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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 JANUARY 2019


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 JANUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic– Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times

1) Discuss the contributions made by scholars of ancient India in the field of medicine and mathematics?(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

Off late, there has been much debate over the developments in science and technology in ancient India. This question expects you to discuss the advancement made by Indians in the field of aforementioned fields.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the contributions of scholars of ancient India in the aforementioned fields.

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion, you need to discuss the contributions of the scholars in the fields mentioned above.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that off late there has been much discussion about the contribution made by ancient India to the field of science and technology.

Body

  • Discuss the contribution in the field of medicine
    • Diseases cures and medicines were first mentioned in Atharva veda
    • Takshila emerged as the centre of medicine and learning
    • Discuss texts such as charaksamhita and sushrutsamhita etc
  • Discuss contribution in the field of mathematics
    • Mention that apastamba in 2nd century BC introduced practical geometry involving acute angle etc
    • Discuss contribution such as decimal system, notation system etc
    • Discuss the role of books such as Surya Siddhanta etc

Conclusion – Highlight the significance of these contributions in modern times and what it says about the culture of science in the country.

Introduction:

                Ancient India was a land of sages, saints and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. The contributions that are recorded in scripts have been accepted after validation by the scientists. The claims by many academicians, politicians about such contributions in the Indian science congress of past few editions has thrown the light again on them.

Body:

Contributions in field of Mathematics:

  • In ancient India, roots to mathematics can be traced to Vedic literature, which are around 4000 years old. Between 1000 BC and 1000 AD, a number of mathematical treatises were authored in India.
  • Sulvastutra by Baudhayana mentions about ‘Pi’. This further helped in calculations of angles in triangles.
  • Will Durant, American historian (1885-1981) said that India was the mother of our philosophy of much of our mathematics.
  • It is now generally accepted that India is the birth place of several mathematical concepts, including zero, the decimal system, algebra and algorithm, square root and cube root. Zero is a numeral as well as a concept. It owes its origin to the Indian philosophy which had a concept of ‘sunya’, literal translation of which is ‘void’ and zero emerged as a derivative symbol to represent this philosophical concept. Brahmagupta in Brahmasputa Siddhantika makes a mention of zero.
  • Geometrical theories were known to ancient Indians and find display in motifs on temple walls, which are in many cases replete with mix of floral and geometric patterns. The method of graduated calculation was documented in a book named “Five Principles” (Panch-Siddhantika) which dates to 5th Century AD.
  • Algebraic theories, as also other mathematical concepts, which were in circulation in ancient India, were collected and further developed by Aryabhatta, 5th century Indian mathematician. He has referred to Algebra (as Bijaganitam) in his treatise on mathematics named
  • In 12th century, Bhaskaracharya also authored several treatises on the subject – one of them, named Siddantha Shiromani has a chapter on algebra. He is known to have given a basic idea of the Rolle’s theorem and was the first to conceive of differential calculus.
  • In 1816, James Taylor translated Bhaskaracharya’s Leelavati into English.
  • The credit for fine-tuning and internationalizing these mathematical concepts – which had originated in India – goes to the Arabs and Persians. Al-Khawarizmi, a Persian mathematician, developed a technique of calculation that became known as “algorism.”
  • The Fibonacci numbers: The Fibonacci sequence first appeared in Indian mathematics as mātrāmeru, mentioned by Pingala in connection with the Sanskrit tradition of prosody.
  • In 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, along with other mathematicians of the Kerala school, studied infinite series, convergence, differentiation, and iterative methods for solution of non-linear equations.
  • Jyestadeva of the Kerala school wrote the first calculus text, the Yuktibhasa, which explores methods and ideas of calculus repeated only in seventeenth century Europe.

Contributions in field of Medicine & Surgery:

