SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 JANUARY 2019

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 05 JANUARY 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic – Indian economy : issues

1) Analyze whether the slew of measures meant to aid the MSME sector to address their woes have come too little too late?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article first gives a nice summary of the series of steps taken by the government to address the woes faced by MSME sector due to demonetization and GST introduction. Thereafter it also analyzes whether these steps will actually prove beneficial for msme sector. MSME sector is a critical part of our economy and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the woes faced by MSME sector. Next, we need to explain the series of steps taken by the government. Finally we need to analyze whether these steps would end up alleviating the issues faced by MSME sector. Finally we need to discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that a slew of relief measures for msme sector has been announced off late.

Body

  • Discuss about the problems caused to msme sector as a result of demonetization and GST.
  • Highlight the steps taken by the government to address their woes such as
    • setting up of an export promotion cell within the MSME
    • Restructuring of MSME loans announced by RBI
    • Clarification on eCommerce regulations etc
  • Analyze how these steps would benefit the MSME sector, if at all

Conclusion – emphasize on the importance of MSME sector for the economy and the way forward.

Introduction:

                Micro, Small & Medium enterprises termed as “engine of growth “ for India, has played a prominent role in the development of the country in terms of creating employment opportunities. The share of MSMEs in the country’s gross value added is estimated to be about 32%. It also contributes about 40% to total exports and 45% to manufacturing output.

The government, in conjunction with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), has now launched a series of measures to alleviate their distress.

Body:

                Many MSMEs suffered severe hardships due to the twin impact of demonetisation and introduction of a flawed goods and services tax (GST) regime. This double whammy led to distress and defaults on bank loans. As a corollary, many of these units shut down and numerous others were forced to lay off employees.

The Recent Steps taken to alleviate the impacts due to above sufferings are

  • eCommerce Norms tightened:
    1. The rules in the FDI limits were changed for the eCommerce giants to tackle “anti-competitive” behaviour.
    2. Firstly, barring e-commerce marketplaces from selling products of firms in which they own stakes.
    3. Second, the move to ban deep discounts for selective products which earlier disturbed the level playing field.
    4. These will ensure that MSMEs are safeguarded from the competitive threat from e-commerce growth.
  • Export promotion cell:
    1. The plans to set up an export promotion cell within the MSME.
    2. EPC will help formulate strategies to promote the MSME products, maintain export quality standards.
  • Restructuring of Loans:
    1. The RBI announced a one-time restructuring for existing stressed MSME loans below ₹ 25 crore.
    2. Concurrently, the RBI also set up a panel under former Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) chairman K. Sinha to suggest long-term structural and institutional changes to catalyse MSME growth.
    3. Finally, RBI governor Shaktikanta Das has also promised to meet with MSME sector representatives to get a clearer idea of their problems.
  • Mudra scheme:
    1. Loans offered to small businesses in the unorganized sector are now covered by a credit guarantee scheme.
    2. It also helps bridge the shortfall in loans for these businesses.
    3. This helps small entrepreneurs save on the interests that they need to pay.
  • Other Reforms:
    1. GST system has been simplified with most of the items below the 28% bracket.
    2. GeM: Government e-Marketplace Portal to enable procurement of MSME goods by the government departments.
    3. TreDs platform to facilitate finance of trade receivables.
    4. Schemes like SFURTI, ASPIRE have been introduced to strengthen the Khadi and Agro MSMEs.

The steps taken by the Government are definitely beneficial to the MSMEs in the long run. However there have been damages done and the measures seem a little too late.

  • These measures are being announced after many units have shut down or are beyond repair. The remedial measures should have been executed right after demonetisation, instead of living in denial.
  • After farm loan waivers and MSME loan restructuring, ignoring demands for similar regulatory forbearance from other politically influential groups will be difficult and can be disastrous for the economy.
  • There is no initiative to reform or provide more moxie to the trade receivables discounting system, or TReDS platform, which has financed MSME receivables of only ₹ 2,400 crore till October 2018.
  • Most MSME units are umbilically attached to the supply chain of large corporations and are subject to their capricious payments records, leading to lengthening working capital cycles and an uncertain bank-loan repayment record. Government has opted to sidestep this problem, which alone would have helped in restructuring a large chunk of MSME loans.
  • The view that there are impending Loksabha elections in 2019, ergo the reforms have generated scepticism.

