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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 FEBRUARY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 08 FEBRUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic– Effects of globalization on Indian society

1) Critically analyze whether globalisation accelerated language shift in India?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the impact of globalisation on the indigenous language and whether globalisation promotes uniformity in languages which affect the linguistic diversity in the country.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the impact of globalisation is manifolds.

Body

  • Explain that globalisation has had multiple impacts and one of the impact it is said to have is standardization of language.
  • Discuss that globalisation leads to the promotions of a global language which is English and give arguments that linguistic diversity of India has been impacted
  • Highlight that still the nature of country is such , and the constitutional protections are such that linguistic diversity is not impacted.

Conclusion – Based on arguments made above, give a fair and balanced opinion on the impact of globalisation on linguistic diversity.

Background:-

  • Language is not only the harbinger of socio-cultural change but also the last vestige to go. As an impact of globalization, language is changing very rapidly and People must think about its future.

How globalisation is accelerating language shift:-

  • Mother tongue neglected:-
    • If a language is not learned as a mother tongue for wider purposes of communication and governance, there are possibilities that the concerned language will gradually vanish from the society as an effective medium, and will assume the role of an identity marker only.
  • Global language like English gained significance:-
    • Globalisation has accelerated the use of English. Irrespective of the translation tools, information is available in English much before in other languages.
    • Urban India created a demand for English as the language of education. globalization is making English especially important not just in universities, but in areas such as computing, diplomacy, medicine, shipping, and entertainment.
    • Due to this the linguistic diversity has been impacted as vernacular languages are neglected.
  • Education:-
    • In the era of globalisation, people are going away from their mother tongue as a language of schooling and as a medium of instruction.
  • Globalisation has altered our perception of language.
    • Socio-linguists find it difficult to explain linguistic fluidity within a theoretical framework. The ease of explaining language within the Classical, Imperialist and Nationalist templates vanishes before the non-conformity of globalisation.
    • Inertia in policy implementation, ambivalent attitudes, people’s choice of a language cutting across class and creed need academic explanation.
  • One of the impact it is said to have is standardization of language.

.

  • However there are some positives as well :-
    • It allows languages and their cultures to spread and dominate on a global scale.
    • Modern globalization can also bring about trends which are positive for Minority languages. It can reveal the fact there are endangered languages all round the world, and so give their speakers a motive to contact one another, and build solidarity networks
    • The biggest reverberation of globalization in languages is that people have learned foreign languages as an addition to their mother tongue.
    • Reinforcing culture:-
      • People living in urban areas do speak English in their offices but speak their mother tongue at home because that is what makes them remind of their own culture.

Conclusion:-

  • Despite the threat globalisation poses to languages of India, the nature of country is such , and the constitutional protections are such that linguistic diversity is not impacted.

Topic– changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2) Examine the impact of climate change on Himalayan rivers?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

A recent report highlighting the threat to Himalayan glaciers and consequently to the Himalayan rivers needs to be discussed in greater detail. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the report which highlights the impact of climate change on Himalayan rivers and examine the consequences. Finally, we need to discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain that Himalayan glaciers feed Himalayan rivers which are under threat.

Body

  • Discuss the details of the report
    • cording to the Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment Report, more than a third of the Himalayan glaciers could melt away by 2100, even if carbon emissions are dramatically cut and global warming limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The situation would be even more erilous if governments fail to limit greenhouses gases as promised
  • Explain the impact of it – HKH glaciers that the major rivers of South Asia and China have their origin. These sustain over 240 million people living in the HKH region’s mountains and hills and some 1.5 billion people living in river basins fed by waters from the HKH’s glaciers. Melting glaciers of the HKH region would therefore impact the lives and livelihoods of almost a fifth of the world’s population. Changes in river flows could not only cause more erosion and landslides in the mountains but also destroy dams and impact hydropower production. Etc
  • discuss  how to deal with this crisis

Conclusion – Emphasize on the seriousness of the threat and discuss way forward.