  • Ayurveda as a science of medicine owes its origins in ancient India. Thus, the literal meaning of Ayurveda is the science of life or longevity. Ayurveda constitutes ideas about ailments and diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis and cure, and relies heavily on herbal medicines, including extracts of several plants of medicinal values. Ayurveda has also always disassociated itself with witch doctors and voodoo.
  • Ancient scholars of India like Atreya, and Agnivesa have dealt with principles of Ayurveda as long back as 800 BC. Their works and other developments were consolidated by Charaka who compiled a compendium of Ayurvedic principles and practices in his treatise Charaka-Samahita, which remained like a standard textbook almost for 2000 years and was translated into many languages, including Arabic and Latin.
  • In ancient India, several advances were also made in the field of medical surgery. Specifically these advances included areas like plastic surgery, extraction of catracts, and even dental surgery. Roots to the ancient Indian surgery go back to at least circa 800 BC. Shushruta, a medical theoretician and practitioner, lived 2000 years before, in the ancient Indian city of Kasi, now called Varanasi. He wrote a medical compendium called ‘Shushruta-Samahita’. Matters like rhinoplasty (plastic surgery) and ophthalmology (ejection of cataracts). The compendium also focuses on the study the human anatomy by using a dead body.
  • Yoga is a system of exercise for physical and mental nourishment. Since Vedic times, thousands of years before, the principles and practice of yoga have crystallized. But, it was only around 200 BC that all the fundamentals of yoga were collected by Patanjali in his treatise, named Yogasutra, that is, Yoga-Aphorisms.
  • Now, in modern times, clinical practices have established that several ailments, including hypertension, clinical depression, amnesia, acidity, can be controlled and managed by yogic practices. The application of yoga in physiotherapy is also gaining recognition.

Conclusion:

                There were contributions in fields of Astronomy, physics, chemistry, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation. The contributions show the progressive culture and rational thinking. There is a need to take inspiration from such contributions and stride forward.

  


                             

Topic-  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

2) Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was a social reformer well ahead of his time. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, his thoughts, his works and his contribution towards development and reformation of Indian society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj. E.g Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj also known as Rajarshi Shahu was considered a true democrat and social reformer. First Maharaja of the princely state of Kolhapur, he was an invaluable gem in the history of Maharashtra.

Body-

Discuss in points his contributions towards the Indian society. E.g

  • Greatly influenced by the contributions of social reformer Jyotiba Phule, Shahu Maharaj was an ideal leader and able ruler who was associated with many progressive and path breaking activities during his rule.
  • From his coronation in 1894 till his demise in 1922, he worked tirelessly for the cause of the lower caste subjects in his state.
  • Primary education to all regardless of caste and creed was one of his most significant priorities.
  • He established hostels separately for different ethnicities and religions.
  • He established the Miss Clarke Boarding School for the socially quarantined segments of the community.
  • He introduced several scholarships for the poor but meritorious students from backward castes.
  • He also initiated a compulsory free primary education for all in his state.
  • Chhatrapati Shahu was a strong advocate of equality among all strata of the society and refused to give the Brahmins any special status.
  • He established schools to educate the women, and also spoke vociferously on the topic of women education. He introduced a law banning the Devadasi Pratha etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

                Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj also known as Rajarshi Shahu was considered a true democrat and social reformer. He worked tirelessly for the cause of the lower caste subjects in his state. Primary education to all regardless of caste and creed was one of his most significant priorities.

Body:

Shahu Maharaj’s contributions towards the Indian society are as follows:

Social Reforms:

Greatly influenced by the contributions of social reformer Jyotiba Phule, Shahu Maharaj was an ideal leader and able ruler who was associated with many progressive and path breaking activities during his rule.

Education:

  • His emphasis was on education and his aim was to make education available to masses.
  • He introduced a number of educational programs to promote education among his subjects.
  • He established hostels separately for different ethnicities and religions like Panchals, Devadnya, Nabhik, Shimpi, Dhor-Chambhar communities as well as for Muslims, Jains and Christians.
  • He established the Miss Clarke Boarding School for the socially quarantined segments of the community.
  • He introduced several scholarships for the poor but meritorious students from backward castes.
  • He also initiated a compulsory free primary education for all in his state.
  • He established Vedic Schools that enabled students from all castes and classes to learn the scriptures and propagate Sanskrit education among all.
  • He also started special schools for the village heads or ‘Patils’ to make them into better administrators.

Against Caste discrimination:

  • A strong advocate of equality among all strata of the society and refused to give the Brahmins any special status.
  • He removed Brahmins from the post of Royal Religious advisers when they refused to perform religious rites for non-Brahmins.
  • He made great efforts to abolish the concept of caste segregation and untouchability.
  • He introduced (perhaps the first known) reservation system in government jobs for untouchable castes.
  • His Royal Decree ordering his subjects to treat every member of the society as equal and granting the untouchables equal access to public utilities like wells and ponds, as well as establishments like schools and hospitals.
  • He legalised inter-caste marriages and made a lot of efforts for the upliftment of the dalits.
  • He discontinued the hereditary transfer of titles and tenures of revenue collectors (Kulkarni), a caste infamous for exploiting the masses, especially enslavement of the Mahars, a lower caste.

