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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 22 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 22 January 2019

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Data manipulation in the MGNREGA is leading to gross violations in its implementation. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

MGNREGA has been one of the most successful poverty reduction and employment generation schemes of modern India. Its significance increases in the wake of growing urban-rural disparity and distress migration. The scheme has however been criticized on various accounts and it is vital to analyze how it’s implementation is being affected by data manipulation.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the working of the MGNREGA and bring out the data manipulation experienced by it and how it affects the programme implementation.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  MGNREGA. E.g mention about the nature, aims of the scheme and when it was started.

Body-

  1. Discuss the data manipulation under the programme. E.g
  • The MGNREGA is a demand-driven programme, i.e., work must be provided within 15 days of demanding work failing which the Centre must pay an unemployment allowance (UA). A UA report is generated but rarely implemented.
  • Numerous ground reports across the country suggest that because of a funds crunch, field functionaries do not even enter the work demanded by labourers in the MGNREGA Management Information System (MIS). This is information suppression at the source.
  • Lack of offline alternatives to capture work demand from labourers means that data on the MIS are being treated as the gospel truth.
  • Be that as it may, even this under-registered demand is being dishonoured by the government. Although work demand data (in person days) and employment-generated data are available at a panchayat level, aggregate data at the national level are only presented for employment generated.
  • Thus, under-registered national demand is captured but intentionally not reported. By doing this, the Central government is trying to hide its violation of the extent of under-provision of work.
  • delay by the Central government (called stage 2 delays) is captured in the system, it is intentionally suppressed to avoid paying delay compensation — another violation of the Act.
  1. Discuss how data manipulation affects implementation of the scheme. E.g
  • Delays in payments, and unmet demand for work affects livelihood etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

2) Discuss the evolution of India’s policy with respect to ASEAN?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the evolution of India’s policy with respect to ASEAN from look easy to act east. Thereafter, we need to bring out the impact of such policies on relations between India and Asean and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief introduction about ASEAN and why they are important for India.

Body

  • Discuss in brief the history of india’s relationship with ASEAN. Highlight the evolution of India’s foreign policy wrt ASEAN from Look East policy to Act East policy and discuss the content of these policies
  • Highlight the major challenges and opportunities that India’s relation with ASEAN provides. You can discuss the trade agreement between the two, the strategic content of the relationship etc
  • Discuss how the relationship can evolve to become mutually beneficial

Conclusion – Give your view on the status of India Asean relationship and discuss way forward.


Topic-Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.

3) Discuss the relevance of SAARC in India’s foreign policy and examine whether BIMSTEC is more suited to India’s interests?(250 words)

Reference

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the status quo of SAARC, the reason why regional connectivity is important both from an Indian as well as a regional point of view. Thereafter, we need to discuss the shortcomings of SAARC and examine why BIMSTEC is more crucial for fulfilling India’s vision for the region.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the lack of cohesiveness in South Asia which has not allowed countries in the region to tackle their developmental deficit together.

Body

  • Discuss the content of India’s foreign policy with respect to South Asian region and why an effective regional grouping such as SAARC or BIMSTEC would be beneficial for India
  • Discuss the agreements that India was planning with SAARC such as electricity grid connectivity, transport corridor etc . Discuss why achieving these aims through SAARC proved difficult
  • Highlight the opportunities provided by BIMSTEC and discuss the way forward wrt BIMSTEC.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

4) BIMSTEC has demonstrated considerable push to further expand cooperation and connectivity among the member states. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

BIMSTEC has been touted as an alternative to SAARC, which has reached a dead end due to various political issues. In this context it is important to discuss the measures recently taken under the BIMSTEC framework to improve connectivity and cooperation among the member states.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the initiatives and decisions taken under the framework of BIMSTEC to improve connectivity and cooperation among the member states.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  BIMSTEC. E.g mention about the members of the organization and date of incorporation etc.

Body-

Discuss in points about the initiatives and decisions taken by the organisation to bolster cooperation and connectivity among the member states. E.g

  • Following the fourth meeting of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) in Kathmandu in August, there is a renewed push to conclude a series of proposals to further cooperation and connectivity.
  • The top among them are a master plan on connectivity and the motor vehicle agreement, which have been in the works for almost a decade.
  • Other proposals like a parliamentarians forum, cooperation on cyber and space cooperation and maritime security are under discussion.
  • Similarly, the motor vehicle agreement which aims to streamline vehicle movement across the region is also in an advanced stage of finalisation.
  • BIMSTEC is already looking at adopting the model of ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance (AHA) on disaster management etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – India and her neighbourhood relations.

