Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
1) What were the reasons responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire in India. Discuss.(250 words)
Modern Indian History by BIPIN CHANDRA PAL (NCERT TEXTBOOK OLD)
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to write in detail about the fall of the Mughal empire and the reasons responsible for it.
Structure of the answer
Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the decline of Mughal empire. E.g the beginnings of the decline of the Mughal empire can be traced back to Aurangzeb who inherited a large empire and yet adopted an expansionist policy.
Discuss in points about the reasons as to why the Mughal empire declined. E.g
- The objective of Aurangzeb to unify the entire country under one Central political authority was justifiable in theory but not in practice.
- Unwillingness to accept the regional autonomy inability to forge regional alliances. Aurangzeb absence from the north for our 25 years and his failure to subdue the Marathas led to the deterioration of the administration really, undermined the prestige of the empire and its army which further led to the neglect of the vital NWFP.
- The strength of the Mughal empire was challenged at its nerve center, Delhi by Satnami, the Jat and the Sikh uprisings.
- Aurangzeb’s religious orthodoxy and his policy towards the Hindus damaged the stability of the Mughal empire.
- In the absence of a fixed rule for succession, the empire was always plagued after the death of a King by a civil war between the princes resulting in loss of life and property and of capable military commanders.
- After Bahadur Shah’s reign came a long list of weak, worthless and luxury-loving Kings.
- The condition of the Indian peasants worsened during the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries and the burden of land revenue increased on the peasants and agriculture deteriorated, which further led to peasant discontent etc.
Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.