Women Empowerment:

  • He worked towards betterment of the conditions of women in his empire.
  • He established schools to educate the women, and also spoke vociferously on the topic of women education.
  • He introduced a law banning the Devadsi Pratha, the practice of offering girls to God, which essentially led to exploitation of the girls in the hands of the Clergy.
  • He legalised widow remarriages in 1917 and made efforts towards stopping child marriages.

Association with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:

  • The King was greatly impressed by the great intellect of young Bhimrao and his revolutionary ideas regarding untouchability.
  • He made Dr. Ambedkar the Chairman of the conference for the betterment of the untouchables.
  • He believed that Ambedkar was the leader who would work for the amelioration of the segregated segments of the society.
  • He even donated Rs. 2,500 to Dr. Ambedkar when he started his newspaper ‘Mooknayak’ in 1921 and contributed more later for the same cause.

Conclusion:

Shahuji was a visionary and patronized the social reformers working for the weaker sections and against the ills of the society. He had implemented reforms which were made as fundamental rights and DPSPs in our Constitution, post independence.


Topic –  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

3) Differentiate between between cyclone, hurricane, tornado and twister. Explain the necessary conditions for their formation. Which of these are generally observed in India and at which places?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward and expects us to first explain the differences between the aforementioned terms. Next, it expects us to list out the conditions necessary for their formation and finally explain which of the above occur in India and why.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that these 4 are closely related.

Body

  • Cyclone is weather situation characterised by a rotating organized system of clouds coupled with thunderstorms and has low pressure centre and closed low-level atmospheric circulation. Hurricane is also similar weather phenomenon. They differ in name based on location where the storm occurs. While in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific such weather phenomenon is termed as “hurricane”, in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean the same is referred as “cyclone”.
  • Discuss the conditions for their formation
    • The temperature of tropical waters must be at least 26.67° for up to 165 feet below the ocean’s surface.
    • Cyclone is referred as hurricane when the maximum sustained wind speed reaches 74 miles per hour or higher.
    • Coriolis effect must be present for initiating and maintaining the cyclone
  • Explain the difference between tornadoes and twisters – Tornado is a violent storm. It is characterised by rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and cumulonimbus cloud.  Tornadoes are formed over hot land surfaces. Twister is just another name for tornado.
  • Discuss when they are formed
  • Cyclones as well as tornadoes both occur in India. However, unlike cyclones the frequency of tornadoes outbreak is very low. Cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal region as well as in the Arabian Sea region. Tornadoes of weak strength occur in north-western and north-eastern region of the country.

Introduction:

                Cyclone, Hurricane, Tornado and Twister are all closely related weather phenomena associated with low-pressure wind systems.

Body:

Cyclone and Hurricane:

  • A tropical cyclone is a generic term used by meteorologists to describe a rotating, organized system of clouds and thunderstorms that originates over tropical or subtropical waters and has closed, low-level circulation.
  • Once a tropical cyclone reaches maximum sustained winds of 74 miles per hour or higher, it is then classified as a hurricane, typhoon, or cyclone depending upon where the storm originates in the world.
  • The only difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a typhoon is the location where the storm occurs.
  • In the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, the term “hurricane” is used. The same type of disturbance in the Northwest Pacific is called a “typhoon” and “cyclones” occur in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.
  • Tropical cyclones rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Cyclones are an oceanic phenomenon that fizzles out once they reach land because they lose their source of moisture. They can last for days.
  • Hurricanes/typhoons/cyclones are storm systems formed when warm tropical waters release heat as moist air rises, causing condensation of the water vapour in the air. These storm systems are characterized by a low pressure center and if the conditions last, they can result in severe thunderstorms, violent winds, heavy flooding, and devastating waves.

Conditions for formation:

The formation of a cyclone is called Cyclogenesis.

  • Large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C.
  • Presence of the Coriolis force enough to create a cyclonic vortex.
  • Small variations in the vertical wind speed.
  • A pre-existing weak low-pressure area or low-level-cyclonic circulation.
  • Upper divergence above the sea level system.

 

Tornado and Twister:

  • Tornado and twister are different names for the same type of storm—a violently rotating column of air over land associated with a severe thunderstorm.
  • Tornadoes are usually a downward spiral stemming from a cumulonimbus cloud and are often accompanied by rain, hail, or sleet.
  • Tornadoes occur almost exclusively over land.
  • Tornadoes range in diameter from metres to hundreds of metres and generally last from a few seconds up to half an hour.
  • They have an intense updraught near their centre, capable of lifting heavy objects such as cars and trees and causing enormous damage.