Background:-

  • According to the Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment Report, more than a third of the Himalayan glaciers could melt away by 2100, even if carbon emissions are dramatically cut and global warming limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Voted.k

Impact of climate change on Himalayan rivers:-

  • The Hindukush Himalayan region’s snow is the source of 10 major river systems including the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra and Mekong in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China and Myanmar.
    • Large-scale warming could drastically alter the river flows in these countries.
    • The receding glaciers could cause a deluge in the rivers during the monsoon while the flows are likely to plummet during the dry seasons, with serious implications for irrigation, hydropower and ecosystem services.
  • Livelihood affected:-
    • Melting glaciers of the HKH region would therefore impact the lives and livelihoods of almost a fifth of the world’s population.
  • Changes in river flows could not only cause more erosion and landslides in the mountains but also destroy dams and impact hydropower production.
  • A global temperature increase of 1.5ºC could mean at least a 1.8ºC temperature rise in the Hindu Kush Himalayas, the ICIMOD study warns.
    • Rise in global temperatures could destabilise the hydrology of large parts of South Asia, China and Myanmar. This will have a major bearing on the ice-fields, which are the largest repository of permafrost outside the polar regions.
  • Impact of climate change:-
    • The number of intense precipitation days and intensity of extreme precipitation have increased overall in the last five decades. If these trends persist, the frequency and magnitude of water-induced hazards in the (Hindu Kush Himalaya) region will increase.
    • Given the speed at which these glaciers are melting and retreating due to changes in climatic conditions, there will be frequent and unpredictable devastating glacial lake outbursts and floods, causing severe damages to lives, livestock and livelihood.
  • Impact on monsoons:-
    • Developments in the Himalayas are known to have a spin-off on the monsoon in the Subcontinent.
    • Water sources of countries in the Himalayan region vitally depend on the monsoon rains and streams emanating from the Himalayas. It is pretty clear now that climate change and global warming have heavily affected rainfall patterns, the concentration of snow and ice and eventually the flow of streams in the Himalayas.

What needs to be done:-

 

  • Cross-border dialogues and cooperation are necessary to put in place an effective cooperative mechanism to find and promote amicable solutions to the river water sharing problems.
  • Integrated water resources management could prove to be a great tool to augment water resources, improve quality of water and bring countries in the Himalayan region together to manage transboundary basins collectively.
  • International experiences :-
    • Experiences from the Arctic Council – an intergovernmental panel in the Arctic region and the Alpine convention an international treaty for sustainable development of the Alps need to be shared to provide learnings for the HKH cooperation efforts.

General Studies – 2


Topic-India and its neighborhood relations

3) India needs to reassess it’s policy choices in Afghanistan. Analyze. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The decision of United States to withdraw from Afghanistan and change the terms of negotiations, and India’s absence from the high table of nations who are involved in discussions over the future of peace process in Afghanistan has huge strategic ramifications for India and the article looks at these points in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the status quo with respect to the developments in Afghanistan, examine impact of USA’s withdrawal from Afghanistan , discuss India’s strategy for Afghanistan and give a way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the recent US announcement to withdraw troops from Afghanistan and regarding negotiations with Taliban.

Body

  • Explain what the issue is about
  • Discuss the ramification of withdrawing from Afghanistan and negotiations with Taliban.
  • Examine the impact on India – developments in Afghanistan closely related to strategic security of India, India has had a stake in the peace process of Afghanistan etc
  • Highlight that the fact that India’s presence on the negotiation table with Afghanistan is feeble has issues for India
  • Examine what should India’s strategy be

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

India’s policy towards peaceful Afghanistan :-

  • India’s development assistance has been the source of its considerable influence and goodwill among Afghan citizens.
  • Major projects, such as the Salma Dam and Parliament building in Kabul, that began in 2008-09, have now been completed.
  • Last year India and Afghanistan agreed to initiate an ambitious and forward-looking ‘New Development Partnership’, according to which India agreed to take up 116 high-impact community development projects to be implemented in 31 provinces of Afghanistan, including in the fields of education, health, agriculture, irrigation, drinking water, renewable energy, flood control, micro-hydropower, sports infrastructure and administrative infrastructure.
  • India has been giving a lot of non-lethal military assistance. In 2016 four MI 25 attack helicopters were given to Afghanistan.
  • India is the biggest regional donor to Afghanistan and fifth largest donor globally with over $3 billion in assistance.
  • India has built over 200 public and private schools, sponsors scholarships and hosts Afghan students.
  • India has shied away from involving itself in full scale war in Afghanistan.