Conclusion:

                MSMEs being the growth engine of economy, there is a need to prepare a roadmap for sector in addition to the adhoc initiatives undertaken. Delineation of the objectives, vision, and mission is necessary to give clarity on the path to be treaded. An inclusive, sustainable vision to compete with the global MSMEs, by collaborating the industry groups, researchers, government and other stakeholders is the need of the hour.          

       


Topic– Indian agriculture : Issues

2) Reducing farmer’s vulnerability to negative shocks through focussed financial help is more critical than unconditional loan waivers scheme. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Livemint

Why this question

Farm loan waivers is the news of the season with multiple editorials having been written around the issue. These articles in particular dissect the issue very well even explaining the scenarios where farm loan waivers might actually work. Hence it provides very good fodder points for a question on farm loan waiver.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the recent phenomenon of announcing farm loan waivers and thereafter discuss the pros and cons of it. We need to highlight whether if loan waivers can work in certain situations rather than unconditional loan waivers. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced view and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the slew of loan waivers resorted to by political class as a quick win for farmers.

Body

  • Highlight why such unconditional loan waivers are problematic
    • They cause a moral hazard
    • Lead to lead to debt overhang (essentially stagnated investments due to any new income being used largely for paying back old debts)
    • Lead to vicious cycle of debt that sometimes characterizes farm households in India. Etc
  • Analyze what are the situations where a loan waiver might prove beneficial
    • monitoring of debt and ensuring appropriate governance mechanisms for new loans or targeted benefits. Although this may involve additional enforcement costs for the government, it will likely be far lower than the huge fiscal burden associated with debt relief schemes.
  • Discuss the contour of such a scheme

Conclusion – give your view on unconditional loan waivers and whether directed financial help that reduce farmers vulnerability might help.

Introduction:

        Farm loan waiver is the practice of writing off the loans given to farmers owing to their inability to pay them back due to reasons like calamity, disaster, political policies etc. Since 2014, there have been similar moves in Telangana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh which are States run by various parties. The loan waivers have become a big political tool in hands of political parties that has ruined capital status of Indian agriculture economics.

        The NSSO Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households (2013) shows that 52% of farming households are indebted, with rates as high as 89-92% in some States.

 

Body:

Loan waivers are not sufficient for farmers’ vulnerability to negative shocks:

  • Such measures can erode credit discipline and may make banks wary of lending to farmers in the future. It also makes a sharp dent in the finances of the government that finances the write-off. Ex- RBI chiefs like Urjit Patel and Raghuram Rajan have also expressed similar views of ‘Moral Hazard’.
  • Farm loan waivers are at best a temporary solution and entail a moral hazard even those who can afford to pay may not, in the expectation of a waiver.
  • World Bank economist Martin Kanz finds in a recent paper that the loan waiver scheme did not have any positive impact on household savings, credit uptake from banks, or investments.
  • Economic theory suggests that waiving debts via such a scheme will lead to debt overhang (essentially stagnated investments due to any new income being used largely for paying back old debts).
  • Farm loan waiver does not cater to the vast small and marginal farmers who don’t have access to formal credit and are indebted to local money lenders. A study by RythuSwarajyaVedika in June 2018 showed that 75% of farmer suicides in Telangana are by tenant farmers, who have no or least access to formal credit.
  • Also a recent study by the International Food Policy Research Institute reveals that at the national level, 48% of agricultural households do not avail a loan from any source. Among the borrowing households, 36% take credit from informal sources.

 

Focussed financial help is more critical than unconditional loan waivers scheme. However, Farm loan waiver could be beneficial if:

  • Monitoring of debt and ensuring appropriate governance mechanisms for new loans or targeted benefits. Although this may involve additional enforcement costs for the government, it will likely be far lower than the huge fiscal burden associated with debt relief schemes.
  • A broader agricultural policy: Such policy must consist of multiple avenues to ensure a farmer’s ability to deal with negative shocks to her income. This could include encouraging adoption of appropriate crop insurance products that operate along pay-on-harvest lines, as found to be effective in reducing farmer vulnerability in Kenya.
  • Better financial training and control over finances will deter households from going back to informal credit markets after having farm loans written off.