Conditions for formation:

  • Instability refers to unusually warm and humid conditions in the lower atmosphere, and possibly cooler than usual conditions in the upper atmosphere.
  • Wind shear in this case refers to the wind direction changing, and the wind speed increasing, with height.
  • An example would be a southerly wind of 15 mph at the surface, changing to a southwesterly or westerly wind of 50 mph at 5,000 feet altitude.
  • Tornadoes form when warm air meets cold air, causing unstable pressures.

 

Occurrence in India:

Cyclones as well as tornadoes both occur in India.

Cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal region as well as in the Arabian Sea region. The eastern coast of India is more prone to cyclones than the western coast. Most of the cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal, hence east coast is vulnerable.

Tornadoes of weak strength occur in north-western and north-eastern region of the country. It mostly affects Bangladesh.

However, unlike cyclones the frequency of tornadoes outbreak is very low.

Conclusion:

                India is prone to cyclones and tornadoes. With increasing global warming, the conditions for formation of cyclones are more favourable. This has lead to increased weather events causing damage to man and material.


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) There is a need for National Clean Air Programme to create room for tighter action and better fiscal strategy . Examine.(250 words)

Downtoearth

 

Why this question

The NCAP is a much needed policy document that has been recently released by the central government. In this context it is important to understand the programme and discuss its shortcomings.

Directive word

Examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the recently released NCAP and bring out the reasons as to why the programme needs to create room for stronger action.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  NCAP. E.g It proposes a framework to achieve a national-level target of 20-30 per cent reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by between 2017 and 2024.

Body-

  1. Discuss some of the important and salient provisions of the programme. E.g
  • It is expected to be the only “cooperative and participatory initiative”.
  • This will not be notified under the Environment Protection Act or any other Act to create a firm mandate with a strong legal back up for cities and regions to implement NCAP in a time bound manner for effective reduction.
  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will execute this nation-wide programme in consonance with the section 162 (b) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1986 etc.
  1. Discuss why the programme needs to create room for stronger action and better fiscal strategy. E.g
  • It has not taken on board the ‘polluter pay’ based taxation mechanism to mobilise resources for dedicated funding of pollution control action and also to discourage polluting products, processes and activities.
  • Already, following the NGT order, 102 cities have started to prepare their first baseline action plans based on whatever data and expertise they have access to within a short time frame.
  • This will have to be taken forward under the NCAP and what will matter most are the right governing principles, and detailed qualitative and quantitative indicators for strategy development and targeted reduction in each sector at local and regional scale.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Introduction:

        The government has formulated National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) as a medium term national level strategy to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner. This is the first ever effort in the country to frame a national framework for air quality management with a time-bound reduction target.

 

Body:

The overall objective is to augment and evolve effective ambient air quality monitoring network across the country besides ensuring comprehensive management plan for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. The NCAP focuses on collaborative and participatory approach covering all sources of pollution and coordination between relevant Central Ministries, State Governments, local bodies and other stakeholders.

 

The salient provisions of the programme are:

  • Achieve a national-level target of 20-30% reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by between 2017 and 2024.
  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will execute this nation-wide programme in consonance with the section 162 (b) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1986.
  • The programme has been launched with an initial budget of ₹300 crore for the first two years.
  • The plan includes 102 non-attainment cities, across 23 states and Union territories, which were identified by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on the basis of their ambient air quality data between 2011 and 2015.
  • Non-attainment cities are those which have been consistently showing poorer air quality than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. These include Delhi, Varanasi, Bhopal, Kolkata, Noida, Muzaffarpur, and Mumbai.
  • As part of the programme, the Centre also plans to scale up the air quality monitoring network across India. At least 4,000 monitors are needed across the country, instead of the existing 101 real-time air quality (AQ) monitors, according to an analysis.
  • The plan proposes a three-tier system, including real-time physical data collection, data archiving, and an action trigger system in all 102 cities, besides extensive plantation plans, research on clean-technologies, landscaping of major arterial roads, and stringent industrial standards.
  • It also proposes state-level plans of e-mobility in the two-wheeler sector, rapid augmentation of charging infrastructure, stringent implementation of BS-VI norms, boosting public transportation system, and adoption of third-party audits for polluting industries.
  • Various committees: The national plan has proposed setting up an apex committee under environment minister, a steering committee under-secretary (environment) and a monitoring committee under a joint secretary. There would be project monitoring committees at the state-level with scientists and trained personnel.

