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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 February 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Challenges to internal security through social networking sites


General Studies – 2


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

1) Analyze the schemes announced in the union Budget 2019-20 for improving the status of agricultural sector?(250 words)

Livemint

Financialexpress

Why this question

The budget is very important for mains and prelims, which goes without saying. The highlights of the budget with respect to different sectors of the economy needs to be prepared. In this question, we focus on the measures taken in the budget for agricultural sector and the likely impact it would have.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the measures taken in the budget for addressing the issues faced by farming sector. Thereafter we need to evaluate the measures by discussing it’s likely impact. Finally we have to provide a fair and balanced opinion.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the farming sector has been plagued by issues and the union Budget has taken steps to address it.

Body

  • Highlight that India’s agriculture sector accounts for close to 16% of the economy and employs almost 50% of the labour force.
  • Discuss the measures in the Budget
    • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi, an assured income support programme, for 120 million small and marginalized farmers with an outlay of ₹75,000 crore per year.
    • Increased the allocation for Rashtriya Gokul Mission to Rs 750 crore in the current year itself. Announced setting up of “Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog” to upscale sustainable genetic up-gradation of cow resources and to enhance production and productivity of cows
    • Proposed to provide the benefit of 2% interest subvention to the farmers pursuing the activities of animal husbandry and fisheries, who avail loan through Kisan Credit Card. Further, in case of timely repayment of loan, they will also get an additional 3% interest subvention
  • Discuss the likely impact of these measures.

Conclusion – give a fair and balanced opinion of the measures introduced and discuss how can we maximize benefit.

 


Topic– Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2) It may well be the case that the basic structure doctrine is derived from the abstract. But that scarcely means it doesn’t exist within the Constitution. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The doctrine of basic constitution is a novel and a landmark concept developed by the Indian judiciary. The doctrine has been invoked in many high profile cases in the SC. In this context it is important to discuss the relevance and place of the doctrine in the constitution.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about the doctrine of basic structure of the constitution and express our opinion as to whether the doctrine is implicit in the constitutional document or not.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  case which led to the birth of the basic structure doctrine. E.g mention the Kesavananda Bharati case which superseded the judgement in Gopalan Case and introduced the term.

Body-

  1. Discuss what the term broadly means. E.g discuss how the term has been defined by various courts and what are the provisions related to the basic structure- democracy, socialist state, secularism, right to life etc.
  2. Discuss whether the term is implicitly implied in the constitutional document. E.g
  • The phrase has no mention anywhere in the Constitution.
  • Not only is the basic structure canon legally legitimate, in that it is deeply rooted in the Constitution’s text and history, but it also possesses substantial moral value, in that it strengthens democracy by limiting the power of a majoritarian government to undermine the Constitution’s central ideals.
  • not only is the basic structure canon legally legitimate, in that it is deeply rooted in the Constitution’s text and history, but it also possesses substantial moral value, in that it strengthens democracy by limiting the power of a majoritarian government to undermine the Constitution’s central ideals.
  • Any amending body organized within the statutory scheme, howsoever verbally unlimited its power, cannot by its very structure change the fundamental pillars supporting its Constitutional authority. Etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.

3) USA’s withdrawal from the intermediate range nuclear forces treaty brings back the worrisome echo of the cold war. Examine(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the recent decision of USA to withdraw from the INF treaty and examines it’s implications. It is important to understand the contents of the treaty and what it means for arms control and strategic relations around the world.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the treaty and discuss the decision of USA to withdraw from the treaty. We need to examine the implications of such a decision and discuss what it portends for the future of arms control.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – discuss why this issue is in news.

Body

  • Explain about the INF Treaty – Signed in 1987 by Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev, it barred both countries from deploying land-launched cruise missiles in the 500- to 5,500-km range.
  • Discuss the rationale behind USA’s decision to withdraw from the treaty
  • Discuss the strategic impact it is likely to have – bring out the point of view of European nations, what it means for the strategic security in indo Pacific.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss what should India’s view be on this development.

 


General Studies – 3


Topic- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) The recent developments in the Indian economy call for a unified regulator for NBFCs. Analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article examines the need for an independent and unified regulatory regime for NBFCs. In the context of several crisis hitting Indian NBFCs, it is important to examine the issue in detail.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the recent developments in the NBFCs sector in the Indian economy and bring out as to why there is a need for a unified regulator.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  recent crisis being faced by the NBFC sector in India. E.g Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (IL&FS) crisis of last October and the DHFL crisis.

Body-

Discuss in points as to why there is a need for a unified NBFC regulator in India. E.g

  • India has 10,000 active NBFCs that are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), of which some 275 are systemically important (SI).
  • Non-deposit taking systemically important entities, tagged with the alphabet soup acronym NBFC ND-SI, are those with a threshold asset size greater than ₹500 crore—asset finance companies, asset reconstruction companies, infrastructure finance companies, and microfinance companies are among the various types that make up the broad group of NBFCs.
  • Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending companies are the newest set to join this group.
  • Indian non-banks are governed by a regulatory hodgepodge of RBI, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi), the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (Irda), NHB, the ministry of corporate affairs (for nidhi companies) and state governments (for chit funds).
  • Cooperation is on an ad hoc basis and often post-event.
  • The commission chaired by former justice B.N. Srikrishna recommended that Sebi, Irda, the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority and the Forward Markets Commission (since merged with Sebi) be merged under one regulator to be called the Unified Financial Authority.
  • The FSLRC recommended that micro-prudential regulation (health of individual firms) be conducted through a non-sector specific approach.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Indian economy and issues related to employment.

