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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 February 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 04 February 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:Linkages between development and spread of extremism.


General Studies – 1


Topic– Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.

1) What do you understand by an earthquake swarm. Discuss the reasons behind the earthquake swarms being witnessed across India.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and give a brief description of the term earthquake swarm. It also wants us to discuss in detail about the reasons behind the Earthquake Swarms being witnessed across many parts of India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  term earthquake swarm. E.g ‘earthquake swarm’ which is a series of low magnitude earthquakes that occur in a localised region and over a period of time ranging from days, weeks to even months.Body-

  1. Describe the term in detail. E.g  
  • “When seismic energy piles up inside the Earth and is released in small amounts from certain points, such a series of earthquakes can occur,”
  • Sometimes, these rumblings of the Earth are also accompanied by acoustic or sound emissions.
  • The situation cannot be taken lightly as many earthquakes have been preceded by earthquake swarm activity.
  • They come as foreshocks to the main earthquake which could be much greater in magnitude etc.
  1. Discuss the reasons behind earthquake swarms being witnessed across India. E.g
  • Latur and Koyna earthquakes of 1993 and 1967, respectively.
  • Deccan plateau
  • an earthquake swarm near Bamhori village of Seoni district in Madhya Pradesh between February and May, 2000. The swarm consisted of as many as 350 tremors.
  • Rampur area of Himachal Pradesh. This Himalayan swarm was later attributed to low strength of the earth’s crust in the area which could not hold the tectonic energy etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic: mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of the vulnerable sections

2) A mere repeal of the law will not address their need for establishing society-wide changes to gain access to political-social-economic welfare. Analyze the statement in the context of Denotified Tribes in India.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The interim budget presented recently, announced the creation of a welfare development board for denotified (DNT), nomadic (NT) and semi-nomadic (SNT) tribes. In this context it is important to discuss about the plight of those tribes and problems faced by them.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the socio economic conditions of the DNT- NT and SNT and bring out as to why only repealing of the law will not address their need for establishing society-wide changes to gain access to political-social-economic welfare.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  DNT. E.g The term, ‘Denotified and Nomadic Tribes’, can be traced to the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) of 1871. The colonial government notified nearly 200 tribal communities to be hereditary criminals, cementing their societal identity as outcasts and subjecting them to constant harassment by the administration. After India gained Independence, these tribes were ‘de-notified’ from the list of Criminal Tribes, and, hence, the term.

Body-

  1. Discuss their history. E.g
  • The CTA allowed for close supervision and control over the mobility of the tribes which were notified by the provincial governments.
  • The Act was amended in 1897, 1908 and 1911 to give sweeping powers to the authorities, some as draconian as allowing the state to remove any child of the age of six and above from its ‘criminal’ parents.
  • By 1924, certain provisions were amended, and the Act was finally applicable to the whole of British India.
  • Along with the introduction of laws such as the Forest Acts and the Salt Tax Act, the British threw a noose around the the lives of DNTs using stringent regulations.
  1. Discuss the problems faced by them and why repealing of the law has not been enough to address their socio-economic political concerns. E.g
  • It is only in independent India that the need was felt to shift the collective burden of criminality to the individual, which led to the CTA being repealed and the Habitual Offenders Act (HOA) being enacted in various States.
  • Not all States enacted it, Currently, a variant of the HOA Model Bill as proposed by the Union Government then stands enforced in 10 States across the country, having been enacted in many more.
  • However, the HOA functioned as a mere extension of the CTA. Nomadic and semi-nomadic communities continued to face harassment at the hands of law enforcement agencies.
  • The NCDNT report clearly recommends repealing the various HOAs. This has also been the constant refrain of community leaders, representatives and civil society organisations — as the Act still casts its shadow of the state on communities etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

3) The announcement of Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi is an indicator that India is now seriously toying with the idea of targeted cash transfers. Critically analyze the effectiveness of targeted cash transfers?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

This article discusses the form that direct income transfer scheme will take in a country like India and analyzes such a scheme for its effectiveness in tackling inefficiencies in welfare delivery channels.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the form that direct income transfer has taken in the country by explaining about Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi. Thereafter , we need to discuss the pros and cons of such a measure and give our view on its effectiveness.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that India has discussed about universal basic income and direct income transfer is thought to bring about efficiencies in welfare delivery mechanism.

Body

  • Explain about the scheme
    • Vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land up to 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support of ₹6,000 a year
  • Discuss the pros and cons of such direct income transfer mechanisms
    • inefficiencies of existing social security interventions  is sought to be replaced with direct cash transfers
    • Highlight that such income transfers are also riddled with inefficiencies
    • Moreover, the state still has to invest in strengthening the basic infrastructure related to health etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the effectiveness of such a measure and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic- Linkages between development and spread of extremism

4) Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to talk about the status quo with respect to threats posed by left wing extremists to the country. Thereafter, we need to highlight the steps taken by the country to deal with such threats and discuss the way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about left wing extremism – term officially used to describe Maoist insurgency in selected states of Central and Eastern India.

Body

  • Highlight the status quo of the threat posed by left wing extremists to the security of the country.
  • Discuss the steps taken by the government to deal with this threat
    • Discuss the Samadhan doctrine launched by MHA – Controlling arms supply to Maoist usiing GPS trackers and Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatin sticks and explosives manufacturers. Each CRPF battalion deployed in the Maoist hotbed is given atleast one UAV. More helicopter support for operations, including private helicopter services. Joint Task Forces along inter-State boundaries, better inter-state coordination and intelligence sharing. Stricter implementation of Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) to choke funding to LWE groups.
    • Developmental approach such as through Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana for holistic development of the tribal people by targetting their education, employment, healthcare, infrastructure and connectivity; Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act was amended to setup District Mineral Foundation (DMF). Through this fund, all mining districts receive portion of the mining royalties. The money is spend on the development activities decided by the local people etc
  • Analyze the impact of this two pronged strategy

Conclusion – Give your view on the impact of the governmental measures and discuss way forward.