               

Shortcomings of the NCAP: The programme needs to create room for stronger action and better fiscal strategy due to the following reasons,

  • The government has stressed that NCAP as a scheme is not a legally binding document with any specified penal action against erring cities. It is only a “cooperative and participatory initiative”.
  • NCAP will not be notified under the Environment Protection Act or any other Act to create a firm mandate with a strong legal back up for cities and regions to implement NCAP in a time bound manner for effective reduction.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) has not drawn upon the precedence of the notification of Graded Response Action Plan or the notice issued to comply with the Comprehensive Action Plan under the Environment Protection Act in Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR).
  • Delhi’s very severe pollution levels are four times the permissible limits now, and a 30% reduction by 2024 would still leave it very dangerous for health.
  • With the absence of a robust fiscal and funding strategy. Only a pittance of Rs 300 crore is being earmarked for NCAP. Clearly, NCAP cannot be sustainable nor can it gain strength or make a difference on a longer-term basis if it does not have a clear fiscal strategy.
  • NCAP has not provided for innovative financing mechanism at central and state/city level. It has not taken on board the ‘polluter pay’ based taxation mechanism to mobilise resources for dedicated funding of pollution control action

Way Forward:

  • The MoEF&CC, as a nodal central and apex agency, will have to flex its authority to ensure all NCAP indicators are integrated with multi-sector and inter-ministerial programmes to align with the air quality target and objectives.
  • NCAP should not become only a top-down prescriptive approach. In fact, within the federal structure, NCAP, while ensuring compliance, will also have to create enough room for tighter action that can be even stronger than the common minimum national programme as defined by NCAP.
  • State governments and city authorities should be encouraged and enabled to take those extra steps to meet local targets.
  • City-wise air quality targets will clearly show where much deeper cuts will be needed for hotspot and stronger regional action.
  • NCAP should take precedence from emerging practices in the country—pollution cess in Delhi on truck entry, big diesel cars, and diesel fuel sales and the coal cess—to generate dedicated funds to finance clean air action plan.
  • The funds should be managed through unified window for the purpose of admissible pollution control activities identified in the action plan

Conclusion:

NCAP has certainly helped kick start the much-awaited good practice of setting air pollution reduction targets. The biggest advantage of such targets is that it helps decide the level of stringency of local and regional action needed for the plans to be effective enough to meet the reduction targets.


Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India’s interests

5) Non Alignment is one of the most important legacy of Indian foreign policy which need not be sacrificed at the altar of pragmatism. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article delves deep into Indian foreign policy of non alignment, explains what the policy meant for India and the form of non alignment that would help  India in navigating the tides of global politics.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the indian policy of non Alignment and what impact it has had on India’s relation with other nations. Thereafter, we need to analyze the pros and cons of India’s dalliance with non alignment and explain the nature of non alignment that might be more prudent in the current times.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the Nehruvian idea of non alignment.

Body

  • Explain how India’s experience with the policy of non alignment has been – as the leader of non aligned movement, and its relationship with major powers
  • Discuss the pros and cons of the policy of non Alignment in terms of its impact on achievement of the foreign policy objectives of india. Discuss the difference between strategic autonomy and non alignment
  • Examine the form and nature of non alignment that would work for India – issue based alignment and not ideological

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.

 

Introduction:

        The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral. It identifies the right of independent judgment, the struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism, and the use of moderation in relations with all big powers as the three basic elements that have influenced its approach.

 

Body:

 

India’s experience with the policy of non alignment:

 

  • NAM played an important role during the Cold War years in furthering many of the causes that India advocated: Decolonisation, end to apartheid, global nuclear disarmament, ushering in of new international economic and information orders.
  • NAM enabled India and many newly born countries in 1950’s and 1960’s their sovereignty and alleviated the fears of neo-colonialism.
  • South-South Co-operation: NAM together with the Group of 77 (G77–largely made up of NAM members) succeeded to keep Third World issues on the agenda in most UN forums, effectively supported independence movements in third world country.
  • Soft-Power Leadership: NAM made India a leader for many countries who didn’t want to ally with the then global powers USA or USSR. India became a soft-power leader which still holds good till date.
  • Balanced friendship: India’s non-alignment gave her the opportunity to get the best of both the global superpowers of the time in terms of aid, military support etc. This was in line with her objectives of national development.