What needs to be done?

  • Credit, finance and Insurance:
    • A functional institutional credit system which is accessible and accountable to all cultivators.
    • This covers not only land-owning farmers but also sharecroppers, tenants, adivasi and women farmers, and animal-rearers.
    • Credit products for agriculture need to be tailor-made based on cropping and rain cycle, specific to a particular region. The regional offices of commercial banks should contribute in this exercise. Registration of all cultivators and providing Kisan credit cards.
    • The period of crop loan should be extendable to four years, given that, on average, every second or third year the spatial distribution of rain pattern is erratic in India.
  • Input Costs:
    • It is more important to make agriculture sustainable by reducing input costs of seeds, fertilizers and other inputs.
  • Remunerative Prices:
    • Extending reach of minimum support price which has been dedicated to few crops and in a narrow geographical area is important.
    • Set up of Futures and Trade markets, tie up of farmer and private companies for procurement should be looked into as alternative methods against distress sale.
  • Agro- Produce Marketing and Processing:
    • The agro-processing industry and warehousing needs to expand so that agricultural produce can be stored when prices plunge.
    • Promoting viable farmer collectives to act as a “collective voice of marginal and small farmers”.
    • Legislations on the basis of NITI Aayog’s new model law — Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitating) Act (APLM) should be enacted in all states.
  • Technology:
    • Use of technology to aid farmers like drip and sprinkler irrigation.
    • Precision agriculture, GM Crops should be encouraged drought prone areas.
    • Space technology and Mobiles should act as “Eyes and Ears” of the farmers to assist in farming.
  • Distress Management:
    • Establish farmers’ distress and disaster relief commissions at the national and State levels, based on the model of Kerala Farmers’ Debt Relief Commission.

 

Conclusion:

Waiving of loans should be done only in the most exceptional circumstances. The challenge before political parties and governments is to deliver on the institutional solutions demanded by farmers as against temporary solutions of loan waivers.


Topic– recent developments in science and technology.

3) The soft landing on the dark side of the moon by China will greatly expand our knowledge. Examine.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Chinese spacecraft Chang’e-4, successfully made a landing on the dark side of the moon and we need to be aware why this landing is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain why the landing of Chang’s e-4 on the dark side of the moon is important and how it will expand our knowledge.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that Chinese spacecraft recently landed on the dark side of the moon

Body

  • Explain about the dark side of the moon
  • Explain why this mission is important
    • Considering that earth is right next door to the moon, we know precious little about it. The mission will help us in planetary studies, and help in understanding exoplanets.
    • the far side is a quiet place and a haven for earthly aspirations to set up a radio telescope that could reveal astronomical mysteries, such as the structure of the universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of such missions in expanding our knowledge about the solar system and beyond.

 

Introduction:

        China joined a select group of countries with successful missions to the moon, when its spacecraft, Chang’e-4, successfully made a landing, according to the China National Space Administration. It landed at a spot on the moon’s far side, the Von Kármán crater (which sits within the great Aitken basin), which is untouched by earlier missions from earth.

 

Body:

       

               

      Dark Side of the moon:

  • The dark or far side of the moon is of particular scientific interest as it is heavily pockmarked by deep craters formed by meteorite collisions.
  • More so than the nearside, where a succession of lava flows have obscured many of the earliest impacts.
  • Being thicker, the far side has not faced such an erasure and bears the marks of the crater impacts. This helps in study of its geology.
  • The moon’s far side also differs from the near side in that it is shielded from all the radio waves emanating from earth.
  • The far side of the moon can never be in direct line-of-sight with Earth, proving direct radio communication impossible, which is why the orbiter is needed.

      Importance of the Mission:

  • The mission helps us to analyze whether the bombardment by asteroids, left over from the formation of the solar system, might have created the conditions for life.
  • The mission intends to study the local lunar geology, probe the moon’s interior, and analyse the solar wind – a stream of high-energy particles that flow from the sun.
  • Arabidopsis seeds and silkworm eggs sent to the Moon in a ‘mini biosphere’ to test photosynthesis and respiration in the low-gravity lunar environment.
  • The far side is a quiet place and a haven for earthly aspirations to set up a radio telescope that could reveal astronomical mysteries, such as the structure of the universe shortly after the Big Bang.
  • The mission will help us study the moon’s formation and early evolution mysteries could guide us in planetary studies, and help in understanding exoplanets.

