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3) Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management.(250 words)

Topic– Security challenges and their management in border areas

3) Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the challenges of border management and the strategies India has employed to tackle such challenges.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that India shares borders with several countries, a few of those countries don’t share good relations with India making the task of border management challenging.

Body

  • Discuss the challenges wrt border security
    • Undemarcated boundaries with overlapping claims cause constant friction along borders.
    • Unilateral actions by some nations to change the status quo in their favour.
    • Misuse of borders(especially porous open borders) for smuggling, illegal migration, etc.
    • Little or no support from counterparts of neighbouring nations and in some cases active support by cross border elements to illegal activities .
    • Cultural, ethnic and linguistic affinity across borders and clan loyalties
    • Multiple agencies are involved in border management, lack of Inter agency cooperation and coordination
    • Support of state and non-state actors to aid infiltration,smuggling, trafficking,etc
  • Discuss the measures taken by India to deal with such challenges
    • 24x7x365 day surveillance along Indo-Pak border with 5 layer smart fence
    • Agreement on basic guiding principles and standard operating procedures
    • Increasing confidence building measures and communication linkages to avoid unnecessary confrontation and escalation
    • Integrated border management by involving and enhancing cooperation with counterparts of neighbouring countries especially along open borders. Etc

Conclusion – Comment on the difficult nature of the task and how India has been faring so far.