 India needs to reassess the policy due to the complexity in the situation of Afghanistan due to the following reasons :-

  • Continuous attacks :-
    • Recently there has been a spike in violence, with the Taliban carrying out a set of coordinated assaults around Afghanistan, rejecting an offer of a three-month ceasefire by President of Afghanistan and laying siege to Ghazni city. 
    • The violence this year has also put 2018 on course to be the deadliest year for Afghan civilians, with an average of nine people killed every day, according to UN data.
  • Pakistan factor :-
    • The major challenge is the cooperation of regional players. Peace in Afghanistan and the wider region can only be achieved through a multilateral mechanism involving the US as well as major regional players, including Pakistan, Russia, Iran, China, India and Saudi Arabia.
    • Despite six months of concerted American punitive actions on Islamabad, the Pakistan establishment is not shutting down support for Taliban fighters.
  • The role of Pakistan is going to expand significantly, with the US depending upon it to implement the interim deal. This will be a diplomatic victory for Pakistan.
  • US role:-
    • A period of adjustment has become essential following US President unilateral announcement that US is pulling its troops out of the conflict-ridden country.
    • Another development is the “framework” deal between the US and Afghan Taliban after six days of discussions at Doha. 
    • The Afghan war has already become the longest war in US history. With the passage of time, the conflict has not only become more intense – it has also become more complicated
  • Iran factor :-
    • US administration’s collision course with Iran is another hurdle to realising its South Asia policy. Iran is a neighbour to both Afghanistan and Pakistan, and any action against Tehran will have consequences on the region. 
    • US is also against Iran which is important to give access to the sea to landlocked Afghanistan through Chabahar port- which is in India’s interests etc.
  • Islamic state:-
    • After losing occupied territories in and around Mosul, IS is now slowly enlarging its presence in neighbouring countries, particularly Afghanistan. It is now targeting mainly the Shias and the Hazara minority, joining forces with the Taliban thereby changing the dynamics of the war in Afghanistan.
  • Russia:-
    • Russia proposed an international conference on Afghanistan with the participation of all neighbours of Afghanistan including Iran, Pakistan, and India, but the US did not attend citing possible growing Russian military association with the Taliban. 
  • Control of Afghan government:-
    • The Afghan government controls barely half the country, with one-sixth under Taliban control and the rest contested.
    • Most significant is the ongoing depletion in the Afghan security forces because of casualties, desertions and a growing reluctance to join
    • Afghanistan launched the Kabul Process for Peace and Security Cooperation and also made an unconditional dialogue offer to the Taliban. The Taliban rejected his overture, declaring that they were ready to engage in direct talks only with the Americans.
  • Indian interests would be hurt :-
  • More fighting and political instability in Afghanistan would be damaging, as much for Indian interests as for regional stability.
  • Delhi is concerned about the vital role that all the powers are giving to Pakistan. Iran and Russia, two of India’s closest allies during the Northern Alliance’s battle against the Taliban regime in the 1990s, seem out of sync with Indian interests.
  • An emboldened Taliban is sure to impinge on security scenario in India’s troubled Kashmir Valley. The outfit seems positioned to emerge as the ideological bulwark of Kashmir’s renewed insurgency.
  • US criticism of India’s Afghan policy and his plans to exit could cast serious doubt on the US’s role as a strategic ally for India. 