 

Importance for India:

  • Chang’e-4 and Chandrayaan-2 — China & India missions have similar objectives, landing site near the moon’s South Pole.
  • Chandrayaan-2, India’s second mission to the moon, will comprise an orbiter, a lander named Vikram and a rover.
  • India can learn from the challenges faced by the Chang’e 4 and overcome the same in Chandrayaan 2.

 

Conclusion:

 

Chang’e-4 could herald a new chapter in lunar exploration. The mission’s outcome will open new avenues in the field of space exploration.


Topic- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration:

4) What are key ethical issues faced by health organizations and systems? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about various kinds of ethical issues faced by health organizations, in their functioning.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  relationship between health and ethics. E.g Ethical questions related to health, health care, and public health cover topics as diverse as moral issues around reproduction, state obligations in the provision of health care services, and appropriate measures to control infectious disease. Scholars and health care professionals have debated ethical questions related to health and health care since the earliest days of medicine.

Body-

Discuss in points the ethical issues faced by health organizations. E.g

  1. Resource allocation across health services and programmes.
  2. Corporate partnerships and philanthropic fundraising.
  3. Workplace ethics
  4. Equitable access.
  5. Individual versus population health.
  6. Public accountability.

 

Discuss and elaborate each ethical problem stated above, in brief detail.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Introduction:

        Health  ethics  has  a  broad  focus,  taking  in  ethical  issues  faced  by  health  professionals,  health  policy-makers  and  health  researchers,  as  well  as  by  patients,  families,  and  communities  in  a  range  of  contexts  related  to  health,  including clinical care, health services and systems, public health, epidemiology, information technology and the use of  animals  in  research.

 

Body:

Various ethical issues faced by health organizations are as follows:

 

  • Resource allocation across health services and programmes:
  • Given that the resources are limited, be it medicines or doctors or nurses, the priorities on which the resources are allocated fairly and appropriately to meet the community’s health needs.
  • Examples: Equality & Justice: In a public health crisis, such as an influenza pandemic, who should have priority access to vaccines, drugs and hospital services. Because  normal  health  care  systems  may  cease  to  function  during  a  severe  public health crisis, efforts should be made to achieve consensus on these questions in advance.
  • The cases of corruption to access free healthcare in public hospitals. Gorakhpur incident where many infants died due to lack of basic facilities.
  • Corporate partnerships and philanthropic fundraising:
  • In the face of scarce resources, if there are restrictions on the kinds of funding sources from which a health institution may accept support.
  • Examples: The possible conflict of interest between the values of the potential funder and the health institution. A doctor prescribing a particular brand of drug although there are generic alternatives for the same.
  • Cartelization of medical companies can lead to high prices of medicines, equipments like stents.
  • Workplace ethics:
  • The obligations that health institutions have to their staff to ensure that the workplace is safe, respectful, and just.
  • Example: Wrong diagnosis and unnecessary medical tests in case of patients with private medical insurance.
  • The Case of Aruna Shanbaug, the head-nurse in KEM hospital, where she was raped by a colleague and left in a vegetative state.
  • Equitable access: 
  • The obligations that health institutions or systems have to care for the uninsured, patients beyond their catchment area or jurisdictional borders, or future patients.
  • Examples: Equity and Equality: Health being a state subject in India, the public health scheme cards and insurance should be operable across states. Lack of hospitals in tribal areas.
  • Accident victims are usually turned away by hospitals due the possible legal issues.
  • Individual versus  population health:  
    • The question of population health needs versus individual patient needs, if not all needs can be met.
    • Example: the issues regarding the appropriate allocation of resources between prevention and treatment.
  • Public accountability:
    • The obligations of health institutions and systems towards the communities they serve to be transparent about how health resources are used and to reflect community values in their decisions.
    • Example: Accountability & Transparency: The recent case where the Rajasthan government didn’t inform the public of the Zika outbreak.
    • The case of Chattisgarh where a doctor to attain world record for maximum tubectomies lead to botched up surgeries and death of many tribal women.

