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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 February 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the
present- significant events, personalities, issues .


General Studies – 1


Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

1) Bal Gangadhar Tilak played a vital and major role in India’s freedom struggle. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about Bal Gangadhar Tilak- his role and contribution towards India’s freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Tilak. E.g Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an Indian social reformer and freedom activist. He was one of the prime architects of modern India and probably the strongest advocates of Swaraj or Self Rule for India.

Body-

Discuss in points about his contribution towards India’s freedom struggle. E.g

  • Gangadhar Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890.
  • He soon started vocalizing his strong opposition to the moderate views of the party on self-rule. He maintained that simple constitutional agitation in itself was futile against the British.
  • Following the partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, Tilak wholeheartedly supported the Swadeshi (Indigenous) movement and Boycott of British goods. But his methods also raised bitter controversies within the Indian National Congress (INC) and the movement itself.
  • During 1908-1914, Bal Gangadhar Tilak spent had to undergo six years of rigorous imprisonment in Mandalay Jail, Burma.
  • Tilak returned to India in 1915 when the political situation was fast changing under the shadow of the World War I. There was unprecedented celebration after Tilak was released.
  • Deciding to reunite with his fellow nationalists, Tilak founded the All India Home Rule League in 1916 with Joseph Baptista, Annie Besant and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak published two newspapers -‘Mahratta’ (English) and ‘Kesari’ (Marathi). Both the newspapers stressed on making the Indians aware of the glorious past and encouraged the masses to be self reliant etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

2)The Legislative Councils Act of 1861 although a landmark act, brought no real reforms and only disappointed the Indians. Examine. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the Legislative Councils Act of 1861 and bring out why it introduced no real reforms and only disappointed the Indians.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the Act of 1861. E.g mention about the revolt of 1857 and then introduction of the Act of 1858 and then 1861.

Body

Discuss why it brought no real reform and disappointed the Indians. E.g

  1. Discuss about the salient provisions of the act. E.g
  • It provided for portfolio system;
  • executive council of governor general was expanded;
  • restructuring and enlargement of governor general’s legislative council;
  1. Discuss why the act was hollow of any significant reforms. E.g
  • No real powers to the legislature because of ordinance powers of the Governor General;
  • Certain bills related to debt, religion, military or foreign relations could not be passed without the consent of the governor general;
  • Imperial legislative council was essentially an advisory body which could not even discuss the budget etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

3) The formation of the government under the Congress was a unique experiment in India’s freedom struggle. Discuss.(250 words)

India’s Struggle for independence by Bipin Chandra Pal (TWENTY-EIGHT MONTHS OF CONGRESS RULE)

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail the Congress rule during British India and bring out how it was a unique experiment in India’s freedom struggle.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the GOI act, 1935 and the formation of ministries by the Congress. E.g After a few months’ tussle with the Government, the Congress Working Committee decided to accept office under the Act of 1935. During July, it formed Ministries in six provinces: Madras, Bombay, Central Provinces, Orissa, Bihar and U.P. Later, Congress Ministries were also formed in the North-West Frontier Province and Assam.

Body-

Discuss about the main aspects of the Congress rule and how it was a unique experiment. E.g

  • To guide and coordinate their activities and to ensure that the British hopes of the provincialization of the Congress did not materialize, a central control board known as the Parliamentary Sub-Committee was formed.
  • A party which was committed to liquidate British rule took charge of administration under a constitution which was framed by the British and which yielded only partial state power to the Indians; this power could moreover be taken away from the Indians whenever the imperial power so desired.
  • The Congress was now to function both as a government in the provinces and as the opposition vis-a-vis the Central Government where effective state power lay.
  • It was to bring about social reforms through the legislature and administration in the provinces and at the same time carry on the struggle for independence and prepare the people for the next phase of mass struggle.
  • Thus the Congress had to implement its strategy of Struggle-Truce-Struggle (S-T-S’) in a historically unique situation etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4) Claims for tenure under the Forest Rights Act must satisfy the needs of the forest dwellers as well as the environment. Critically analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The recent SC judgement highlights the difficulties faced in the implementation of FRA. In this context it is essential to analyze the topic and the issues involved in detail.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. Based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and discuss why there is a need for a balanced and nuanced approach in handling claims for tenure under the FRA- why there is a need to satisfy the needs of forest dwellers as well as the environment.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the recent controversy regarding the FRA. e.g The Supreme Court’s order to evict, occupants of forest lands who failed to make a successful claim for tenure under the Forest Rights Act, 2006, has once again highlighted the dilemma of reconciling inalienable tribal rights with biodiversity conservation.

