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3) Development of India-Iran axis and Pakistan- Saudi axis in the region can undermine regional peace and security. Analyze. (250 words)

Topic – Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

3) Development of India-Iran axis and Pakistan- Saudi axis in the region can undermine regional peace and security. Analyze. (250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article digs into the recent developments in the region defined by India, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan relationship. It is important to analyze the writeup in detail in order to broaden our understanding about the international affairs of our country.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look deeper into the regional politics and the recent developments in the region and bring out how the apparent formation of  groupings can impact peace and security.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent developments between the four countries. E.g mention the US sanctions on Iran and exemptions provided to India.


  1. Discuss about the Iran-India relationship. E.g
  • India formally took over operations of the Chabahar port last month.
  • For New Delhi, Chabahar is important to reach out to Afghanistan.
  • Last month, senior bureaucrats of all the three countries, India, Iran and Afghanistan, held the first meeting for the implementation of the trilateral Chabahar agreement signed in 2016.
  • They agreed on the routes for trade and transit corridors between the three countries and, according to the official communique, finalised the protocol to “harmonise transit, roads, customs and consular matters”.
  1. Discuss how it has impacted Pakistan- Saudi relationship. E.g
  • Pakistan has similarly been pushed towards Saudi Arabia by the compulsions of financial circumstances.
  • For Riyadh, this move precludes any Iranian presence in Gwadar, contrary to some of the plans talked about in Tehran and Islamabad etc.
  1. Discuss how these developments can affect regional peace and security. E.g
  • While Pakistan will continue to try not to take sides, a significant upgrading of its relations with Iran may become more difficult — saying “no” to Saudi Arabia may also become more difficult.
  • While the situation remains fluid, the present trends may eventually result in the crystallisation of two axes, bringing Pakistan closer to Saudi Arabia and Iran closer to India and this new regional game.
  • This evolution will foster the Arabisation (or Wahabisation) of Islam in Pakistan. It may also relaunch sectarian tensions in the region under the aegis of foreign countries.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.