Way Forward:

  • Citizen charters should guide the stakeholders – both patients and medical fraternity.
  • Equitable distribution of resources across India.
  • An autonomous, decisive and democratic Regulator to regulate the public and private health organizations in India.
  • Collaboration with global health entities like WHO to fight pandemics and epidemics.

Conclusion:

The decisions may have significant implications for patients, families, clinicians, and other key stakeholders. Organizational  and  health  system  ethics  are  also  concerned  with  the  institutional  environment  within  which  decisions are made and the conditions that contribute to the development of a culture that supports and reinforces ethical  decision-making.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance”

5) Explain how do laws, rules, regulations and conscience differ as sources of ethical guidance?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain how laws, rules, regulations and conscience act as sources of ethical guidance and how they differ from each other.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain why ethical guidance is required when we are faced with situations of ethical dilemmas.

Body

  • Explain how laws , rules, regulations and conscience serve as sources of ethical guidance
    • Laws – Laws set out standards, procedures and principles that must be followed. A law is enforceable by the judicial system, i.e. those responsible for breaking them can be prosecuted in court.
    • Rules – rules are more pliable than laws and serve to make our living in society more organised and ordered.
    • Regulations – Regulation creates, limits, constraints a right, creates or limits a duty, or allocates a responsibility.
    • Conscience – conscience aims to make moral decisions in ‘overwhelming forces of inescapable situations’ despite the risk of adverse consequences. If conscience goes, then everything collapses, conscience is central to our identity and it is as component in the moral decisions making process
  • Explain how they are different and how they prove useful in situations of ethical dilemmas

Conclusion – Give your view on the relative importance of laws, rules, regulations and conscience.

 

Introduction:

                        Human conduct is chiefly guided by Laws, rules, regulations and Conscience.

       

Body:

       

LAW : According to Thomas Aquinas, Law is a statement of reasons designed to achieve common good in the society. It can be divided into Eternal (Divine) Law, Human Law and Natural Law. The Legislature is responsible.

        Example: Motor Vehicles Act is a Law.

 

RULES: Within the jurisdiction of Law, rules are made. Rules are the norms for implementation of the Law. If Law is the skeletal structure, then Rules are the life-blood of it. The Executive is responsible.

        Example: Traffic rules under Motor Vehicles Act

 

REGULATIONS:  Laws and Rules become the basis for controlling behaviour of humans, so that they can behave in a desirable way. This act of controlling behaviour is known as Regulation.

Regulation is essence of governance and quality of regulation determines the

  • Quality of human behaviour
  • Quality of goods and services
  • Quality of peace & harmony.
  • Quality of Development.
  • Strength of Society.

Example: Food products and their regulation by FSSAI; Business, trade & commerce regulation by SEBI.

CONSCIENCE: It is the inner voice of a person which guides the right and wrong. Conscience aims to make moral decisions in ‘overwhelming forces of inescapable situations’ despite the risk of adverse consequences. If conscience goes, then everything collapses, conscience is central to our identity and it is as component in the moral decisions making process.

        Example: Concept of Enlightenment, Nirvana etc. are associated with highest stage of development of human Conscience. Gandhiji’s civil disobedience movement was  true to his conscience although it broke the law.

        Differences between each other    

  • The main difference between rules and laws is the consequences associated with breaking them. While each is developed to invoke a sense of order, fair play, and safety, the weight of a law is much heavier than the weight of a rule. Laws are like the legal version of rule.
  • Rules are flexible while the laws and regulations are fixed. Also rules are broader in scope when compared to laws and regulations.
  • Law is an external source of guidance where as conscience is a product of internal process.
  • Most of the laws, rules and regulations have their roots in Conscience.
  • A person may escape from breaking a law he can never escape himself from his conscience when he does an unethical action. Example: Marital Rape.
  • Laws represent collective aspirations of the society where as conscience is a product of socialisation.
  • Ethical guidance provided by law and conscience may not always be same which could be a cause for ethical dilemma. Example: Death Penalty

Conclusion:

                Laws, Rules, Regulations and Conscience together guide the conduct of humans in a society. The conscience however guides the other three.