India’s lost opportunities due to NAM:

  • There was no mutual agreement to support in case of aggression on a member country.
  • India faced such a situation when China attacked her in 1962 and Pakistan in 1965.
  • India was against the West in isolating the communist China, but the blind friendship had led to Chinese aggression in 1962. The USA didn’t extend military support in 1962 to India. This has serious repercussions in the economy almost leading to a famine.
  • India’s muddied relation with China was encashed by Pakistan. Pakistan supported China and it became her all-weather friend, the repercussions of which are seen even today in the form of CPEC and constantly troubled Kashmir region.
  • The lack of foreign funds, protectionism driven by NAM also led to delayed growth of India. China which was in a worst condition than India during independence surged ahead and is today the largest economy in the world.

NAM’s authority is slowly eroding:

  • The end of cold war lead to unipolar world and now tending towards multi-polarity. The NAM is now reached irrelevance.
  • NAM could not push for reforms in the global bodies like UN, IMF, WTO . Thus, it has dissuaded many developing countries from pursuing it.
  • Disputes within the Global South countries. Example: India-Pak, Iran-Iraq. This has paved way for the blocs to enter.
  • Inability to find solution to the West-Asian crisis. Withdrawal of one of the founder members- Egypt, after the Arab Spring.
  • Most of the members are economically weak; hence they have no say in world politics or economy.

 

The form and nature of non alignment that would work for India in the current scenario:

  • As the current foreign secretary put, NAM is a basis of our foreign policy. However, India should be aligned on issue basis and not ideological basis.
  • It gives us the capacity to be flexible, gives us the capacity to maintain our decisional autonomy.
  • This gives India the required Strategic autonomy that is the kind which a nation can exercise depends on its specific circumstances such as size, location, comprehensive national power, and the nature of the threats among many other things.
  • India should also be pragmatic and look at alliances which suit her interests the best. Alliances are not a “permanent wedlock” or some kind of“bondage”. They are a political/military arrangement to cope with a common threat. When the shared understanding of the threat breaks down, so does the alliance.

 

Conclusion:

 

India is a large and globalised economy with “big stakes in all parts of the world”. Its foreign policy must focus on a pragmatic assessment of India’s interests and the best means to secure them — including partnerships and coalitions — against current and potential threats. A newer, reformed NAM 2.0 can be looked at to continue NAM as our foreign policy.


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

6) Some of the possible solutions to climate change and environmental degradation themselves pose challenges to the environment. Analyze.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The world is grappling with the consequences of climate change and environmental degradation. A number of solutions have been posed and several of them are current being implemented. However it has been seen that many of those solutions while addressing one aspect create further problems for environment and our climate. It is therefore important to discuss those solutions and their effects.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the solutions being posed and implemented to address the issue of climate change and environmental degradation and how they in turn affect the environment in a negative way.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines highlighting environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change. E.g present some related statistics and mention that a number of solutions have been currently in vogue to address those issues.

Body-

DIscuss the solutions to climate change that are currently in vogue and bring out how they themselves pose challenges to the environment. E.g

  • Discuss Desalination technology and challenges posed by it.
  • Discuss HFCs and replacement of HCFCs to protect ozone depletion and challenges posed by it.
  • Discuss Biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels and challenges posed by them.
  • Wind farms vs biodiversity loss.
  • Solar energy vs Ground pollution.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.  

 

Introduction:

        The climate change and environmental degradation has posed some grave threats to the environment. According to UN Water, some 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water, and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year. The recent IPCC’s “Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C” revealed that the impacts and costs of 1.5 degrees Celsius of global warming will be far greater than expected. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says a 1.5°C average rise may put 20-30% of species at risk of extinction. If the planet warms by more than 2°C, most ecosystems will struggle. Coral reefs are projected to decline by a further 70-90% at 1.5°C.

         

Body:

        A number of technological solutions are at place to mitigate the effects of climate change. These technologies have helped humankind to find solutions to the problems posed by the climate change. However, in a world where climate change, air and water pollution, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, ozone depletion, and other environmental problems overlap, a fix in one arena can cause trouble or pose challenges in another.

 

  • Desalination technology: Desalination has become a solution for many cities located in coastal areas. The saline water from the sea is treated and the water is made potable. More than 16,000 desalination plants are scattered across the globe producing fresh water, according to a first global assessment of the sector’s industrial waste.
  • Challenges posed: The plants produce more briny toxic sludge than fresh water. For every litre of fresh water extracted, a litre-and-a-half of salty, chemical-laden sludge called brine is dumped—in most cases—into the ocean. That’s enough to cover the state of Florida in a 30-centimetre (one-foot) layer of slime.

