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2) Discuss how Swachh Bharat changed India and became a global inspiration?(250 words)

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Discuss how Swachh Bharat changed India and became a global inspiration?(250 words)


Why this question

The news that On the lines of Swachh Bharat mission Nigeria President Muhammadu Buhari declared a state of emergency and launched a new National Action Plan for the sector. It is said that imitation is the highest form of flattery and the news calls for assessing the impact of SBM both domestically and globally.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss in brief about SBM, examine in detail the benefits accrued by the mission both domestically and internationally. Thereafter it expects is to highlight the reasons behind the Nigerian government’s decision and give our view on the success of SBM.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the Swachh Bharat Mission


  • Discuss the domestic impact of SBM
    • The SBM has transformed into a massive ‘Jan Andolan’ created on the ground using information, education, and communication, aiming to bring behaviour change.
    • Since the inception of the program, the rural sanitation coverage of India has increased significantly, from 39% in October 2014 to 95% today. Nearly 8.7 crore household toilets have been constructed under the Mission.
    • As a result, almost 25 States/Union Territories, 529 districts, and 5,09,067 villages have declared themselves as free from open defecation.
    • National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) conducted under the World Bank support project found that 93.4% of the households in rural India who have access to a toilet use it, confirming that behaviour change is happening on the ground etc
    • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 6.1 and 6.2 deals with water and sanitation respectively in which SBM is playing a massive role
  • Highlight about Nigeria’s decision to take learnings from the implementation of the programme in India
    • Experts are worried that Nigeria may overtake India as number one in open defecation.
    • Country made several efforts towards improving access to sanitation such adoption of the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach to scale up sanitation in rural areas. National and sub-national specific roadmaps were developed on lines of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    • Many developing countries share similar challenges to India which makes Indian experience in this area invaluable – large population, decentralised government structure and WASH challenges. Etc
  • Discuss about the limitations of the mission in India which these countries should be wary of

Conclusion – give your view and discuss way forward.