Body-

  1. Discuss the need to satisfy the needs of the forest dwellers. E.g
  • The Forest Rights Act protected possession and conferred heritability of land to over 23 lakh out of 44 lakh claimants who are either specified Scheduled Tribes, or people who have lived in forests traditionally, relying on forest produce for at least 75 years prior to the cut-off year of 2005.
  • But over 20 lakh other applicants who could not establish their claim through gram sabhas and appellate authorities have now been ordered to be evicted.
  • Discuss about the plight of traditional forest dwellers and problems faced by them.
  1. Discuss the need to address the environmental concerns. E.g
  • Today, forests have shrunk to about 5% of the land in terms of protected areas, while human pressures are growing:
  • landscapes are alienated for resource exploitation, road and dam building, and a lot of wildlife is lost to poaching.
  • Man-animal conflict is growing etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Important aspects of governance,

5) India is a paradox in itself as being the world’s largest electoral wonder, but a flawed democracy. Comment in the light of the “State of Democracy in the World in 2018- report”(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article provides insights into the Indian socio-political landscape and analyzes India’s poor performance as per the “State of Democracy in the World in 2018- report”.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the Indian socio-political landscape and express our opinion as to whether or not India is a paradox in itself as being the world’s largest electoral wonder, but a flawed democracy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Indian democracy. E.g mention about the India being the world’s largest democracy and at the same time poor performer on the front of governance and human development.

Body-

Discuss about the recent “State of Democracy in the World in 2018- report” and how India is a paradox in terms of being an electoral wonder but a flawed democracy. E.g

  • The Economist Intelligence Unit recently published its 11th report on the “State of Democracy in the World in 2018” titled “Me Too? Political participation, protest and democracy”.
  • The survey ranks 165 independent countries based on five parameters — namely, electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of the government, political participation and political culture.
  • India, which had reached its highest-ever position of 27 in 2014 (just two ranks away from becoming a full democracy), slipped to 42 last year, registering the second largest fall in ranking.
  • This is the worst ranking ever on the index for India. It is a mid-range country among flawed democracies, with a high score of 9.17 in electoral process and pluralism but moderate record not crossing 7.5 on the rest of the parameters.
  • What has adversely affected Indian rankings, according to the report last year, is the rise of “conservative religious ideologies”. Vigilantism, violence, narrowing scope for dissent, threat to minorities and marginalised groups has affected our ranking etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation,

6) The air pollution problem is not merely a technological issue, but also a social concern. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the issue of air pollution and bring out why it is not just a technological issue but also a social concern.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the problem of air pollution. E.g Air pollution is a silent killer in India, especially in the country’s northern belt. Eighteen percent of the world’s population lives in India, but the country bears 26 per cent of the global disease burden due to air pollution.

Body-

Discuss in points as to why the pollution problem is not merely a technological issue, but also a social concern. E.g

  • Globally, there have been several technological breakthroughs in evaluating and improving air quality.
  • In India too, researchers, entrepreneurs and environmentalists have voiced the need for devices such as sensor-based monitors, air purifiers and smog towers.
  • Their increasing use might improve air quality. But their energy footfall is likely to offset recent gains in energy efficiency.
  • Air pollution is not a local issue that can be resolved by using household gadgets or placing devices at a few places.
  • It is a nationwide concern that requires systemic measures, long-term planning, stringent action against those violating emission laws and standards.
  • The improvement in the quality of lives of the rich and middle classes should not be at the cost of the poor etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic – Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Discuss about the Schweitzer’s ethical concept of reverence for life. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Schweitzer’s ethical concept of reverence for life. We have to explain the concept in detail and bring out its significance/ importance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Schweitzer. E.g Albert Schweitzer was an Alsatian theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician.

Body-

Discuss about the concept in further detail. E.g

  • Schweitzer’s central ethical concept is “Reverence for Life”.
  • He sees this as stemming from a fundamental will-to-life inherent in all living things that, in self-conscious beings such as ourselves, establishes a drive towards both self-realization and empathy with other living things.
  • Unlike Nietzsche’s will-to-power, it is not egoistic or individualistic. As living beings we are not only concerned for our own lives and development but also for the lives of other living beings and the environments in which we live.
  • Along with the inclination towards self-perfection that this drive engenders, it gives rise to a nature-centered spirituality and to a form of ethical idealism.
  • Rather than obeying moral rules which are conceived of as external impositions, the soul of the ethical life for Schweitzer is the drive towards fulfillment and authenticity. Insofar as we are a will to live, such authenticity will be felt as a need to show reverence for life in all its forms.
  • The virtues that this gives rise to – which include compassion, gratitude, justice, hope, and the pursuit of peace – will be understood not as norms or principles to be followed, but as ideals and values in the light of which particular decisions must be made creatively and sincerely etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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