Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 February 2019

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance
and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information,
Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery,
Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.


General Studies – 1


Topic– World History

1) The impact of the Islamic Revolution of 1979 does not sit well with the current demography of Iran. Analyze. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

February 2019 marks the 40th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, one of the major events of the 20th century and a momentous development in the modern history of Islam. Thus it is important to revise the impact, causes and the current implications of the Iranian revolution.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the impact of the Iranian revolution and highlight why the current demography of Iran is dissatisfied with the turn their country has taken.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the Islamic revolution of 1979 – Iranian Revolution of 1978–79, also called Islamic Revolution, popular uprising in Iran in 1978–79 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on February 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an Islamic republic.

Body

  • Discuss the impact of the Iranian revolution
    • Polity – Constitution provides political legitimacy to “God” and the divine law given in the Koran. What began as an authentic and anti-dictatorial popular revolution based on a broad coalition of all anti-Shah forces was soon transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist power-grab.
    • Society – brought a reversal in the trend of secularization. There was a clear emphasis on Islam as the centre of governance has profound effects on Iran’s societal fabric. The 1979 Islamic Constitution resulted in a shift of the legal system from a secular to religious orientation.
    • Role of extra and quasi judicial authorities
  • Examine the current undercurrent of protests that is causing disillusionment of the young demography of Iran
    • tensions between republicanism and authoritarianism
    • tensions between two concepts of sovereignty — the divine and popular
    • Despite the forceful post-revolutionary imposition of Islamic values and ways of living and the insertion of cultural politics into the everyday lives of young Iranians in the name of Islamic purity, the Iranian youth — especially young women — have not identified with the conservative values of the Islamic regime.
    • The issues of joblessness, lack of social and political freedom etc which affect the young demography of Iran

Conclusion – Give your view of the discontent with the aftermath of revolution and the way forward.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes.

2) Explain the factors that contribute to the success of Ujjwala scheme and also highlight the lessons that should be drawn from its implementation so far?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article highlights the success of Ujjwala scheme in terms of the number of beneficiaries it has managed to cover, the efficiency of the public and private sector in implementing the scheme. The article also throws light on the learnings that can be drawn from the scheme and the way forward.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the impact of the scheme, highlight the reasons that have caused the scheme to be successful, the learnings that can be drawn from the scheme and discuss way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the Ujjwala scheme.

Body

  • Highlight the successes of the scheme
    • The scheme took the household coverage from about 56% to about 81% in just three years.
    • Despite being a social scheme, the delivery was cost-effective with numbers indicating about ₹1,600 spend per beneficiary.
    • Ujjwala has empowered women and protected them and their families through the use of clean burning fuel. It is helping prevent a significant number of acute respiratory illnesses caused by indoor air pollution.
  • Discuss the factors which helped in successful implementation
    • Ujjwala scheme was possible only because of the robust foundation created by the subsidy payment scheme, direct benefits transfer (DBT), which was another significant achievement of the government.
    • The coordination showed between private and public sector also helped in efficiency delivery
  • Discuss the lessons that can be learnt from the implementation of the scheme
    • Aggregation of demand from low-demand areas using technology, servicing them by vehicles that also carry other goods, and using private sector services may be a solution.
    • Tech-enabled, Aadhaar-based micro-financing may help bridge the finance gap for refill purchase.
    • The possibility of avoiding full payment, as subsidy follows immediately, can be explored in case of digital payments as the payer’s credentials are established while paying.
    • Refill bookings need to become easy and quicker by making the interface simpler, including possibly by voice

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.

 


Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

3) Critically examine the effectiveness of electoral bonds in ensuring transparent political funding and suggest alternatives?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the impact of the introduction of electoral bonds on making the process of electoral funding more transparent and examines the alternatives such as state funding of elections. Considering the fact that electoral funding is an issue that has long puzzled the policy makers and in light of impending elections, the issue becomes important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the electoral bonds scheme, discuss the impact of the electoral bonds on cleaning up political funding. Thereafter, the question expects us to discuss suggestions that can help in bringing in more transparency and accountability.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any . When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the electoral bonds.