5) The Indian economy is floundering on many economic parameters related to employment. Analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article highlights the broader questions highlighted by the recent NSSO report on jobless growth in Indian economy. The article provides several relevant data and ends with a poignant question which needs reflection to improve the state of our economy.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the status quo of Indian economy with respect to employment and issues related to employment such as jobless growth, LFPR, labour productivity etc. The question expects us to flag off the major issues and suggest a way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the demographic dividend of the country makes the question of employment pertinent for our economy. In this backdrop, the recent NSSO report (as per media reports) paint a sorry picture of employment scenario in the country.

Body

  • Discuss the issue of jobless growth in general country . Use data to buttress your argument.
  • Discuss the fall in LFPR and examine the causes. Focus on the fall in female LFPR.
  • Discuss the issue of labour productivity and highlight what it suggests about the Indian economy
  • Discuss the status of job creation in the economy in formal vs informal sector

Conclusion – give your opinion on the state of employment in Indian economy based on discussion and suggest way forward.

 


Topic – Challenges to internal security through social networking sites

6) Social media has emerged as a major threat to nation’s internal security. Discuss.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the nature of threat to internal security caused by social media. Thereafter, it expects us to discuss why it is difficult to negate this threat and highlight way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that threat due to social media is on the rise as seen in elections in Phillipines, USA etc

Body

  • Discuss the nature of threat due to social media
    • The rapid spread of false information through social media is among the emerging risks identified by the World Economic Forum in its Global Risks 2013 Report.
    • Cyber terrorism
    • Recruitment drives
    • Spreading fake news etc
  • Discuss challenges in monitoring social media
    • Server Location and Laws of Different Countries: Lack of Geographical Boundaries makes social media regulation an arduous task. Major Complicating Factors to secure the networks and Media Much of the hardware and software that make up the communications ecosystem is sourced externally.
    • Encrypted Message: Use of phones/whatsapp to send and receive messages, concerns the government because the communications sent via such devices and applications are encrypted and could not be monitored and consequently hinders the country’s efforts to fight terrorism and crime.
    • Complicated Networks: The task of securing the networks is also complicated by the fact that much of the infrastructure is in the hands of private companies who see measures such as security auditing and other regulations and frameworks as adding to their costs. source of Origin is difficult to find out.
  • Highlight the steps India has taken so far – discuss measures such as – National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID), Central Monitoring System (CMS), Internet Spy System Network and Traffic Analysis System (NETRA) of India, National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIPC) of India, National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) of India, Tri Service Cyber Command for Armed Forces of India

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward

 


Topic- Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

7) What do you understand by  cyber terrorism. Discuss. Also discuss the forms of cyber terrorism.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

There has been an increase in incidents of Cyber terrorism  across the world, including India. In this context it is important for us to understand the term in detail.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning of the term, cyber terrorism. It also wants us to discuss in detail about the forms of cyber terrorism.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  term cyber terrorism. E.g Cyber terrorism can be defined as electronic attacks from cyberspace from both the internal and external networks, particularly from the Internet that emanate from various terrorist sources with different set of motivations and are directed at a particular target.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the term in detail. E.g
  • Cyber terrorism is the convergence of cyberspace and terrorism and it is different from cyber crimes, such as data theft, bank fraud etc.
  • It is executed via cyberspace by individuals, groups or organizations who are directly influenced by some terrorist movements or/and its leaders; and motivated by a desire to effect political or ideological change;  
  • leading to violence that reaches physical and psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target.
  1. Discuss the forms of cyber terrorism. E.g
  • Hybrid Cyber Terrorism- use of the Internet for terrorist activities such as propaganda, recruitment, radicalization, fundraising, data mining, communication, training, and planning for actual terrorist attacks.
  • Pure Cyber Terrorism

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic-Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention

8) What are the statutory and the institutional framework for dealing with money laundering in India. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

 

Why this question

There has been a spate of money laundering cases in India in recent years. India has also been successful in seeking extradition of several high profile economic offenders from foreign countries. In this context it is essential to understand the framework for dealing with money laundering in India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the  statutory and the institutional framework for dealing with money laundering in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  money laundering. E.g describe the meaning and process of money laundering in brief lines.

Body-

  1. Discuss the statutory framework for dealing with money laundering in India. E.g
  • PMLA Act
  • It prescribes obligation of banking companies, financial institutions and intermediaries for verification and maintenance of records of the identity of all its clients and also of all transactions and for furnishing information of such transactions in prescribed form to the Financial Intelligence Unit-India (FIU-IND).
  • It empowers the Director of FIU-IND to impose fine on banking company, financial institution or intermediary if they or any of its officers fails to comply with the provisions of the Act as indicated above.
  • PMLA envisages setting up of an Adjudicating Authority to exercise jurisdiction, power and authority conferred by it essentially to confirm attachment or order confiscation of attached properties.
  1. Discuss the regulatory framework. E.g
  • ED and FIU
  • PMLA empowers certain officers of the Directorate of Enforcement to carry out investigations in cases involving offence of money laundering and also to attach the property involved in money laundering.
  • Financial Intelligence Unit – India in 2004 as the central national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions.
  • FIU-IND is also responsible for coordinating and strengthening efforts of national and international intelligence, investigation and enforcement agencies in pursuing the global efforts against money laundering and related crimes. FIU-IND is an independent body reporting directly to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headed by the Finance Minister.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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