 

  • Hydro Fluoro Carbons to protect ozone depletion: The 1987 Montreal Protocol banned industrial chemicals (CFCs) dissolving stratospheric ozone, which protects us from the Sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays. To replace the forbidden molecules, used in aerosols and refrigerants, scientists invented a new category known as HFCs.
  • Challenges posed: But there was a small problem that didn’t emerge until much later: the substitutes—while harmless to the ozone layer—were dangerous greenhouse gases, thousands of times more potent than carbon dioxide or methane. That meant a new, protracted round of negotiations over an amendment calling for the phase of HFCs, which was finally adopted in 2016.

 

  • Bio-fuels: The rise in oil prices in the 1970s, and later the looming threat of climate change, boosted the production of bio-fuels made from corn, sugarcane and palm oil. It seemed like a great idea: planet-warming CO2 released into the atmosphere when the bio-fuels were burned would be partially offset by the CO2 absorbed while the plants were growing.
  • Challenges posed: The energy needed to transform and transport plant-based fuels undercuts their original purpose. To make matters worse, the newly emerging market created a perverse incentive to cut down tropical forests—far more efficient at soaking up CO2—to make way for sugarcane and palm oil trees. When it comes to climate change, projections for how humanity can cap global warming under two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) assume a major role for bio-fuels. But recently scientists have calculated that an area up to twice the size of India would be needed to cultivate them, which may not leave enough land to grow food.

 

  • Wind farms: There are some 350,000 wind turbines scattered across the globe producing more than 500 gigawatts of clean, green energy and supplying four percent of global electricity demand.
  • Challenges posed: But wind farms are also bird killers: up to 328,000 birds—especially those that fly at night—are felled every year by fast-spinning blades in the United States alone, where there are some 50,000 turbines. They also disrupt ecosystems.
  • Case Study: A scientific study of wind farms in the Western Ghats, a UNESCO-listed range of mountains and forest spanning India’s west coast, found that predatory raptor birds were four times rarer than in adjacent areas. Their absence cascaded down the food chain and radically altered the density and behaviour of the birds’ prey. There was, in particular, an explosion in the raptors’ favourite meal: fan-throated lizards.

 

  • Solar energy: Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight to generate electricity. This has powered many homes in developing and under-developed countries. It has shown the potential to reduce the consumption of coal for electricity generation.
  • Challenges posed: However, the solar panels pose a challenge. A study by French investigative journalist Guillaume Pitron reveals this. The fastest growing renewable energy source includes critical metals and minerals that require a lot of energy to extract and often leave a trail of environmental devastation in their wake. Wandering the world to research his book “The Rare Metals War”, Pitron said he saw mountains in southern China “cut in half vertically,” and “toxic lakes” in Inner Mongolia.

Conclusion:

The need of the hour is to create solutions that are sustainable. The solutions themselves shouldn’t pose further challenges, easily scalable and cost saving.  Better Research and Development techniques with right validation is the way ahead before deployment on large scale.

        


               

Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

7) What do you understand by Globalization 4.0. Discuss in the context of earlier phases of globalization. Also discuss how it can be leveraged to fight climate change.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

 

Why this question

Globalisation 4.0 has arrived and it also presents some possible solutions to climate change. In this context it is important to discuss the meaning and scope of the concept and how it will help in fighting climate change.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of Globalisation 4.0 and also bring out in detail as to how it can help us in fighting climate change across the world.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about globalization. E.g mention what was the first globalization- Globalization 1.0 was pre-World War 1 globalization, which was launched by a historic drop in trade costs when steam and other forms of mechanical power made it economical to consume goods made faraway.

Body-

  1. Briefly discuss the globalization 2.0 and 3.0. E.g Globalization 2.0 is the post-World War II phase where trade in goods was combined with complimentary domestic policies that helped share the pains and gains of globalization (and automation). The market was in charge of efficiency; the government was in charge of justice; globalization 3.0 ushered into an era when factories crossed borders, and – critically – the know-how of G7 firms along with them. This created a new world of manufacturing in which high-tech was combined with low wages.
  2. Discuss what is globalization 4.0. E.g it is the current phase of globalization which has just started in the wake of industry 4.0; driven by big data, AI etc.
  3. Discuss how globalization 4.0 can be leveraged to fight climate change. E.g  building new forms of alliances within and between the private and public sectors; forging new clubs of like-minded governments, cities, states and provinces; and building new leadership platforms for policy experimentation and public-private action, each targeted to suit different industrial, national and regional agendas etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Introduction:

        Globalization refers to the integration of economies through the exchange of goods, people and ideas. It views the whole world as a ‘Global village’ or ‘World without trade borders’.