What should India do:-

  • India must focus on assisting Afghanistan in every manner possible to ensure that the country’s elections are as peaceful and participative as possible. 
  • On the military front as well, India must move quickly to provide helicopters as well as engineering/tech support for Afghan hardware. 
  • Indian  government must realise that its consistent undermining of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) because of problems with Pakistan is also weakening Afghanistan’s engagement with the subcontinent, which India had worked hard to foster
  • For regional security there must be closer involvement of regional powers in international efforts to ensure non-interference and a stable Afghanistan; this also requires involvement of the Central Asian Republics, which border Afghanistan. It is important for India to coordinate its efforts with those of Russia and Iran to ensure success.

Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

4) India spends abysmally low on healthcare and there is a need to increase expenditure on the preventive healthcare front. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

The article breaks down India’s healthcare expenditure and compares it with some other countries. It also provides us useful insights into the preventive healthcare spending in India.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue of low healthcare spending by India and bring out the need to increase resource allocation towards health sector in general and preventive healthcare in particular.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about India’s Healthcare spending. E.g At present, India’s  health spending is only 1.15-1.5% of GDP.

Body-

  1. discuss about the health expenditure of India in detail. E.g
  • Despite several innovations in the healthcare sector in recent times, in line with India’s relentless pursuit of reforms, the government remains woefully short of its ambition to increase public health spending to 2.5% of GDP.
  • According to the National Health Profile of 2018, public per capita expenditure on health increased from ₹621 in 2009-10 to ₹1,112 in 2015-16.
  • Despite the doubling of per capita expenditure on health over six years, the figure is still abysmal.
  • U.S.’s health expenditure is 18% of GDP, while India’s is still under 1.5%. I
  • The ₹6,400 crore allocation to Ayushman Bharat-PMJAY in the Interim Budget will help reduce out-of-pocket expenditure on health, which is at a massive 67%.
  1. bring out the need to increase our expenditure on health specially on preventive Healthcare. E.g
  • A focused approach in adding tax on tobacco and alcohol, to fund non-communicable disease prevention strategies at health and wellness centres, should be considered.
  • Cancer screening and prevention are not covered. There is no resource allocation for preventive oncology, diabetes and hypertension.
  • Prevention of chronic kidney disease, which affects 15-17% of the population, is not appropriately addressed.
  • Due to lack of focus in preventive oncology in India, over 70% of cancers are diagnosed in stages III or IV. The reverse is true in developed countries. Consequently, the cure rate is low, the death rate is high, and treatment of advanced cancer costs three-four times more than treatment of early cancer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • According to the National Health Profile of 2018, public per capita expenditure on health increased from ₹621 in 2009-10 to ₹1,112 in 2015-16. Despite the doubling of per capita expenditure on health over six years, India’s  health spending is only 1.15-1.5% of GDP even in the recent interim budget only 2.2.% is allocated to healthcare.
  • preventive healthcare segment today is on a rising curve wherein the Indian market size is estimated to be worth over $55 billion, which is likely to become a $106-billion opportunity by 2022.

India has neglected preventive healthcare:-

  • As many as 68 per cent of urban Indians do not practice preventive healthcare at an early stage, when they do not suffer from lifestyle disorders.
  • There is no resource allocation for preventive oncology, diabetes and hypertension. Prevention of chronic kidney disease, which affects 15-17% of the population, is not appropriately addressed.
  • The progressive nature of asymptomatic chronic kidney disease leads to enormous social and economic burden for the community at large, in terms of burgeoning dialysis and transplant costs which will only see an exponential rise in the next decade
  • Due to lack of focus in preventive oncology in India, over 70% of cancers are diagnosed in stages III or IV. The reverse is true in developed countries.
    • Consequently, the cure rate is low, the death rate is high, and treatment of advanced cancer costs three-four times more than treatment of early cancer.
  • The standard health insurance policies cover cancer but only part of the treatment cost. As a consequence, either out-of-pocket expenditure goes up or patients drop out of treatment.

