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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 08 February 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate


General Studies – 1


Topic– Effects of globalization on Indian society

1) Critically analyze whether globalisation accelerated language shift in India?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the impact of globalisation on the indigenous language and whether globalisation promotes uniformity in languages which affect the linguistic diversity in the country.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the impact of globalisation is manifolds.

Body

  • Explain that globalisation has had multiple impacts and one of the impact it is said to have is standardization of language.
  • Discuss that globalisation leads to the promotions of a global language which is English and give arguments that linguistic diversity of India has been impacted
  • Highlight that still the nature of country is such , and the constitutional protections are such that linguistic diversity is not impacted.

Conclusion – Based on arguments made above, give a fair and balanced opinion on the impact of globalisation on linguistic diversity.

 


Topic– changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2) Examine the impact of climate change on Himalayan rivers?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

A recent report highlighting the threat to Himalayan glaciers and consequently to the Himalayan rivers needs to be discussed in greater detail. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the report which highlights the impact of climate change on Himalayan rivers and examine the consequences. Finally, we need to discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain that Himalayan glaciers feed Himalayan rivers which are under threat.

Body

  • Discuss the details of the report
    • cording to the Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment Report, more than a third of the Himalayan glaciers could melt away by 2100, even if carbon emissions are dramatically cut and global warming limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The situation would be even more erilous if governments fail to limit greenhouses gases as promised
  • Explain the impact of it – HKH glaciers that the major rivers of South Asia and China have their origin. These sustain over 240 million people living in the HKH region’s mountains and hills and some 1.5 billion people living in river basins fed by waters from the HKH’s glaciers. Melting glaciers of the HKH region would therefore impact the lives and livelihoods of almost a fifth of the world’s population. Changes in river flows could not only cause more erosion and landslides in the mountains but also destroy dams and impact hydropower production. Etc
  • discuss  how to deal with this crisis

Conclusion – Emphasize on the seriousness of the threat and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic-India and its neighborhood relations

3) India needs to reassess it’s policy choices in Afghanistan. Analyze. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The decision of United States to withdraw from Afghanistan and change the terms of negotiations, and India’s absence from the high table of nations who are involved in discussions over the future of peace process in Afghanistan has huge strategic ramifications for India and the article looks at these points in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the status quo with respect to the developments in Afghanistan, examine impact of USA’s withdrawal from Afghanistan , discuss India’s strategy for Afghanistan and give a way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the recent US announcement to withdraw troops from Afghanistan and regarding negotiations with Taliban.

Body

  • Explain what the issue is about
  • Discuss the ramification of withdrawing from Afghanistan and negotiations with Taliban.
  • Examine the impact on India – developments in Afghanistan closely related to strategic security of India, India has had a stake in the peace process of Afghanistan etc
  • Highlight that the fact that India’s presence on the negotiation table with Afghanistan is feeble has issues for India
  • Examine what should India’s strategy be

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health

4) India spends abysmally low on healthcare and there is a need to increase expenditure on the preventive healthcare front. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

The article breaks down India’s healthcare expenditure and compares it with some other countries. It also provides us useful insights into the preventive healthcare spending in India.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue of low healthcare spending by India and bring out the need to increase resource allocation towards health sector in general and preventive healthcare in particular.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about India’s Healthcare spending. E.g At present, India’s  health spending is only 1.15-1.5% of GDP.