        Globalization 4.0 is the third unbundling, which would happen when digi-tech allows arbitrage of international wage differences without the physical movement of workers. Globalization 4.0 is going to hit the service sector. Hundreds of millions of service-sector and professional workers in advanced economies will, for the first time ever, be exposed to the challenges and opportunities of globalization 4.0.

Body:

Trends of Globalization:

  • Globalization 1.0 was pre-World War 1 globalization, which was launched by a historic drop in trade costs when steam and other forms of mechanical power made it economical to consume goods made faraway. This globalization came with almost no government support. There was no global governance and there was little domestic policy to help share the gains and pains of more intense international arbitrage in goods. Laissez-faire capitalism, imperialism and various forms of autocracy ruled this era mostly.
    • However, the two world wars, the Great Depression, and the rise of communism and fascism resulted in hundreds of millions of humans being killed by other humans. This led to the end of G-1.0.
  • Globalization 2.0 is the post-World War II phase where trade in goods was combined with complementary domestic policies that helped share the pains and gains of globalization (and automation). The market was in charge of efficiency; the government was in charge of justice. Internationally, Globalization 2.0 saw the establishment of institute-based, rule-based international governance, specifically the UN, IMF, World Bank, GATT/WTO and many specialized agencies like the FAO and ILO.
  • Globalization 3.0 is the second unbundling, or the New Globalization. Arvind Subramanian called it hyper-globalization, Gary Gereffi called it the global value chain revolution, and Alan Blinder called it offshoring. The key is that globalization now meant factories crossing borders, and – critically – the know-how of G7 firms along with them. This created a new world of manufacturing in which high-tech was combined with low wages.
    • This new combination disrupted the lives and communities of workers struggling to compete with high wages and high tech as well as those struggling to compete with low wages and low tech.
    • Workers employed in goods-producing sectors were the most affected, since this unbundling mostly affected goods-producing sectors. In particular, the monopoly that G7 factory workers had on G7 manufacturing technology was broken when their employers moved jobs and know-how abroad.

Globalization 4.0: As explained above, the G-4.0 will impact the service sector mostly. It is in parallel with the IR 4.0. The various disruptive technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Internet of Things, Block-chain etc. will play key roles in this. Rather than shaping a parallel hegemonic structure, globalisation 4.0 intends to correct the flaws inherent in globalisation 3.0 that allowed the dominance and wealth superiority of the great economic powers to hinder the optimisation and evolution of the global governance structure.

Globalization 4.0 and fighting climate change:

        Climate change, arguably humanity’s most existential challenge, requires urgent global action. IPCC’s Special Report on the Impacts of Global warming at 1.5°C, published in October 2018, says we have just 12 years to act if dangerous climate change is to be avoided. With the rise in protectionism, rising national interest, G-4.0 is imperative to tackle the climate change with global efforts.

  • By building new forms of alliances within and between the private and public sectors. Example: The Alliance of CEO Climate Leaders: This group of CEOs, with collective company revenues of more than $1.5 trillion, have already reduced their collective emissions by 9% since 2015 and are committed to do more
  • By forging new clubs of like-minded governments, cities, states and provinces. Example: International Solar Alliance initiative which has about 120 countries
  • By building new leadership platforms for policy experimentation and public-private action, each targeted to suit different industrial, national and regional agendas.
  • With the rapid technological advances of the IR 4.0, we will also be able to harness new means of monitoring, verifying and reporting the progress (or lack thereof) of global, regional and industry actions on climate.
  • This will also lead to radical new forms of distributed information transparency and real-time disclosures. Example: Internet of Things to capture and transmit data at real-time in highly polluted areas in cities.
  • Increased transparency will boost awareness and simply heighten the pressure to act.

Conclusion:

        Globalisation 4.0 should be more sustainable, reasonable and balanced version, led by innovation, inclusiveness, shared benefits and tolerance. Globalization 4.0 seeks to promote: practical, public-private arrangements to help governments find agile, collaborative solutions to pressing global problems in our more complex world, which is being rapidly transformed by the IR 4.0.