minorities and hence any fear of minority suppression alleviated upto a large extent.
  • It provided opportunity to the states to protect and promote their regional language which brought satisfied cultural aspiration of masses. For ex. recent adoption of Odia language as official language by Odisha.

Conclusion:

Linguistic diversity has been a critical aspect of the multiculturalism that has been the defining characteristic of India through the ages. Diversity is undoubtedly strength of our democracy. The cultural bonds need to be strengthened through enhanced and continuous mutual interaction between people of varied regions. This encourages reciprocity and secures an enriched value system of unity amongst people of different States.


Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

3) “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved.” Evaluate the statement in the context of Indian scenario.(250 words)

Livemint

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article is on the eve of Women’s day , it provides for a detailed discussion on abilities of women in today’s world and the opportunities they have in our country given the cultural setup and legacy of parochial mindset. The article mainly focuses on why women around the world should recognize their financial worth and acquire the confidence needed to drive financial decisions thus empowering themselves and in turn the societies.

Key demand of the question

The answer must center itself around role of women in the growth and development of the country, their empowerment for the welfare of the societies. And one must justify the dire need for improvement in the conditions for women.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

One can start with importance of women empowerment. Explain the nuances of the statement in question.

Body:

Discuss  how Gender equality and women’s empowerment are essential for the development and well-being of families, communities and nations. Due to prevalence of patriarchy , women have been discriminated not only in India but in most parts of the world. Violence against women is a part of the system and according to UN, one out of every three women experiences violence. Taking place within the family, it gives pain. Then move on to discuss how empowering women is a dynamic and political process. The approach needs to be multidimensional and integrative. Quote success stories- women in leading roles.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of women empowerment centric to development and welfare.

 

Introduction:

The issue of gender biasness and gender discrimination has been given the utmost priority even by the United Nations. In India, women are treated badly in every field be it political, social, education, sports and technology and innovation.  Thus, it is essential that they are empowered to be independent and stand on their own feet.

Body:

Gender equality is a human right which entitles all persons irrespective of their gender to live with dignity and with freedom. Gender equality is also a precondition for development and reducing of poverty. Gender shouldn’t be an unreasonable determining factor curbing potential candidates from performing where they ought to.

Women empowerment seeks to stimulate the confidence in women by providing to them everything that in their capacity to help them see the skills that they contain and are dormant within them. A proper nurturing, polishing and sharpening of those skills is only made possible through better education, awareness and a space to freely express oneself.

Situation in India:

  • Female participation in the labour market is 27.2 percent compared to 78.8 for men. India ranks 127 out 160 countries on the Gender Inequality Index.
  • India has been ranked 108th in World Economic Forum (WEF) gender gap index. Gender gap was measured across four key pillars — economic opportunity, political empowerment, educational attainment, and health and survival.
  • As per Census 2011, the ratio of female youth literacy rate to male youth literacy rate is 0.91 at all India level.
  • According to data released by Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU), India ranks 115 in the World for proportion of National Parliament seats held by Women.

Importance of Gender Equality in Women Empowerment:

  • To Rule out under-employment and unemployment
    • Around 50 per cent of the world population consists of the women population.
    • Unemployment of women and unequal opportunities in the places of work cause great problems around the world, because true potential is left from being harnessed.
  • To reduce scope domestic violence and sexual exploitation:
    • Violence against women is a part of the system and according to UN, one out of every three women experiences violence. Taking place within the family, it gives pain.
    • Due to prevalence of patriarchy, women have been discriminated not only in India but in most parts of the world.
    • When independence is acquired all sorts of mistreatment can be dodged. Mistreatment includes domestic violence and sexual exploitation even in marriage.
    • It is important that women understand what inacceptable behaviour is, in order to fight against it.
    • This is why education is very important and education is another great key towards women empowerment, and also the result of women empowerment.
  • To eradicate corruption:
    • Corruption addressed to women or to the society in general, shall be reduced when women are permitted to receive education equal to men.
    • So women empowerment is also necessary, in order to bring about peace and justice to the society with women being equally equipped to fight against the wrongs by perhaps participating in movements, raising their voices single handed or joining groups and civil service jobs to serve their fellow country mates in the same manner as men.
  • To get rid of poverty:
    • While women empowerment serves in granting economic independence to women, it also serves in contributing to the economic benefits of the household and the society as a whole.
    • Pressure on one individual to earn a family’s living can be too much to bear, which is why it is rightful to share the burden amongst one another to provide for a better living condition to their family members and also to gradually uproot poverty from the country by facilitating proper distribution of wealth per household.
  • To facilitate national development
    • Women have exhibited potential in the National and even International levels. Women like Sakshi Malik (wrestler), Dipa Karmakar (gymnast) and Manushi Chhillar,( the girl who recently bagged the Miss World crown) have all portrayed extraordinary potential and rose to International recognition even, let aside national.
    • These are the women who inspire and back women empowerment movements even further to purport the talents of women which look forth to be appropriated in the best possible manner.
  • To realise the advantageous prospect of women over men
    • Certain jobs in fact can’t reach up to their best capacities without the participation of women.
    • It is the very sentiment of nurturing, softness and warmth in some women that is necessary in fields like Non Governmental Organizations, Nursing, teaching and other similar sorts of jobs.
    • Along with the participation of men, female involvement is vital for the smooth functioning of the system in order to achieve the ideals they seek to achieve.
  • A sustainable move:
    • Empowered women make invaluable contribution to the improvement of health conditions and educational status and productivity of whole families and communities, which in turn improve prospects for the next generation.
    • It has been found in various studies conducted by the World Bank, ADB and other renowned research organisations that, educated female-headed households do much better in the provision of health and education of the children at home.
  • A storehouse of immense talent
    • Women empowerment is essential today because earlier, women were not allowed to receive higher education, the society was backward and the times were different.
    • But now the times have changed. Women take up the same responsibilities as men and do a wonderful job in showcasing their talents when given an opportunity to.
    • It is necessary that they are given a chance to compete on the same level as men only to be able to benefit the employment and job spheres of our country.

Women’s empowerment is a dynamic and political process:

  • Women’s empowerment is not and cannot be separate from the empowerment of nature , empowerment of all the marginalized people.
  • It is closely linked to peace moments, ecology moments, workers and peasant movements, human rights movements and moments for democratization and decentralization of society
  • It requires changing patriarchal mindset, giving women control over resources (natural, human, intellectual, financial resources) and bring them into decision making roles.
  • Women’s concerns, perspectives and visions are necessary on every issue be it militarization, human rights or sustainable development.
  • Empowerment of women has to be done at all levels and in all sections if it is to become strong and widespread and make a difference
  • Proactive measures that support gender parity and social inclusion and address historical imbalances are therefore essential for the health of the global economy as well as for the good of society as a whole.

Conclusion:

Gender equality will be achieved only when women and men enjoy the same opportunities, rights and obligations in all spheres of life. This means sharing equally, power and influence, and having equal opportunities in economic and social spheres. Equal claim on education and career prospects will enable women to realize their personal ambitions.


Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger./ Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

4) Diseases of affluence are overtaking poverty disease in India reflecting growing middle class. Elucidate.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article defines what are diseases of affluence, the question is in the context of rising Lifestyle illnesses, such as heart disease have overtaken the so-called poverty diseases of tuberculosis and diarrhea as India’s biggest killer, reflecting the country’s growing affluence.

Key demand of the question:

The answer should discuss how the changing lifestyle and prosperity of Indians which began a decade ago has reduced the physical activities of people, particularly in urban India, The sedentary lifestyle, over stressed life, bad eating habits and smoking are the other factors which have led to this changing trends.

Directive word

Elucidate – means to clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the  particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:

Briefly define what you understand by diseases of Affluence, how they are different from those of poverty.

Body:

Discussion of the answer should capture the following points :

  • Causes of the shift : Highlight the changing lifestyles, reflect the sedentary lifestyles among India’s growing middle class, the rise of motorcycle and car ownership etc. , and a growing fondness for junk and high sugar/ fat food.
  • Explain how the trend is no more about diseases of poverty that are the result of low living standards that prevent people from having sufficient access to quality healthcare.
  • Suggest a way forward.

Conclusion –

Suggest what needs to be done, quote reports and facts to justify the same.

Introduction:

Diseases of affluence refer to diseases that are increasingly common among the populations of the various developed countries of the world. Obesity, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and coronary heart disease are considered to be the most common examples of such diseases. Diseases of affluence are in contrast to diseases of poverty that are the result of low living standards that prevent people from having sufficient access to quality healthcare.