 

Why there is a need for increasing  expenditure on preventive healthcare:-

  • India’s disease profile has changed drastically from communicable to non-communicable diseases in the past few years, which accounts for almost 60% of deaths in the country. These diseases are preventable, even after having a strong genetic connect, provided prevention is the focus.
  • Through the preventive measures, the resources our country can spare for health can be maximized, thus covering a larger section of people
  • NITI Aayog has proposed higher taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food in order to revamp the public and preventive health system. This has not found its way into the Interim Budget.
  • Advanced diagnostics offer in-depth insights into the human body and can detect signs of disease and aging much before they start manifesting in the body as markers of chronic disease. 
  • Preventive healthcare is indeed the purest form of anti-aging because it can allow people to ensure that the processes of biological aging affect them slowly and minimally.
  • Given how skewed the doctor-patient ratio is in India, taking care of one’s health becomes even more important. This is where preventive care becomes relevant.
  • Preventive healthcare has helped consumers in making consistent choices and taking positive action on health, diet and lifestyle in order to stay fit.
  • Adopting preventive care techniques like home monitoring allows patients to keep a close eye on their health and ensure that symptoms do not go out of control

Way forward:-

  • A focused approach in adding tax on tobacco and alcohol, to fund non-communicable disease prevention strategies at health and wellness centres, should be considered.
  • For various diseases, allocation should be realigned for disease management over a defined time period, not merely for episodes of care. Since a major innovation in universal healthcare, Ayushman Bharat, is being rolled out, it must be matched with a quantum leap in funding.

Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5) The decision to provide financial rewards for publication in science journals and patents is fraught with problems. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The government has recently hiked the research fellowship for the phd students in India. The government has also decided to link the incentives paid to the research fellows with the number of publications in international or national journals. In this context it is important to discuss whether such incentives will help India’s research sector.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question what is this to write in detail about the linking of incentives for research with the number of publications and bring out how this move is fraught with problems.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent decision of the government to hike research fellowships and putting forward the idea of linking incentives with publications and patents.

Body-

Discuss how the decision to provide financial rewards for publication in science journals and patents is fraught with problems. E.g

  • It could lead to increase in unethical research practices and frauds by researchers, which already has an ignominious record in this area and has no nodal body to address scientific frauds and unethical practices.
  • It is worth remembering that though the University Grants Commission’s intent to introduce Academic Performance Indicators was good, APIs were largely responsible for the spike in predatory journals published from India.
  • There is little guarantee that the reward system based on publication will not lead to further erosion in the quality of science research in India.
  • In addition, giving greater rewards for publication in international journals makes no sense as international journals are not uniformly superior in quality to Indian ones. Similarly, some Indian journals are better than international ones despite having a low impact factor.
  • By giving 60% lower stipend to students publishing in Indian journals, the government will unwittingly be widening the gap between Indian and international journals, which will be self-destructive in the long run.
  • “majority of patents are ‘biodata’ patents” and are “filed for the sake of filing without any techno-commercial and legal evaluation”. In such a scenario, a financial incentive for patent-filing will only exacerbate the problem.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Recently Ministry of Science and Technology increased the fellowship stipend for PhD students by nearly 25%. 
  • A one-time financial reward of Rs.50,000 and Rs.20,000 has been recommended for papers published in international and Indian journals respectively. And an incentive of Rs.1,00,000 on obtaining an India or international patent.