Topic – Role of external state and  non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

5) What challenges do external non state actors pose to India’s security?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain who external non state actors are and thereafter explain about the multifaceted threat that they pose to India’s security.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India has been facing internal security threats from various external and internal state and non state actors since independence.

Body

  • Explain about external non state actors – Non-state actors are individuals or organizations that have powerful economic, political or social power and are able to influence at a national and sometimes international level but do not belong to or allied themselves to any particular country or state. They include NGOs, MNCs, religious outfits, Drug Cartels, Mafias, terrorist groups etc. they may work in tandem for the peace, stability and development of a country or they may work against the State.
  • Discuss the threat that they pose to internal security in India such as insurgency, terrorism, cyber security , communalism, counterfeit currency etc
  • Discuss how should India deal with such challenges

Conclusion – Highlight the risk profile of the country based on these threats and discuss way forward.

 


Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

6) The impact of climate change falls disproportionately on the poor. Analyze and also highlight India’s risk profile due to climate change. (250 words)

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Why this question

The article examines the disproportionate impact of climate change on the poor. With the impact of climate change now taking myriad forms, it is a necessity to take steps to address the impact of climate change on the poor population.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain how there is a disproportionate impact of climate change on the poor population. Thereafter we need to bring out the risk profile of India with respect to climate change and the measures required to address this vulnerability.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that a recent report of IPCC has belief the belief that climate change is a gradual, slow moving phenomenan.

Body

  • Explain about the impacts of climate change and how it falls disproportionately on the poor
    • food, resulting in increased competition to access these basic necessities. This increases the chances of the intensification of existing conflicts and also creates new ones.
    • Frequent floods and droughts caused by climate change lead to food shortages and rise in food prices. This causes ­hunger and malnutrition, the effects of which are felt most strongly by the poor. According to the World Food Programme’s 2018 Global Report on Food Crises, “climate disasters triggered food crises across 23 countries, mostly in Africa, with shocks such as drought leaving more than 39 million people in need of urgent assistance.” etc
  • Analyze India’s risk profile
    • India ranks fifth globally for the losses it has experienced due to climate change. Around 800 million people in the country live in villages and depend on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods. With at least 50% of the farmlands in the country being rain-fed, changes in the pattern of the monsoons will affect their livelihoods the most.
  • Discuss steps that are required to mitigate the risk

Conclusion – Explain that the risk is real and discuss way forward.

 


Topic-Challenges to internal security through communication networks

7) Evaluate whether India is adequately prepared to handle the threat posed by emerging disruptive technologies?(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

The article examines the new age security challenges posed by emerging disruptive technologies and analyzes the effectiveness of the measures taken by India to deal with such challenges. This question would enable you to understand the changing nature of threats as a result of technological advancements along with India’s response to it.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the changing nature of threat posed by emerging disruptive technologies, examine the steps taken by India to deal with such challenges and evaluate their effectiveness.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that technological advancements have transformed the nature of security threats.

Body

  • Explain about the new age security threats
    • current focus in military thinking across the world is increasingly moving away from traditional heavy-duty military hardware to high-tech innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics, satellite jammers, hypersonic strike technology, advanced cyber capabilities and spectrum denial and high-energy lasers
    • Strategic stability in the contemporary international system, especially among the nuclear weapon states, depends on several age-old certainties, the most important being the issue of survivability of a state’s nuclear arsenal and its ability to carry out a second strike after a first attack.
    • Once accuracies get better, hypersonic glide vehicles replace conventional delivery systems, real time tracking and surveillance make major strides, and AI-enabled systems take over, survivability of nuclear arsenal, which lies at the heart of great power stability, could take a severe beating.
    • Disruptive new technologies, worsening relations between Russia and America and a less cautious Russian leadership than in the cold war have raised fears that a new era of strategic instability may be approaching
  • Highlight India’s response to such challenges
    • Government decided to set up three new agencies — the Defence Cyber Agency, the Defence Space Agency and the Special Operations Division — in order to address the new age challenges to national security
  • Discuss issues involved
    • The issue of coordination
    • The issue of their relative importance in the pecking order of defence planning
    • China factor etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic – Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders.

8) In your opinion what are the qualities that a good leader should possess. Illustrate with examples from lives of great leaders of the past.(250 words) 

The hindu

Why this question

Being a leader requires a different set of values which are discussed in this article. The question will help us learn important examples from the lives of great leaders and understand what it means to be a good leader.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the qualities that manifest in a great leader and illustrate that with the help of examples from the lives of others great leaders.

Directive word

Illustrate – Here your discussion on what makes a great leader should contain examples from the lives of others great leaders.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that leadership role requires a person to imbibe in themselves a distinct set of values

Body

  • Discuss the qualities that are found in great leaders –
    • responsibility to take care of the interest of each person of the entire group. This often entails putting collective interest before her own interest or that of her preferred group.
    • The ability to accept and learn from their mistakes
    • Good communication skills etc
  • Illustrate with examples from lives of other great leaders to show that they imbibed these qualities too

Conclusion – Give your view on the state of leadership around the world and the qualities that they lack or do not lack.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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