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1) What was the third battle of Panipat all about? Examine whether the battle had distinctly religious undertones? What were the consequences of the battle?(250 words)

Topic: Modern Indian History.

1) What was the third battle of Panipat all about? Examine whether the battle had distinctly religious undertones? What were the consequences of the battle?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article examines the 3rd battle of Panipat and discusses whether the battle had only religious undertones. It discusses the impact of the battle and the parallels that can be drawn in current times. The article gives us an opportunity for us to revise the battle and its impacts.

Key demand of the question

The demand of the question is clearly spent out in the question. We need to answer the three parts of the question in sequence.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Body – Highlight the stakeholders in the battle and its outcome.

  • Highlight the details of the battle – who were involved, causes of the battle and the outcome
  • Examine whether the battle was solely motivated by religious reasons
    • The combined army of Durrani and his allies were numerically superior to the Maratha army. Shuja-ud-daulah’s support also proved decisive as he provided the necessary finances for the Afghans’ long stay in northern India.
    • The century saw an array of social movements, organised around religion, community articulations, and agrarian expansion, often crystallising into coherent political entities. It was a period made for political adventurism, with shifting alliances making any political calculation virtually impossible.
    • In terms of realpolitik, what mattered was the steady growth of Maratha power northward, in the form of both territorial control as well as mediation in matters of deciding succession in regional states. Maratha operations were not especially well received — for example, by Jat ruler Surajmal.
    • Durrani chief was able to enlist the support of several malcontents (the Rohilla chief, the Nawab of Awadh) and most impressively, of the warrior ascetics, the Naga sanyasis and Gosains etc
  • Discuss the impact of the battle
    • More than anything, the Marathas’ inability to persuade the Rajputs, Jats and Sikhs to fight on their side proved fatal for the Marathas and such divisions allowed the east India company to establish their dominance
    • Battle of Panipat temporarily halted the Maratha advance, and enabled the East India Company to maintain a low profile for a while, consolidate its early gains in Bengal, and subsequently make a strong bid for supremacy in the subcontinent.

Conclusion – Give your view on the impact of the third battle of Panipat on modern Indian history.

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