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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.


General Studies – 1


Topic – Modern Indian history – Significant personalities

1) Today, as the clamour for farm loan waiver amid joblessness in the farm sector puts pressure on the Centre and State governments, a relook at Gandhiji’s thoughts can provide new possibilities. Comment.(250 words)

The hindubuisnessline

Why this question

Mahatma Gandhi advocated for a very different model of economic development of the nation with village republics at its centre. Such ideas are discussed in the article which would enable us to take lessons from the past.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s view on rural development and his proposals for the benefit of farmers. This is to juxtaposed with the present rural crisis and see what lessons can be drawn from Mahatma Gandhi’s teachings

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the present rural crisis and highlight that the vision of the father of our nation for India’s development was focussed around self sufficient villages.

Body

  • Highlight in brief the problems plaguing the farmers for which loan waivers has become a necessity
  • Highlight Mahatma Gandhi’s vision for India’s development and his prescriptions.
    • Gandhi envisaged villages as self-sufficient republics. He knew that India lived in its villages which is why he stressed on the growth of the rural economy such as khadi, handloom, handicraft and sericulture.
    • advocacy of the charkha was a way to promote gainful employment for an able-bodied individual. charkha symbolised this view about how each person could earn their own livelihood and become self-reliant.
    • According to him, large-scale production was meant to be profit-oriented and therefore, harmful for society as it could lead to concentration of wealth and power in a few hands. Gandhi advocated decentralisation because it could avoid violence. He suggested delocalisation of production as against concentration in particular areas. His beliefs on decentralisation were aimed at correcting all evils of a centralised economy
  • Discuss his prescriptions for the farming sector – First, prevention of fragmentation and fixing economic holdings. Second, country-wide tapping and harnessing of water resources; third, improvement of soil and its productivity through natural as well as scientific treatment of manures, seeds, crop-diseases, prevention of soil erosion etc; fourth, cooperation; fifth, State aid and protection; and sixth, reclamation of waste-lands inland and along the sea-coast and creeks.

Conclusion – In your conclusion highlight how and whether his views and suggestions are relevant for agricultural and rural areas in today’s day and age


General Studies – 2


Topic-Role of civil services in a democracy.

2) Critically analyze whether the leadership role provided by IPS to CAPF should be abolished or curtailed at the very least?(250 words)

Indianexpress

 

Why this question

The issue raised in the question has been brought to spotlight as a result of the recommendations of the rajya sabha committee which held that leadership positions currently reserved for the IPS in the CAPFs may be abolished outright, or at least severely curtailed. The issue needs to be debated in depth in context of the role of civil services in India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the issue. Thereafter, we need to give arguments both in favour of and against the issue raised in question and give a fair and balanced opinion based on arguments made.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the leadership role provided by IPS to CAPF and why this issue is a matter of debate.

Body

  • Give arguments in favour of IPS retaining leadership role in CAPF
    • The idea that they are interlopers is patently absurd because they have been recruited to be posted to leadership positions in the central government. In fact, the states are always reluctant to spare IPS officers for central deputation.
    • The second issue that merits attention is that police is in the state list of the Constitution. In peacetime, the CAPFs are primarily a reserve resource for supporting the state police forces. It is, therefore, necessary that their leadership is in complete synergy in understanding the challenges of policing at the state and central level.
    • Courtesy their experience in policing roles the provide a humane touch to CAPF
    • inter-departmental coordination between various CAPFS and State Police becomes smooth and seamless with the presence of IPS officers in every CAPF
    • exposure, training and grooming of an IPS officer matches with the job requirements for the senior posts of CAPFs etc
  • Give arguments against retaining the leadership role of IPS in CAPF
    • parliamentary panel has recommended that the post of Director-General and other senior positions in Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) should not be reserved for Indian Police Service officers. The panel has suggested that the nature of duty of CAPF are more similar to that of the Armed Forces and it would make more sense to bring more officers from the Armed Forces on deputation
    • Keeping in view the interest and morale of CAPF cadre etc

Conclusion – Based on arguments made above, give a fair and balanced opinion and discuss way forward.


