Topic- Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
5) Kant’s moral philosophy is entwined with his political philosophy. Discuss.(250 words)
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to write in detail about the Kant’s philosophy and describe in detail about the important views of Kant on moral philosophy and political philosophy and the relation between the two.
Structure of the answer
Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Kant. e.g mention that the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) can be divided into two major branches- theoretical and practical. Both of these branches have been enormously influential in the subsequent history of philosophy.
Discuss in points the Kant’s philosophy and how his thoughts on moral and political philosophy are intertwined. E.g
- His theoretical philosophy, which includes metaphysics, is based on the rational understanding of the concept of nature.
- The second, his practical philosophy, comprising ethics and political philosophy, is based on the concept of freedom.
- According to Kant, ethics, like metaphysics, is a priori, meaning that our moral duty is determined independently of empirical considerations. Kant’s ethics can therefore be contrasted with ethical views such as utilitarianism that hold that the morality of acts is derived from their consequences. In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant outlines his fundamental ethical principle, which he calls the “categorical imperative.”
- The moral principle is “imperative” because it commands, and it is “categorical” because it does so unconditionally, that is, irrespective of the particular inclinations and circumstances of the actor.
- Freedom, for Kant, is thus not the “freedom” to follow one’s inclinations. Instead, freedom implies morality, and morality implies freedom.
- Kant is critical of political thinkers, such as Machiavelli, who believe that amoral or immoral means are permissible in politics. Still, although Kant argues that morality is obligatory in politics, he does not believe that people’s actual political behavior is controlled by duty.
- Kant does not argue merely that individuals enter the state or social contract for prudential reasons, because their interests are best served by the state, but also that we have an obligation to respect human freedom, and this requires us to create a Rechtsstaat if one does not already exist etc.
Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.