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2) The Raiyatwari and the Zamindari system shared certain fundamental similarities. Discuss.(250 words)

Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

2) The Raiyatwari and the Zamindari system shared certain fundamental similarities. Discuss.(250 words)


Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the key similarities between the two kinds of revenue systems put in place in India by the British.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  British land revenue system. E.g After gaining full control over Bengal in 1765, Company followed traditional land assessment system in the starting but gradually modified the existing land settlement from time to time to collect maximum possible land revenue which was a need of colonial administration. They initiated auction based farming system as the first experiment in 1772, where land revenue collection rights had been allotted on contract basis. This farming system slowly developed into three major land settlements, viz., Zamindari in Bengal, Raiyatwari in Madras and Bombay, and Mahalwari in North Western Provinces


Discuss in points about the similarities between the two systems. E.g

  • In both cases, the British had favored certain categories of right holders to the detriments of the others by conferring on them full and undivided ownership of the land.
  • Owing to the practice of the judicial sale of the properties of defaulting tax payers, on the one hand the domains of Zamindar were divided into medium and small properties, and on the other, Raiyats became medium or big owners by successive acquisitions.
  • The introduction of ownership- and of a judicial conception of agrarian relation on a contractual basis- initially only reinforced in the villages the local power of the already dominant individuals or groups, who were to became the first users or the principal beneficiaries of the colonial legislative and legal machinery.
  • Both the systems were exploitative and aimed at securing maximum revenue at the cost of Indian farmers and agriculture etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.