Topic – mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3) Examine whether assessing the performance of constituencies in social development indicators would lead to greater accountability among our elected representatives?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

This article explains that the performance of India when it comes to improving India’s affliction with malnutrition can be improved if we measure constituency level data both at the centre and state level. There is a need to assess whether the present system of data collection for social development indicators is relevant.

Key demand of the question

The question expects you to first explain why the present system of data collection for measuring social development is adequate. Thereafter we need to highlight the advantages of collecting data constituency wise. Finally, we need to give our view and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that India lags behind social development indicators even amongst the countries of South Asia.

Body

  • Explain why data collection is important – the focus today is on data driven decision making in administration which makes data collection crucial
  • Explain the issue with collecting data at administrative unit level – tenure of district collectors is short , accountability can’t be fixed etc. Discuss why this might be more feasible from an administrative viewpoint
  • Highlight why collection of data at constituency level will help – accountability of elected representatives etc

Conclusion – give your view and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic–  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) Tax litigation takes a heavy toll on the economy and should be reduced. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

The economic survey has highlighted the issue of high tax litigation in India and it is important to discuss the issue in detail.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the burden of tax litigation in the country, and describe the effects of this burden on the overall economy.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  tax-litigation in India. E.g In March, 2017, there were approximately 1.37 lakh direct tax cases and 1.45 lakh indirect tax cases under consideration by the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, high courts and Supreme Court.

Body-

  1. Discuss in points as to how unnecessary and huge tax-litigation takes a toll on the economy. E.g
  • The tax department is the largest litigant with almost 85% of direct tax cases arising out of its appeals.
  • The Department unambiguously loses 65% of its cases.
  • The government’s persistence with litigation despite high rates of failure was increasing the workload of the judiciary and adding to delays and pendency of cases.
  • This, takes a severe toll on the economy in terms of stalled projects, mounting legal costs, contested tax revenues, and reduced investment”.
  • The project costs are significantly increased.
  1. Discuss briefly how tax-litigation can be reduced. E.g
  • Dedicated subject-matter courts could have “profound benefits” as seen in the apex court’s recent experiment with constituting an exclusive bench for taxation produced impressive results.
  • This may be replicated for other subject matters, and emulated by other high courts

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Inclusive growth

5) The Supreme Court’s decision in Surendra Mohan v. Union of India, has severely undermined India’s disability rights movement. Analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the given case and bring out the details of the judgement and how it it is against the disability rights in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Surendra Mohan v. Union of India case. E.g In this case the Court had to rule on the legality of the Tamil Nadu government’s policy of reserving the post of civil judge only for people whose percentage of blindness does not exceed 40-50%.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the judgement. E.g
  • The SC held that the government’s decision was rational and reasonable. It ruled that a judicial officer has to possess a reasonable amount of sight and hearing to discharge her functions.
  • It accepted the claim that impaired vision makes it impossible to perform the functions required of judicial officers, such as assessing the demeanour of witnesses and reading and analysing evidence.
  • It also accepted that asking a blind judicial officer to perform such administrative functions as recording dying declarations and conducting inquiries can result in avoidable complications.
  1. Discuss the implications and shortcomings of the judgement. E.g
  • First, the view that a totally blind person cannot thrive as a judge is belied by several examples of successful judges who are blind.
  • A blind person be reasonably expected to thrive as a judge without being excessively dependent and inefficient
  • The Court’s unreasoned assertion is an outcome of their ignorance about the capabilities of the disabled.
  • The  declaration cuts to the core of the  confidence of the visually impaired about the fairness and robustness of our judicial system etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6) India’s superbug issue is a global public health problem. Discuss the factors responsible for the problem.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

Recently superbugs have been detected in the Arctic and this points towards the alarming situation the world is in today. In this context it is important to discuss the issue vis a vis India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to describe the superbugs, their importance and why India is a hotbed for superbugs.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  superbugs. E.g Superbugs — the term unofficially refers to bacterial and fungal infections resistant to various antibiotics.