Topic– Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions;

6) What are the various kinds of dilemmas faced by a public servant. Discuss with examples.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about various kinds of ethical dilemmas faced by a public servant. We also have to give examples for each such kind of dilemma, in order to bring clarity to our answer.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of an ethical dilemma. E.g briefly write about what is an ethical dilemma.

Body-

Discuss the various kinds of ethical dilemmas faced by a public servant. E.g

  1. Dilemmas Involving Fairness- What matters potentially influence your ability to work in the public interest and represent all constituents equally and fairly?
  2. Dilemmas Involving Conflicts between Personal Interests and the Public’s Interest- Do you have personal interests that conflict with your duty of loyalty to the public you have been elected to serve?
  3. Dilemmas Involving the Faithful Execution of your Official Duties- Can you competently fulfill the responsibilities of your office?
  4. Dilemmas Involving Acting with Integrity- Do you conduct yourself honestly and with the integrity expected from public officials?
  5. Dilemmas Involving Accountability- To maintain the public trust do you act in a manner that is transparent and is accountable to your constituents?

 

Give examples of each such kind of ethical dilemmas.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Introduction:

Ethical dilemmas, also known as moral dilemmas, are situations in which there is a choice to be made between two options, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable fashion. In such cases, societal and personal ethical guidelines can provide no satisfactory outcome for the chooser.

Ethical dilemmas assume that the chooser will abide by societal norms, such as codes of law or religious teachings, in order to make the choice ethically impossible.

       

Body:

Public Servants are the glue between the State and the people. They have a wide array of responsibilities from formulation, implementation of various rules, policies to service delivery to citizens. They are granted with sufficient powers to carry on their work in an unhindered manner. The vast scope of operations can give rise to situations where they are faced with various ethical dilemmas as given below.

 

  • Dilemmas Involving Fairness:
    • The matters that potentially influence the ability to work in the public interest and represent all constituents equally and fairly.
    • Example: Granting licenses for coalmining or allocation of public resource. One of the bidders is your spouse’s company.
    • How to avoid dilemma: Transparency and competitive measures like use of ICT, maximum benefit to the state and public.
  • Dilemmas Involving Conflicts between Personal Interests and the Public’s Interest:
    • The cases in which personal interests that conflict with your duty of loyalty to the public you have been elected/appointed to serve.
    • Example: When a civil servant is heading a recruitment agency and his relatives are applying for the job under the same agency.
    • How to avoid dilemma: Be Neutral, Separation of Personal and Private Affairs, Recusal from the position, giving an undertaking to Government.
  • Dilemmas Involving the Faithful Execution of your Official Duties:
    • Matters in which there is a need to competently fulfil the responsibilities of your office.
    • Example: Minister issues orders on firing against a violent mob. You are the chief heading the force.
    • How to avoid dilemma: Accept orders in writing as per Supreme Court directive.
  • Dilemmas Involving Acting with Integrity:
    • Conduct oneself honestly and with the integrity expected from public officials.
    • Example: A particular department is known for its corruption and bribery. You are newly appointed as head of the department and being forced to join the gang.
    • How to avoid dilemma: Be honest, uphold integrity, use legal measures.
  • Dilemmas Involving Accountability & Transparency:
    • To maintain the public trust, there is a need to act in a manner that is transparent and is accountable to your constituent. With RTI Act, Transparency and Accountability have a higher pedestal and makes governance more participatory.
    • Example: Rafale Deal – to disclose the prices and details or to keep it confidential.
    • How to avoid dilemma: Clear classification of information, Effective Grievance Redressal Mechanisms like CIC, SIC.
  • Dilemmas Involving Law and Conscience:
    • There are instances where law and conscience overlap, conflict and lack of clarity.
    • Example: Abortion of foetus beyond the stipulated time period as against the mother’s life at risk
    • How to avoid dilemma: Application of Wisdom.

 

Conclusion:

        A public servant is bound to be faced by many dilemmas. Adhering to the ethical values like integrity, objectivity, transparency and application of wisdom can help in overcoming the dilemmas.


Topic– Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; accountability and ethical governance.