Body:

Status of Lifestyle diseases in India:

  • The estimated proportion of all deaths due to Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) has increased from 37.09% in 1990 to 61.8% in 2016.
  • As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4; 2015-16, 11% of women (1 in 10) and 15% of men (1 in 7) of age 15-49 are hypertensive. The survey has also found that about 60.4% of persons screened have ever had their blood pressure measured.
  • As per ICMR’s cancer registry data, the estimated incidences of cancer patients in India are 13,28,229, 13,88,397, 14,51,417 and 15,17,426 during the years 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively.
  • The fastest-growing causes of ill health over the past 26 years were diabetes (increased by 174%) and ischaemic heart disease (up 104%).

Causes for the shift towards Lifestyle diseases:

  • Poor public spending: 1.2% of GDP is spent on health sector. Consecutive governments have failed to spend more on health sector.
  • NCDs linked to lifestyles have surpassed communicable diseases as the leading cause of lost productivity and premature deaths.
  • They are seen as the outcome of improving living standards in the Western world that have led to a significant increase in the lifespan of people but also led to drastic changes in their daily lifestyle.
  • Less strenuous physical exercise, often through increased use of motor vehicles. Irregular exercise as a result of office jobs involving no physical labour.
  • City governments are more sensitive to petrol and diesel prices, and road building than to pedestrian facilities and public transport.
  • Big differences in the status of social development between states.
  • Greater urbanisation will also pose a major challenge to Indian health systems in coming year
  • Increasing life expectancy will lead to more disability and a larger disease burden.
  • Behavioural factors which include diets low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, but high in salt and fat.
  • Unhealthy diets, high blood pressure, blood sugar and overweight, has doubled in India over the past two decades.
  • Health loss from road injuries highlighting the lack of a comprehensive national policy for injury prevention.
  • The health crisis can potentially impair India’s demographic dividend.
  • Rapid economic growth has changed Indians’ lifestyles. People eat out more often, and prefer junk food.
  • Greater use of Alcohol and tobacco.

Way Forward:

  • Measures from Government:
    • Increase health expenditure up to 8% of GDP.
    • Provided basic health facilities to all section of people in viable costs
    • Increase rural health infrastructure
    • Built upon a robust early screening system
    • New Health Policy 2016 need to give due priority to it
    • Actions to curb tobacco and alcohol consumption will help reduce future risk of NCD in the under-30 age group
    • The state specific data in the report must be used by policymakers to determine how to spend health budgets and which diseases to focus on.
    • A countrywide tax on calorie-dense foods, such as the ‘fat tax’ recently implemented by Kerala could be one possible a
    • India needs an effective, coordinated response that immediately reduces the level of air pollution at it sources.
  • Measures from Non-Government entities:
    • India needs to be awakened and the communities should be sensitised about the need for change.
    • Business house should create policy of health working conditions – Soda and snack-makers such as PepsiCo and Nestle must make their products more nutritious.
    • Create awareness about stress related disorders in their offices
    • NGOs must campaign for healthy working conditions in all sectors of employment
  • Measures from People:
    • Eat Healthy diet – A higher fibre intake is also associated with lower bodyweight, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol when compared with lower intake.
    • Don’t become prone to addictions
    • Remain fit by any of means viz. Yoga, Meditation, Exercise, etc. Overweight and obesity can be prevented through a well balanced lifestyle through healthy eating and exercise.
    • Consuming fibre and whole grains can reduce health risks from non-communicable diseases such as heart disease. Eating fibre-rich foods reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer by 16% to 24%.
    • Families must encourage outdoor activities, rather than allowing kids to stay indoors playing video games.
    • Share problems and tensions with family and friends to keep depression away.
  • Measures from Doctors and Researchers:
    • robust mechanisms for data collection, data sharing, and knowledge transfer
    • Doctors also recommend — eat less and enjoy your food by eating slowly, fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables, avoid oversized portions which causes weight gain, at least half of your grains should be whole grains, limit consumption of food high in trans fats.
    • Systems for monitoring and evaluation
    • Share knowledge in all sectors of community
    • In addition to treating disease, one also has to prevent the occurrence of new disease.