Body-

DIscuss the factors responsible for India being a hotbed of superbugs. E.g

  • Superbugs exist across the globe; it’s a problem rearing its ugly head in China, South Africa, Australia and even in U.S.
  • What makes India’s situation unlike other developing nations, is the “extent and degree” of the factors that fuel superbugs.
  • antibiotic use is a major driver” of the development of diseases that become resistant to the drugs. Indeed, in 2010 India consumed more antibiotics for human health per person than any other country. What’s more, the nation’s intake spiked by 62 percent from 2001 to 2010.
  • Such consumption is spurred by overprescription and overuse.
  • In 2014, the government re-categorized many antibiotics, to make them prescription-only. But implementation of the regulation remains murky.
  • Wastewater treatment plants serving antibiotic manufacturing facilities are responsible for transferring resistance genes.
  • There is also a “huge amount” of antibiotic use in animals in India.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

7) CMB- Bharat is an ambitious mission, which will increase our understanding of the universe. Discuss about the CMB and the significance of the CMB- Bharat mission.(250 words)

Reference

The hindu

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the CMB, its meaning, relevance and also discuss about the CMB- Bharat mission being mooted recently.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  CMB- Bharat. E.g A consortium of Indian scientists has submitted a proposal to the ISRO for a new space science mission called CMB Bharat.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the CMB. E.g
  • The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is radiation leftover from the time the first atoms formed in the universe, about 378,000 years after the Big Bang. In other words, it’s been around since when the universe was only 0.0027% as old as it is today.
  • It manifests as a temperature of 2.7 K in the emptiest regions of space. Without the CMB, these regions should have exhibited a temperature of 0 K. However, as the universe continues to expand, this temperature will keep dropping.
  • The ‘microwave’ in its name alludes to the radiation frequency: 160.23 GHz, which falls in the microwave range.
  • As radiation that has been around (almost) since the dawn of space and time, it carries the signatures of various cosmic events that shaped the universe over the last ~13.7 billion years.
  1. Discuss the scope and uses of CMB- Bharat in further detail. E.g
  • The CMB Bharat proposal envisages an instrument that will study CMB polarisation to a greater extent than the Planck or NASA WMAP probes did
  • CMB Bharat’s high-energy regime refers to constituents of the particulate realm. The mission will explore problems in neutrino physics, including help determine how many kinds of neutrinos there actually are and the order of their masses.
  • It will also be able to map the distribution of dark matter; and track baryons (composite particles like protons and neutrons) in the observable universe.
  • Additionally, the instrument will also be able to study the Milky Way galaxy’s astrophysical properties in greater detail.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

8) What do you understand by a chemputer and how the system may revolutionize drug production?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what chemputer is and the advantages it would offer for drug production.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that recently scientists have developed a new method to produce drug molecules which use downloadable blueprints to easily and reliably synthesize organic chemicals via a programmable ‘chemputer’.

Body

  • Explain why this is significant –
    • first time scientists are able to a synthesis of important drug molecules which can be achieved in an affordable and modular chemical-robot system called chemputer.
    • The objective of this program is to develop a general abstraction for chemistry that can be made universal, practical, and driven by a computer programme.
  • Discuss how it may revolutionize drug production
    • Chempiler is the chemical recipes, run on a computer programme which instructs the computer how to produce molecules on-demand, more affordable and safely than ever possible before.
    • The researchers claim the ability to use a universal code will allow chemists all around the world to convert their recipe into a digital code.
    • This approach is a key step in the digitization of chemistry and will allow the universal assembly of complex molecules on demand, democratizing the ability to discover and make new molecules using a simple software app and a modular chemputer.

Conclusion – Explain about the scope of this technology.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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