7) Discuss how the principle of ALIR help in solving ethical dilemmas faced by public servants.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the ALIR principles and bring out at length as to how they help in solving ethical dilemmas in public services.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  ethical dilemma. E.g A dilemma is something wider and more demanding than a problem, however difficult or complex the latter may be (Rapoport, 1960). The reason is that dilemmas, unlike problems, cannot be solved in the terms in which they are initially presented to the decision-maker.

Body-

Discuss in detail the ALIR principles and how they can be applied to solve ethical dilemmas in public services. E.g

  1. The imperative for accountability
  • Since it is ministers who are accountable to Parliament, not civil servants, it follows that the latter are obliged to execute the orders of the former even if the disagree with their content, provided that they originate from a legitimate source of authority in the institutional hierarchy, and that authority insists on being executed despite the remonstrances put forward by officials.
  1. The imperative for legality
  • Respect for and application of the principle of legality entails a particular type of control on administrative action that aims to see that public administration operates within the context of the law established by the legislature (Parliament). Since the source of all power is ultimately the people, according to the fundamental constitutional principle of popular sovereignty that is enshrined in most democracies nowadays, it follows that all power must be exercised in the name and to the general interest of the people.
  1. The imperative for integrity
  • The imperative for integrity constitutes a source of internal self-control in administrative conduct based on ethical standards and criteria shared and respected by the corps of professional administrators. Avoiding, for instance, corruption and exhibiting integrity would then be for them a matter of personal and professional honour and prestige in a culture of ethics, and not simply an externally imposed obligation.”
  1. The imperative for responsiveness
  • the imperative for responsiveness to civil society calls for an increased awareness and readiness to adapt to changing values and conditions in society at large, and stresses the need for an overall ‘external’ or societal accountability of state authorities and administration.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 

Introduction:

        A dilemma is something wider and more demanding than a problem, however difficult or complex the latter may be (Rappoport, 1960). The reason is that dilemmas, unlike problems, cannot be solved in the terms in which they are initially presented to the decision-maker.

        Ethical dilemmas, also known as moral dilemmas, are situations in which there is a choice to be made between two options, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable fashion.

Body:

The principles of ALIR can be used to solve the ethical dilemmas faced by public servants.

  • The imperative for accountability
    • The loyalty  of  the  bureaucracy  to  its  political  masters  is  grounded  on  the  obligation  of  ministers  in  parliamentary  democracies  to  be  answerable  and  responsible  to  the  legislature   (ministerial   responsibility   to   Parliament).    
    • It is   only   by   that   means   that   the   representatives of the nation may hold the bureaucracy accountable to the will of the people and the general interest.
    • The administration should be held accountable to government and parliament on matters of policy and expediency.
    • Example: Kautilya in Arthashastra says that a king’s ultimate duty is towards his subjects. He should remember it whenever he takes any important decision.
  • The imperative for legality
    • Respect for and application of the principle of legality entails a particular type of control on administrative action that aims to see that public administration operates within the context of the law established by the legislature (Parliament). S
    • Since the source of all power is ultimately the people, according to the fundamental constitutional principle of popular sovereignty that is enshrined in most democracies nowadays, it follows that all power must be exercised in the name and to the general interest of the people.
    • Example: The auction for public goods like Spectrum, coal etc. cannot be done as per the will of the public servants. Their actions must follow the prevailing rule of law.
  • The imperative for integrity
    • The imperative for integrity constitutes a source of internal self-control in administrative conduct based on ethical standards and criteria shared and respected by the corps of professional administrators.
    • Avoiding, for instance, corruption and exhibiting integrity would then be for them a matter of personal and professional honour and prestige in a culture of ethics, and not simply an externally imposed obligation.
    • Example: Lal Bahadur Shastri was a man of Integrity. He upheld his honesty throughout his public career.
  • The imperative for responsiveness
    • The imperative for responsiveness to civil society calls for an increased awareness and readiness to adapt to changing values and conditions in society at large, and stresses the need for an overall ‘external’ or societal accountability of state authorities and administration.
    • Example: Sec 377 of the IPC was decriminalized. The awareness about homosexual and transgender rights has increased among the public in India. Public servants must also become sensitive towards their needs.

Conclusion:

A public servant is bound to be faced by many dilemmas. The principles of ALIR can help in overcoming the dilemmas.