Conclusion:

Containing the NCDs has been listed by the WHO as its health goal for this year along with reducing mortality related to air pollution and climate change, global influenza pandemic etc. It is essential that the government, civil society, academia and media recognise the nuances of health transition which shape the sweep of NCD epidemics as they evolve. This will help create a healthier society which will yield inter-generational benefits well beyond 2030      


Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5) “Reverse innovation can transform industries in India, and the world”, Comment.(250 words)

HOW INDIA BUILDS: CHEAPER, FASTER, LOCAL- 8 Mar 2019mint ePaper Vijay Govindarajan & Mahesh Sriram

Why this question:

The article highlights the significance of reverse innovation in India with special focus to Health, education and energy industry and in what way reverse innovation can  recreate foreign technologies by harnessing local know-how.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must address how reverse innovation can transform healthcare , education and energy industries specifically in India , thus one must explain in detail what is Reverse innovation, way about, its benefits for Indian industries and what needs to be done.

Directive word:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with the definition of Reverse innovation, highlight the recent beginning of it in Health industry of India.

Body:

Discuss the following :

  • What is Reverse Innovation? Explain with examples like Tata Motors – Tata Nano, Tata – Swacch – World’s cheapest water purifier etc.
  • Trends, Strategy, and the advantages it brings to India.
  • How would Reverse Innovation benefit India – lead to further boom in industrialization, overall development of the entire eco-system, will lead to one world, one market” phenomenon.
  • Highlight the key industries that are already benefiting from It – Health, education , energy ;state examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the importance of suggest way forward.

Introduction:

Reverse innovation, also known as trickle-up or bottom-up innovation, is the process whereby goods developed as inexpensive models to meet the needs of developing nations, such as battery-operated medical instruments in countries with limited infrastructure, are then repackaged as low-cost innovative goods for Western buyers.

Examples:

  • Tata Nano: While companies like Ford set up its global automobile platform in India and catered to the niche premium segments in India, Tata introduced the Tata Nano for the price conscious consumer in India in 2009. Tata plans to launch Tata Nano in Europe and U.S. subsequently.
  • P&G’s (Vicks Honey Cough) honey-based cold remedy developed in Mexico found success in European and the United States market.
  • Nestle’s Maggi brand – Low-cost, low-fat dried noodles developed for rural India and Pakistan found a market in Australia and New Zealand as a healthy and budget-friendly alternative.

Body:

At the heart of reverse innovation is recreating foreign technologies by harnessing local know-how. Reverse innovation uses locally available resources to create products that can give foreign tech a run for its money. The heart of reverse innovation is about harnessing abundantly available local know-how and ingenuity and packaging the product/service in a manner that is easy to use and easy to repair.

Healthcare:

  • Reverse innovation can transform healthcare in India, and the world.
  • Ayushman Bharat (National Health Protection Scheme) is said to be the world’s largest government-funded health insurance programme covering 100 million families up to ₹5 lakh every year.
  • The scheme allows 500 million Indians to avail secondary and tertiary care at any empanelled hospital, anywhere in India.
  • Albeit well-intentioned, meeting this enormous demand is a formidable challenge considering we have so few hospitals and doctors, with a majority of them in tier-I cities.
  • The only way to fix the demand-supply gap is by promoting breakthrough innovations in healthcare delivery.
  • Such innovations can be exported to rich countries like the US. That is the potential of reverse innovation.
  • For instance, Narayana Health offers open heart surgery for ₹1.3 lakh, Aravind Eye Care provides cataract surgery for ₹6,500, and Care Hospital provides total knee replacement for ₹2.5 lakh. In the US, similar procedures cost more than ₹1 crore, ₹2.6 lakh and ₹21 lakh, respectively.
  • Despite their ultra-low prices, medical outcomes of these exemplars are as good as any in the world. In addition, they are highly profitable.

Case Study: India has less than 20,000 ophthalmologists. In 2011, Forus launched its first product, 3netra Classic, which screens cornea and retina for four major conditions—cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cornea issues. In the US, the same tests require three expensive instruments. 3netra is portable and can be taken on motorcycles; screening can be done in five minutes by a minimally trained technician; the physician can diagnose via telemedicine. 3netra is priced at $10,000. Competitive offerings from multinationals are $30,000, are not portable and require trained technicians.

Advantages: It reduces the burden on expensive hospital infrastructure since simple cases can be handled at the community level (spokes), while only those needing specialized treatment need to come to the hospitals (the hub). It also lowers the non-medical expenses for patients—loss of wages when they are away from work, cost of travel and room and board. The wicked problem of income inequality can be solved by extending the productive life of his patients and empowering them to earn more.

