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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 February 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.


General Studies – 1


Topic–  poverty and developmental issues

1) Discuss the social benefits derived from Ujjwala scheme?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the details of the Ujjwala scheme and its significance in terms of alleviating the issues faced by rural women. The social benefits of the scheme are immense which is highlighted in the article. Since Ujjwala scheme has been touted as one of the major achievements of the current government, the article is relevant.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the details of the scheme and discuss how it has helped positively impact the lives of rural women and other social benefits that can be derived from the scheme. Thereafter, it expects us to discuss the shortcomings and provide way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the Ujjwala scheme.

Body

  • Highlight that since 2014, governments have adopted a clear strategy to have city gas distribution (CGD) networks in cities and towns, under which piped natural gas (PNG) is provided to urban residents and push the LPG resources to rural areas. The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) was launched in May 2016 with the objective of providing free LPG connections to 50 million women belonging to below poverty line (BPL) households over a period of three years.
  • Discuss the impact of the scheme
    • Ujjwala has empowered women and protected them and their families through the use of clean burning fuel. It is helping prevent a significant number of acute respiratory illnesses caused by indoor air pollution. Research has also shown that people using solid biomass frequently suffer from headaches, nausea, and chronic bronchitis
    • Saves time and hassle for the women so that they become more socially and economically productive
    • Helps save women from sexual harassment
  • Discuss the challenges such as the issue of non repeat users and highlight that behavioral change requires time

Conclusion – give your view and highlight the way forward including that targeting under the scheme must be expanded.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2) Critically analyze the Witness protection scheme with respect to its intended objectives?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The SC has asked the states to implement the WPS till Parliament comes out with legislation in this matter. The measure would serve an important purpose and the article analyzes its effectiveness.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the witness protection scheme and analyze its pros and cons with respect to its effectiveness. Thereafter we need to provide a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight why the issue is in news.

Body

  • Discuss the details of the witness protection scheme
    • The scheme envisages that there should be safeguards that witnesses and accused do not come face to face during investigation or trial and adequate security measures should be there for the safety of the witnesses.
    • The scheme provides for identity protection and giving a new identity to the witness.
    • As per the scheme, police escort will be provided to witnesses who are threatened and, if needed, they would be relocated to a safe house.
    • Witness deposition complexes will be set up in all district courts by the states and union territories within a year where the witnesses could fearlessly depose against the high and mighty without coming face-to-face with the accused.
    • Three categories of witnesses
  • Evaluate the scheme with respect to its effectiveness
    • WPS relies heavily on concealing the identity of witnesses and undertaking a detailed threat analysis report, to be prepared by the police. Both things look quite uncertain in the present context. Given the way the police and prosecution work in this country, the idea of hiding the identity of a witness as a measure of protection does not seem to be practical
    • The scheme is the first attempt at the national-level to holistically provide for the protection of the witnesses, which will go a long way in eliminating secondary victimization.
    • This scheme attempts at ensuring that witnesses receive appropriate and adequate protection. It also strengthens the criminal justice system in the country and will consequently enhance national security scenario.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

3) Discuss the impact of intensive agriculture on insect population of the world?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review. The articles talks about this alarming possibility and its impact.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the impact of agricultural on insect population and what it means to have a rapidly declining insect population. Thereafter, we need to discuss what needs to be done and the debate over using insecticides and pesticides in agriculture.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that human activities are causing several irreparable changes to earth and now studies have highlighted the grave threat to insect population.

Body

  • Explain that The study, ‘Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers’, has been published in the journal, Biological Conservation. Researchers discovered that over 40 per cent of insect species could go extinct in the next few decades — this extinction rate is eight times faster than that of mammals, birds and reptiles. Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and dung beetles (Coleoptera) are the taxa most affected.
  • Explain the causes such as Intensive agriculture, agro-chemical pollutants, invasive species and climate change are listed as significant triggers
  • Discuss the debate over the use of insecticides and pesticides in agriculture and what needs to be done.

Conclusion – give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

4) “Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development.” Discuss Kautilya’s views.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the ill effects of corruption and how it leads to maladministration and obstructs justice by explaining kautilya’s view on corruption and how it can be controlled.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what do you mean by corruption.