Body-

  1. discuss about the health expenditure of India in detail. E.g
  • Despite several innovations in the healthcare sector in recent times, in line with India’s relentless pursuit of reforms, the government remains woefully short of its ambition to increase public health spending to 2.5% of GDP.
  • According to the National Health Profile of 2018, public per capita expenditure on health increased from ₹621 in 2009-10 to ₹1,112 in 2015-16.
  • Despite the doubling of per capita expenditure on health over six years, the figure is still abysmal.
  • U.S.’s health expenditure is 18% of GDP, while India’s is still under 1.5%. I
  • The ₹6,400 crore allocation to Ayushman Bharat-PMJAY in the Interim Budget will help reduce out-of-pocket expenditure on health, which is at a massive 67%.
  1. bring out the need to increase our expenditure on health specially on preventive Healthcare. E.g
  • A focused approach in adding tax on tobacco and alcohol, to fund non-communicable disease prevention strategies at health and wellness centres, should be considered.
  • Cancer screening and prevention are not covered. There is no resource allocation for preventive oncology, diabetes and hypertension.
  • Prevention of chronic kidney disease, which affects 15-17% of the population, is not appropriately addressed.
  • Due to lack of focus in preventive oncology in India, over 70% of cancers are diagnosed in stages III or IV. The reverse is true in developed countries. Consequently, the cure rate is low, the death rate is high, and treatment of advanced cancer costs three-four times more than treatment of early cancer.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5) The decision to provide financial rewards for publication in science journals and patents is fraught with problems. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The government has recently hiked the research fellowship for the phd students in India. The government has also decided to link the incentives paid to the research fellows with the number of publications in international or national journals. In this context it is important to discuss whether such incentives will help India’s research sector.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question what is this to write in detail about the linking of incentives for research with the number of publications and bring out how this move is fraught with problems.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent decision of the government to hike research fellowships and putting forward the idea of linking incentives with publications and patents.

Body-

Discuss how the decision to provide financial rewards for publication in science journals and patents is fraught with problems. E.g

  • It could lead to increase in unethical research practices and frauds by researchers, which already has an ignominious record in this area and has no nodal body to address scientific frauds and unethical practices.
  • It is worth remembering that though the University Grants Commission’s intent to introduce Academic Performance Indicators was good, APIs were largely responsible for the spike in predatory journals published from India.
  • There is little guarantee that the reward system based on publication will not lead to further erosion in the quality of science research in India.
  • In addition, giving greater rewards for publication in international journals makes no sense as international journals are not uniformly superior in quality to Indian ones. Similarly, some Indian journals are better than international ones despite having a low impact factor.
  • By giving 60% lower stipend to students publishing in Indian journals, the government will unwittingly be widening the gap between Indian and international journals, which will be self-destructive in the long run.
  • “majority of patents are ‘biodata’ patents” and are “filed for the sake of filing without any techno-commercial and legal evaluation”. In such a scenario, a financial incentive for patent-filing will only exacerbate the problem.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

6) Discuss the role of the Central Reserve Police Force in protecting India’s security.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role and responsibilities of the Central reserve police Force in protecting India’s security.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  CRPF. e.g The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December 1949.

Body-

Discuss in points the role and responsibilities of the CRPF. E.g

  • Crowd control
  • Riot control
  • Counter Militancy / Insurgency operations.
  • Dealing with Left Wing Extremism
  • Overall coordination of large scale security arrangement especially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.
  • Protection of VIPs and vital installations.
  • Checking environmental degradation and protection of local Flora and Fauna
  • Fighting aggression during War time
  • Participating in UN Peacekeeping Mission
  • Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


 

Topic -Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

7) Discuss the wartime and peacetime role of Border Security Forces of India. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role of BAF in protecting India’s sovereignty and integrity in terms of its role during wartime and peacetime.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  BSF. E.g Till 1965 India’s borders with Pakistan were manned by the State Armed Police Battalion. A series of attacks from Pakistan exposed the inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed aggression. As a result of the recommendations of the Committee of Secretaries, the Border Security Force came into existence on 01 Dec 1965.

Body-

  1. Discuss the wartime roles of the BSF. E.g
  • Holding ground in less threatened sectors so long as the main attack does not develop in a particular sector and it is felt that the local situation is within the capability of BSF to deal with.
  • Protection of vital installations particular air-fields against enemy commandos/para troopers or raids.
  • Providing extension to the flanks of main defence line by the holding of strong points in conjunction with other units.
  • Limited Aggressive action against para military or irregular forces of the enemy within the overall plan of the Armed Forces .
  • Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including raids.
  • Guarding of prisoners of war cages
  • Assistance in control of refugees etc.
  1. Discuss the peacetime role of the BSF. E.g
  • Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
  • Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.
  • Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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