Education:

  • The cost of higher education keeps soaring. The very rich do not mind the high cost and the very poor get outright scholarships.
  • It is the large middle class that is squeezed out of high-quality American universities.
  • We need to educate millions in India. We cannot follow the American education model in India, with the principle of exclusion.
  • India must come up with breakthrough education delivery models that can provide world-class education to the masses at very low costs.
  • Once India fine-tunes such business models, they can be adapted in the US.

Energy:

  • Since crude oil prices have declined, the pressure has declined in the US to innovate renewable energy. Yet, global warming is a real threat.
  • Given the carbon emissions of petrol, India has no choice but to do radical innovations to generate energy from wind and sun.
  • India has the potential to be a global leader in wind and solar energy.

Conclusion:

Reverse innovation will address three of the country’s most pressing agendas: economic growth, job creation (especially in rural India), and reduction of income inequality. From ultra-affordable healthcare to power solutions to transportation and to futuristic technologies like augmented reality, 3D printing and robotics, the potential of reverse innovation is endless.


Topic: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

6) The recent Supreme Court judgements have rendered fruitless the chance to restraint an increasingly powerful Central executive .Critically analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question:

The article highlights the Supreme Court’s landmark judgements that have concentrated greater power in the hands of the executive leading to powerful Central executive. Thus it becomes important from the point of view of GS paper II.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects you to critically analyze the current scenario of the overpowering Centre amidst greater support being provided to it by the Judiciary through landmark judgements that are making the Centre imperial. The answer must address and justify by elucidation of recent judgements and their impact.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction:  

Start with highlighting the importance of separation of power, how each wing should control and bind the other by suggesting corrective actions rather than fueling the thirst of autonomy.

Body:  

Body should discuss the following broad aspects in detail –

  • Recent landmark judgements that highlight the rising support of the apex court to the Centre’s actions – the four landmark judgments on fundamental rights: decriminalizing same-sex relations and adultery, opening up Sabarimala to women of all ages, and (partially) upholding Aadhaar, court’s findings on the legal status of “money bills”, dispute between the central government (acting through the Lt Governor) and the government of Delhi etc.
  • Explain the trending drift towards the increased powers of the political executive, across liberal democracies.
  • Way forward

Conclusion:

Conclude with how judicial facilitation of an imperial executive is against the basic tenets of the very constitution ; doctrine separation of powers.

Introduction:

The Constitution of India embraces the idea of separation of powers in an implied manner. Despite there being no express provision recognizing the doctrine of separation of powers in its absolute form, the Constitution does make the provisions for a reasonable separation of functions and powers between the three organs of Government. As per Article 50, State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive. This is for the purpose of ensuring the independence of judiciary.

Body:

In the last six months, the Supreme Court has frequently found itself in the headlines. It handed down many landmark judgments on fundamental rights:

  • Decriminalising same-sex relations and adultery
  • Opening up Sabarimala to women of all ages, and
  • Upheld Aadhar act (partially)

However, some of its judgments related to Rafale and Central Bureau of Investigation were subjected to intense scrutiny, and continue to be debated.

Constitution guarantees freedom by dividing and distributing political power between state organs in order to avoid concentration of authority, and to ensure that these different organs act as checks and balances upon each other. The surest dam against totalitarianism is to guarantee that no one stream of authority becomes powerful enough to sweep away everything else in the time of a flood.

The trending drift towards the increased powers of the political executive:

Courts often exercise significant influence upon the future direction of the Republic in cases involving constitutional structure.

Money Bills:

  • Despite strong protests, the Aadhar Act was passed as a money bill. This affected a crucial element of our constitutional structure: bicameralism.
  • Bicameralism, in our parliamentary democracy, requires that a bill must be scrutinised and passed by both Houses of Parliament before it becomes law.
  • While the Lok Sabha represents the voice of the democratic majority, the Rajya Sabha represents the interests of the States, as well as perspectives free of immediate, electoral interests.
  • The crucial purpose of the Rajya Sabha is to act as a check and a balance upon the Lok Sabha, by scrutinising bills in a more deliberative and reflective manner, and raising concerns that may have been glossed over or evaded in the Lower House.
  • Its role becomes even more important when we consider a unique Indian innovation: anti-defection, which effectively undermines the intra-party democracy as individual MPs could no longer vote according to their conscience, and had to follow the diktats of the cabinet.
  • With the Lower House no longer able to check the government, the only remaining legislative forum that can then do so is the Rajya Sabha.
  • Aadhar act is passed as a money bill and money bill takes the Rajya Sabha out of the equation, it only needs Lok Sabha approval.
  • And in combination with the anti-defection law, this places absolute power in the hands of the executive, and skews the democratic process.
  • Hence, its use must be restricted to the most limited of circumstances as enshrined in Constitution (Article 110) mandated that money bills be narrowly limited to those that fell exclusively within the categories set out in Article 110.
  • The Aadhaar Act, which established a biometric database and set up an authority (the UIDAI) to administer it, raises question mark to passing it as a “money bill” simply because the funds for the Authority came from the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • The verdict on Aadhar case, may motivate the governments, which does not enjoy majority in the upper house to bypass Rajya Sabha scrutiny on a range of important issues by simply inserting a provision specifying that money for a project is to come from the Consolidated Fund.