Body

  • Highlight the ill-effects of corruption and how it acts as a termite that makes a nation hollow
  • Discuss kautilya’s view on corruption
    • Kautilyan bureaucracy was a highly centralized merit based system entrusted with important functions including the responsibility of revenue assessment and collection.
    • Corruption is inevitable
    • Detection is difficult
    • Kautilya suggests steps to find out any embezzlement of funds. He says when there is a decrease in the revenue collection (the government functionary might be misappropriating funds).
    • Discuss the remedies he suggested
  • Draw parallel of kautilya’s view on current climate and how his solutions offer a way out

Conclusion – Highlight that just as kautilya suggested, corruption should have a no tolerance policy.


Topic-  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

5) Businesses and companies of today have a lot to learn from the exemplary ruler of India, Ashoka’s life. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the life philosophy and practice of King Ashoka’s life and bring out what are the lessons that businesses of today can learn from his life.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Ashoka- his rule over a huge area, Kalinga war and his Dhamma.

Body-

Discuss what lessons can today’s businesses learn from the life of King Ashoka. E.g

  • King Asoka encouraged generosity towards the poor, ascetics, Brahmins, friends and relatives.Today most of the Companies are involved with Charity work. But are they really interested in doing good or is it a way of profiting their companies?
  • Asoka encouraged harmlessness towards all beings. If you are in an industry of providing meat you might want to consider the well-being of those animals who give life for others consumption. Animal cruelty and environmental degradation is not something we should tolerate as a society or humans.
  • Asoka recommended qualities of;

a) Kindness

b) Self-Examination

c) Truthfulness

d) Gratitude

e) Purity of Heart

f) Enthusiasm

g) Loyalty

h) Self-control

 

These guide lines not only can create a workable political philosophy of a country but a healthy workplace.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.  

 


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6)Implementing the “Dasa Raja Dharma” by Ashoka, paved the way for a philanthropic and tolerant administration. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Dasa Raja Dharma and its implementation by Ashoka. We have to discuss about the principles in detail and enlist them and bring out how they contributed towards philanthropic and tolerant administration.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  Dasa Raja Dharma. E.g It means- Ten principles of Buddhist governance, and mention about how Ashoka adopted those principles in his rule.

Body-

  1. Discuss about those ten principles. E.g

1.To be liberal and avoid selfishness

  1. To maintain a high moral character
  2. To be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects
  3. To be honest and maintain absolute integrity
  4. To be kind and gentle etc.
  1. Discuss about Ashoka’s administration and how these principles were brought into practice. E.g
  • Building hospitals, roads, wells etc.
  • Practicing tolerance and promoting all religions etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Discuss the relevance of the teachings of Lord Mahavira, in the contemporary world. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the teachings of the great Indian spirit, Lord Mahavira and bring out their relevance for the present times.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Lord Mahavira. E.g mention the relationship with jainism etc.

Body-

Discuss in points the teachings of Lord Mahavira and their relevance in contemporary world. E.g

  • According to Lord Mahavira to remain attached to sensuous objects is to remain in the whirl.
  • He says “Misery is gone in the case of a man who has no delusion, while delusion is gone in the case of a man who has no desire, desire is gone in the case of a man who has no greed, while greed is gone in the case of a man who has no attachment.”
  • The efforts made to satisfy the human desires through material objects can be likened to the chopping off of the branches while watering the roots.
  • Thus we can conclude that the lust for and the attachment towards the objects or worldly pleasure is the sole cause of human suffering- degradation of traditional morality, environment and quality of life.
  • In Jainism non-violence is the pivot on which its whole ethics revolves.
  • For Jains violence represents all the vices and non-violence represents all the virtues. Non-violence is not a single virtue but it is a group of virtues.
  • Non-violence is nothing but to treat all living beings as equal. The concept of equality is the core of the theory of nonviolence. The preaching of non-violence is to honor the each and every form of life.
  • According to Jaina point of view, all the barriers of caste, creed and color are artificial. All the human beings have an equal right to lead a peaceful life etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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