5) Discus how India-Maldives relationship has evolved over the time.(250 words)

The hindu

Reference

Why this question

The change in government in Maldives has led to a thaw in the cold relations between the state and the India. In this context it is important to discuss the India- Maldives relationship in detail and bring out its historical and current position.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing direcreceive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the India-Maldives relationship- the history of engagement, important events, issues and concerns.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Maldives. E.g mention its location and proximity to India and its vital position in the Indian ocean.

Body-

  1. Discuss the history of the relationship between the two countries. E.g
  • Indian Army’s ‘Operation Cactus’ foiled a coup in Maldives that was attempted by a pro-Eelam group in 1988.
  • India maintains a naval presence in Maldives, at the request of the Maldives, since 2009.
  • Maldives has pledged its support to India as a permanent member of an expanded UN Security Council.
  • Relations between India and Maldives came under a strain after Male had terminated the agreement it entered into with GMR in 2010 for the modernisation of the Ibrahim Nasir International Airport.
  • Maldives is also part of China’s Silk Road project, a move that has not gone down well in New Delhi.
  1. Discuss the present status and future areas of cooperation and engagement. E.g
  • During his maiden India visit, Solih not only emphasized his country’s traditionally close ties with India, but also affirmed his government’s “India First Policy.”
  • India reciprocated the gesture by announcing an assistance of $1.4 billion through a credit line and budgetary support to the Maldives.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

6) NITI Aayog’s strategy for 2022 is replete with environmental and livelihood related contradictions. Critically analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The NITI Aayog which replaced the erstwhile planning commission has recently (last year) released a strategy for 2022. It is important to discuss the strategy in detail and bring out its positive as well as negative points.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to look deep into the strategy-2022 envisaged by the NITI Aayog and bring out how it will impact Indian economy and its environmental and livelihood aspects.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recently released NITI Aayog’s strategy for 2022. E.g it is an aspirational strategy which aims to achieve a ‘New India’ by 2022, when the country celebrates its 75th year of Independence.

Body-

  1. Discuss the positive points of the strategy. E.g
  • It follows the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Inclusion, sustainability, participation, gender equality etc.
  • major focus on renewable energy, organic farming (with the zero budget natural farming, increasing forest cover, and reducing pollution and waste.
  1. Discuss the negative points and its anticipated effects on livelihood and environment. E.g
  • the urgent need to conserve a range of non-forest ecosystems is missing
  • The increasing presence of toxic chemicals around us finds no mention.
  • Most importantly, the absence of an integrated, comprehensive view on how ecological issues can be integrated into all sectors indicates that this is still not core to the mindset of our planners.
  • It proposes a doubling of the extent of mining.
  • stress on rapid, single-window clearance of infrastructure and other projects etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Indian agriculture: issues

7) Schemes such KALIA and Rythu Bhandhu indicate that there is a shift in policy from promising higher MSPs or loan waivers to direct income/investment support to farmers. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article discusses the silent shift that is taking place in welfare schemes for farmers. The farmers of India have largely been the neglected chapter in India’s growth story and the plight of the farmer is now taking centrestage. As a result, government is modifying the way it supports its farmers and the article provides very important insight in this regard.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what KALIA and Rythu Bhandhu schemes are and thereafter explain how this marks a transformation in farmers welfare scheme from higher MSPs or loan waivers to direct income/investment support to farmers. Discuss the pros and cons of this and provide the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the growing discontent among the farmers.

Body

  • Explain about KALIA and Rythu Bandhu scheme
    • Telangana’s Rythu Bandhu scheme, which gives Rs 4,000/acre to land-owning farmers for two seasons in a year, is costing the state exchequer roughly Rs 12,000 crore per annum. It appears to have reached more than 90 per cent farmers, and yielded political dividends.
    • KALIA (Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income Augmentation) scheme of Odisha attempts to respond to this criticism and accordingly promises to include not only land-owning farmers (up to 5 acres) but also tenants and agri-labourers. While land-owning small and marginal farmers, 30.17 lakh in number, accounting for 92 per cent of farming households in Odisha, will get Rs 5,000/family for five seasons, the tenants and agri-labourers (estimated to be 10 lakh in number) who have no land records will get one-time payment of Rs 12,500/family, and vulnerable families (another 10 lakh) will get one-time payment of Rs 10,000/family. With some support for life insurance and interest-free loans up to Rs 50,000, the scheme is likely to cost about Rs 10,180 crore over three years.
  • Explain how this marks a transformation in the approach of government with respect to farmers welfare scheme
  • Discuss the pros and cons of such a transformation – impact on government finances, its reach, its impact on market forces etc. Discuss how it negates the ill

effect of announcing high MSPs and unconditional loan waivers

Conclusion – give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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