Federalism:

  • The court was also considering another issue of democratic structure: the dispute between the central government (acting through the Lt Governor) and the government of Delhi.
  • This dispute effectively turned upon the text of Article 239AA of the Constitution, a somewhat ambiguously drafted provision establishing Delhi as a hybrid federal entity — somewhere between a State and a Union Territory.
  • In July 2018, a five-judge bench of the Supreme Court made it clear that the court would favour a reading that increased democratic accountability, that is, in case of doubt, power would lie with the government that had been directly elected by the people (in this case, the Delhi government).
  • When it came to applying this principle to the specific disputes between the two entities, however, a two-judge bench of the Supreme Court seemed to resile from this fundamental democratic principle.
  • The February 2019 judgment bears very little evidence of democratic concerns: the heart of the dispute was about control over the civil services, which directly impacted day-to-day governance.
  • While the constitutional provisions themselves were ambiguous, one judge held that the Delhi government had no control over civil servants above a certain rank, while another judge held that the Delhi government had no control over civil servants at all.

In 1973, the American historian Arthur M. Schlesinger coined the term “Imperial Presidency”, to characterise the increasing concentration of power in the office of the President, at the cost of other democratic institutions (such as the U.S. Congress and the Senate). The Supreme Court’s decisions on Articles 110 (money bills) and 239AA (status of the federal unit of Delhi) have concentrated greater power in the hands of the executive. By expanding the scope of what counts as money bills, the court has set the cabinet down the road of transforming itself into a Roman-style imperator.

Conclusion:

By privileging the centralising tendencies of the Constitution over its federalising ones, the court has squandered the chance to develop a strong jurisprudence on the federal structure, that could have been of use in future disputes between the Central government and various federal units. The impact of these decisions will not be felt immediately, but in the long run, unless set right, one enduring legacy of the recent court might be the judicial facilitation of an imperial executive.


Topic-Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

7) Discuss the objectives of National Digital Communications Policy 2018. What are the associated concerns? How can India overcome these concerns. (250 words)

Indianexpress

vikaspedia

 

Why this question:

World has entered into an era of modern technological advancements in technology sector such as, Internet of things (loT), Machine to machine (M2M) communication ,Artificial intelligence, Big Data etc. a need was felt to introduce customer focused and application driven policy for Indian telecom sector. The policy’s aims to serve as the main pillar of Digital India by addressing emerging opportunities for expanding not only availability of telecom services, but also telecom based services.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the objectives of National Digital Communications Policy 2018. The associated issues, challenges and solutions to move forward.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin with the importance of the new telecom policy, how it aims to cater the modern needs of the digital communications sector of India.

Body:

The answer should mainly focus upon:

  • listing out the detailed objectives of the policy – Broadband for all;

Creating four million additional jobs in the Digital Communications sector; Enhancing the contribution of the Digital Communications sector to 8% of India’s GDP ,Propelling India to the Top 50 Nations in the ICT Development Index of ITU; Enhancing India’s contribution to Global Value Chains; and Ensuring Digital Sovereignty.

  • Vision and mission
  • Discuss the challenges, issues and concerns associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with how the policy will facilitate the unleashing of the creative energies of citizens, enterprises and institutions in India and play an important role in fulfilling the aspirations of all Indians for a better quality of life.

Introduction:

With a view to cater to the modern needs of the digital communications sector of India, the Union Cabinet has approved the National Digital Communications Policy-2018 (NDCP-2018). The new telecom policy has been formulated in place of the existing National Telecom Policy-2012 and aims to facilitate India’s effective participation in the global digital economy. The policy aims to ensure digital sovereignty and the objectives are to be achieved by 2022.