Body

  • Highlight the impact that electoral bonds are having on enhancing transparency in political fundings
  • Discuss the limitations of the scheme
  • Suggest and examine alternatives such as state funding of elections and give view of past committees and ECI regarding the same

Conclusion – give your view and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Probity in Governance

4) What is probity and why is it important, Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of probity. We have to discuss at length  as to why probity is important at what purpose it serves.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  probity. E.g write a simple definition of probity- “the quality or condition of having strong moral principles, integrity, good character, honesty, decency.

Body-

  1. Discuss about probity in more detail. E.g Probity has been described as a risk management approach ensuring procedural integrity. It is concerned with procedures, processes and systems rather than outcomes.
  2. Discuss the importance and relevance of probity. E.g
  • The principles of probity, ethics and good governance operate on many levels – from, the individual, to the organisation and on to the ‘watch-dog’.
  • For individuals, probity is about understanding the limits of their authority and powers and acting within those limits. Public servants need to be conscious at all times of the need to uphold the highest standards of conduct in their dealings on the government’s behalf, which includes acting with integrity and avoiding conflicts of interest.
  • For organisations, probity is about setting values at an organisation level, and then implementing those values through policies and codes of practice.
  • It is then for managers to demonstrate those values through leadership, to positively reinforce the values and also to ensure compliance with, and enforcement of, the values etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-  challenges of corruption.

5) “Corruption is not just the clearly “bad” cases of government officials skimming off money for their own benefit. It also includes cases where the systems don’t work well, and ordinary people are left in a bind, needing to give a bribe to get a work done or the licenses they need.” Discuss how corruption affects a nation.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to Write in detail as to how corruption  affects a Nation. we have to bring out its effect on public money, Service Delivery and   governance etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-  write a few introductory lines about corruption. E.g Corruption comes under many different guises: bribery, misappropriations of public goods, nepotism (favoring family members for jobs and contracts), and influencing the formulation of laws or regulations for private gain.

Body-

Discuss how corruption affects a nation. E.g

  • Vitiates the business atmosphere and discourages businesses from operating freely;
  • thus, acts as a demotivating force, which reduces opportunities for all.  
  • Reduces the amount of money government has and degrades the quality of government services; for example education, healthcare, infrastructure, welfare programs, police, etc  
  • Is an important factor behind the widespread poverty in India. A large chunk of funds meant for the welfare programs for the poor is siphoned off by the corrupt officials and the intermediate agencies.
  • Allows criminal activities such as money laundering, extortion and drug trafficking to thrive.
  • Allows those with money or connections to bend the law or government rules in their favor etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– challenges of corruption.

6) Discuss the institutional and legal framework to deal with corruption in India. (250 words)

Reference

 

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the framework that has been in place in India to deal with corruption. We have to highlight and discuss both the institutional as well as the legal framework to deal with the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about anti-corruption measures in India. E.g India endorsed the ADB-OECD Anti-Corruption Action Plan in 2001 and ratified the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNCTOC) recently in May 2011.

Body-

  1. Discuss the institutional measures to deal with corruption in India. E.g
  • Supreme Court,
  • Central Vigilance Commission (CVC),
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI),
  • Office of the Controller & Auditor General (C&AG), and the Chief Information Commission etc.
  1. Discuss the legal framework to deal with corruption in India. E.g
  • Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
  • The Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002
  • The 2005 Right to Information (RTI) Act etc.

Discuss about these institutions and laws in further detail in order to bring out their strengths and limitations.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Utilization of public funds

7) What are the issues faced in public procurement in India. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the issues faced in public  procurement in India which ultimately lead to faulty, low quality procurement and corruption.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention that in order to realize the desired outcomes from the budgetary outlays in India, an efficient and effective public procurement system is essential where strong and consistent implementation of the prescribed rules and regulations is equally critical etc.

Body-

Discuss in points, the issues faced in public procurement in India. E.g

  • The absence of a comprehensive procurement Act
  • Lack of standard bid documents
  • Delays in activities in procurement cycle
  • Unfair practices and corruption
  • Presence of anti-competitive elements
  • Low participation of the domestic MSEs
  • Absence of an independent grievance redressal mechanism etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 [jetpack_subscription_form]