Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
4) Claims for tenure under the Forest Rights Act must satisfy the needs of the forest dwellers as well as the environment. Critically analyze.(250 words)
Why this question
The recent SC judgement highlights the difficulties faced in the implementation of FRA. In this context it is essential to analyze the topic and the issues involved in detail.
Critically analyze- here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. Based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and discuss why there is a need for a balanced and nuanced approach in handling claims for tenure under the FRA- why there is a need to satisfy the needs of forest dwellers as well as the environment.
Structure of the answer
Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the recent controversy regarding the FRA. e.g The Supreme Court’s order to evict, occupants of forest lands who failed to make a successful claim for tenure under the Forest Rights Act, 2006, has once again highlighted the dilemma of reconciling inalienable tribal rights with biodiversity conservation.
- Discuss the need to satisfy the needs of the forest dwellers. E.g
- The Forest Rights Act protected possession and conferred heritability of land to over 23 lakh out of 44 lakh claimants who are either specified Scheduled Tribes, or people who have lived in forests traditionally, relying on forest produce for at least 75 years prior to the cut-off year of 2005.
- But over 20 lakh other applicants who could not establish their claim through gram sabhas and appellate authorities have now been ordered to be evicted.
- Discuss about the plight of traditional forest dwellers and problems faced by them.
- Discuss the need to address the environmental concerns. E.g
- Today, forests have shrunk to about 5% of the land in terms of protected areas, while human pressures are growing:
- landscapes are alienated for resource exploitation, road and dam building, and a lot of wildlife is lost to poaching.
- Man-animal conflict is growing etc.
Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.