Body:

               

The new policy addresses the following issues of facing telecom sector :-

  • The industry is going through a financial crisis as a result of which as many as five operators have shut shop. Overall debt burden of the remaining players has burgeoned to alarming levels due to expensive spectrum auctions and huge reduction in cash flows.
  • Telecom consumers are no better today than they were two decades ago when it comes to quality of services. Call drops, unwanted telemarketing calls, patchy data networks and unfair practices to get users pay more are rampant. To make matters worse, consumers do not have access to a reliable and neutral complaint redressal mechanism.
  • Public sector companies in this sector continue to languish under high manpower costs and red tape.
  • There is a big worry over the huge imports of telecom equipment and devices at a time when India’s trade deficit is ballooning.

Associated concerns to achieve the target:

  • Finances:
    • The industry is going through a financial crisis as a result of which as many as five operators have shut shop.
    • Overall debt burden of the remaining players has burgeoned to alarming levels due to expensive spectrum auctions and huge reduction in cash flows.
  • Quality issues:
    • Telecom consumers are no better today than they were two decades ago when it comes to quality of services.
    • Call drops, unwanted telemarketing calls, patchy data networks and unfair practices to get users pay more are rampant.
    • To make matters worse, consumers do not have access to a reliable and neutral complaint redressal mechanism.
  • Public Sector failure:
    • Public sector companies in this sector continue to languish under high manpower costs and red tape.
  • Investments:
    • Annual investments by mobile phone companies are in the region of around $10 billion annually, which the government aims to increase significantly.
    • However, the telecom industry is, mostly, in deep trouble and feature in list of stressed companies.
  • Levies:
    • The policy has still not cut the very high levels of government levies in this regard.
    • India’s levies, including the 18% GST, range from 29-32% as compared to just an 11% VAT rate in China.
  • Spectrum prices:
    • There are also no significant plans in cutting high spectrum prices.
    • While 100% of spectrum put on auction in 2015 remained unsold due to high spectrum prices, this was as high as 59% in 2016.
    • No auctions could take place in 2017 or 2018 due to telcos being cash-strapped.
    • Resultantly, revenues accruing to the government from the sector have fallen by around 37% in just the last two years.
  • Old wine in new bottle:
    • Almost all the solutions offered find mention in earlier regulations and vision statements. Some of the major targets listed in the 2012 policy are still to be achieved.
    • Instead of delving into why these targets were missed and how things can be improved, the National Digital Communications Policy 2018 lists out more and new targets.
    • Does not have any fresh ideas in terms of addressing the issues being faced by the telecom sector.
    • While restating the Centre’s intent to address the problems, it neither spells out how it plans to achieve the stated objectives nor gives a specific timeframe to implement the various proposals.

Way forward:

  • Judicious use of the Universal Service Obligation Fund:
    • USOF was established with an aim to fund projects to boost connectivity in rural areas. The fund must be disbursed fairly to ensure that affordable communication services are available to most citizens.
  • Affordable spectrum prices:
    • Department of Telecom (DoT) should make available the right of way and spectrum at very affordable price points to provide much-needed relief to the Telecom operators who are operating at a loss.
    • Subsidies towards the roll-out of communication infrastructure can help Telecom operators to become profitable. This will facilitate them in enhancing their R&D and investments towards future expansion.
  • Effective Collaborative initiatives:
    • The policy’s focus on Industry 4.0 techs like IoT and M2M is commendable but there are other initiatives with similar vision like Bharat Udyog.
    • It is important that all such initiatives collaborate for optimal use of funds and share the benefits towards the common vision.
  • Learn from mistakes:
    • It is important to do a reasonable analysis of the past gaps and study the challenges. This will help in achieving the desired objectives of the policy and not repeat the same mistakes again.

Conclusion:

The NDCP aims to prepare the country and its citizens for the future. Achieving these goals would require that the key stakeholders – namely the Centre, the States, local governments, Telecom Service Providers, Internet Service Providers, handset and equipment manufacturers, the academic community, the innovators and start-ups come together to forge a coalition to deliver this national policy and missions.

NDCP seeks to unlock the transformative power of digital communications networks to achieve the goal of digital empowerment and well-being of the people of India; and towards this end, attempts to outline a set of goals, initiatives, strategies and intended policy outcomes.