Providing financial rewards is a bad idea :-

  • International experience:-
    • Based on experience in China ,providing financial rewards led to an unprecedented increase in unethical research practices and frauds committed by Chinese researchers.
    • This could also happen in India as there is no nodal body to address scientific frauds and unethical practices.
  • There is little guarantee that the reward system based on publication will not lead to further erosion in the quality of science research in India.
  • Giving greater rewards for publication in international journals makes no sense as international journals are not uniformly superior in quality to Indian ones. While Nature, Science, Cell and The Lancet are prestigious, there are many journals which are of poor quality. Similarly, some Indian journals are better than international ones despite having a low impact factor.
  • By giving 60% lower stipend to students publishing in Indian journals, the government will unwittingly be widening the gap between Indian and international journals, which will be self-destructive in the long run.
  • With hundreds of papers being published each year, it is debatable whether the government will be able to provide incentives given that research labs have reportedly been facing a fund crunch of late.
  • Majority of patents are ‘biodata’ patents and had been filed for the sake of filing without any techno-commercial and legal evaluation”. In such a scenario, a financial incentive for patent-filing will only exacerbate the problem.
  • It is worth remembering that though the University Grants Commission’s intent to introduce Academic Performance Indicators was good, APIs were largely responsible for the spike in predatory journals published from India.
  • Cost for filing patent is very high as compared to incentive given. Incentives can go waste if patent does not turn into product which is mostly Majority of patents in India are filed without any technical legal evaluation .

Way forward:-

  • The Indian government must immediately make research and publishing optional for all teachers except for those at teaching-cum-research institutions and research centres. This will limit or may even nearly end publishing in predatory journals. 
  • Encouraging quality over quantity of patents is necessary.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

6) Discuss the role of the Central Reserve Police Force in protecting India’s security.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role and responsibilities of the Central reserve police Force in protecting India’s security.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  CRPF. e.g The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December 1949.

Body-

Discuss in points the role and responsibilities of the CRPF. E.g

  • Crowd control
  • Riot control
  • Counter Militancy / Insurgency operations.
  • Dealing with Left Wing Extremism
  • Overall coordination of large scale security arrangement especially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.
  • Protection of VIPs and vital installations.
  • Checking environmental degradation and protection of local Flora and Fauna
  • Fighting aggression during War time
  • Participating in UN Peacekeeping Mission
  • Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Background:

  • CRPF is the largest central armed police force or paramilitary force in India.
  • The CRPF was set up in 1939
  • Its main job is to assist the State Police or Union Territory Police in maintaining law and order.
  • The Mahila Battalion (88thBattalion of CRPF) commissioned on March 30, 1986, is the world’s first paramilitary force comprised entirely of women.
  • It is All India in character, both in deployment and in its composition. Due to its unique capability to quickly adapt to various situational requirements, and also, to work in perfect harmony with the State Police, CRPF has, over the years, acquired the distinction of being perhaps the most acceptable Force, by the people and the State administrations.

Role of CRPF:-

  • The CRPF looks after the internal security in every part of the county.
  • They are also tasked to watch over Naxal operations, assisting the states and union territories in police operations to maintain law and order and helping with the UN peace-keeping missions. 
  • Crowd control
  • Riot control
  • Counter Millitancy / Insurgency operations.
  • Dealing with Left Wing Extremism
  • Overall co-ordination of large scale security arrangement specially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.
  • Protection of VIPs and vital installations.
  • Checking environmental de-gradation and protection of local Flora and Fauna
  • Fighting aggression during War time
  • Participating in UN Peace Keeping Mission
  • Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities.
  • Besides Law and Order and counter insurgency duties, the role of CRPF in the General Elections, held repeatedly during the past few years, has been very significant and vital. This is especially true for the trouble torn States of J&K, Bihar and States of NorthEast. During the Parliamentary elections & State Assembly Election , the CRPF played a major role in the security arrangements.
  • One of the vital roles of the CRPF, which is not very evident, is guarding vital Central Govt. installations such as Airport, Powerhouses, Bridges, Doordarshan Kendras, All India Radio Stations, residence of Governors and Chief Ministers, Nationalised Banks and other Government establishments in insurgency affected States.
  • Role of CRPF In Kashmir:-
    • CRPF is the biggest paramilitary force present in the Kashmir Valley.
    • Their basic role is maintenance of law and order, conducting operations based on intelligence, and providing law and order support to Army operations.
    • After an operation has been concluded, it is the job of the CRPF to manage angry, stone-pelting crowds. More than 60,000 CRPF personnel are deployed across the state.

Topic -Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

7) Discuss the wartime and peacetime role of Border Security Forces of India. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role of BAF in protecting India’s sovereignty and integrity in terms of its role during wartime and peacetime.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  BSF. E.g Till 1965 India’s borders with Pakistan were manned by the State Armed Police Battalion. A series of attacks from Pakistan exposed the inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed aggression. As a result of the recommendations of the Committee of Secretaries, the Border Security Force came into existence on 01 Dec 1965.

Body-

  1. Discuss the wartime roles of the BSF. E.g
  • Holding ground in less threatened sectors so long as the main attack does not develop in a particular sector and it is felt that the local situation is within the capability of BSF to deal with.
  • Protection of vital installations particular air-fields against enemy commandos/para troopers or raids.
  • Providing extension to the flanks of main defence line by the holding of strong points in conjunction with other units.
  • Limited Aggressive action against para military or irregular forces of the enemy within the overall plan of the Armed Forces .
  • Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including raids.
  • Guarding of prisoners of war cages
  • Assistance in control of refugees etc.
  1. Discuss the peacetime role of the BSF. E.g
  • Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
  • Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.
  • Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Considering the vastness of India and its border, different border guarding forces are deployed.
  • BSF is responsible for guarding India-Pakistan and India-Bangladesh borders.
  • BSF is a paramilitary force under home ministry responsible for guarding India’s land border during peace time and preventing transnational crime.
  • BSF currently stands as the world’s largest border guarding force with 186 battalions and 2.57 lakh personnel including an expanding air wing, marine wing, artillery regiments, and commando units.

Role:-

  • Peace time:
    • Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
    • Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India
    • Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.
    • In 2017 Border Security Force (BSF) personnel detected a cross-border tunnel in the forest area of Damala nullah in Jammu’s Arnia sub-sector.
    • BSF personnel have been performing Internal Security Duty in Manipur for the last two years and have been successfully fighting insurgency in those areas.
    • During the earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, the BSF was the first to reach out to help the distressed people and during the communal disturbances BSF personnel went all out to restore amity and brotherhood among the people.
    • The BSF took over the erection of the border fencing in Jammu & Kashmir
    • The BSF has been defending the borders along with the army and checking infiltration on the borders during the current standoff with Pakistan.
  • War Time:
    • Holding ground in less threatened sectors so long as the main attack does not develop in a particular sector
      • The BSF units can continue to remain deployed in particular sector even in a war situation to release the Army for offensive tasks.  In the even of a major attack developing, which is not within the capacity of the BSF to deal with, the Army can be expected either to reinforce the BSF with Artillery or other support, or relieve the BSF from its role in the particular sector.
    • Protection of vital installations particular air-fields against enemy commandoes/para troopers or raids.  
    • Providing extension to the flanks of main defence line by the holding of strong points in conjunction with other units.
    • Limited Aggressive action against para military or irregular forces of the enemy within the overall plan of the Armed Forces .
    • Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including raids.  These are tasks which might be entrusted to BSF Units by the Army in a war situation according to local necessity.  It would, however, be expected that the state of training and equipment of the particular BSF Units would be kept in view in assessing their adequacy for the tasks.
    • Acting as guides in an area of responsibility where routes are known. This is a task which the BSF should be able to perform.
    • Maintenance of law and order in enemy territory administrated under the control of Army. Normally, ordinary civil police force would be utilised for this task but the BSF could be used to supplement the civil police or to act in lieu thereof in a situation where civil police is not readily available. 
    • Provision of escorts.
    • Guarding of prisoners of war cages
    • Assistance in control of refugees. It is the intention to utilise civil police force and armed Home Guards etc. for these tasks but again depending upon local exigencies, the BSF might be entrusted with these tasks.
    • Anti – infiltration duties in specified area. This is an important responsibility which will have to be performed by security forces.  The exact responsibility of the BSF in this matter is still under consideration and separate instructions are expected to be issued.
    • During the Kargil conflict in 1999, the BSF remained on the heights of the mountains and defended the integrity of the country with all the might at its command in unison with the Army