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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 January 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc)


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

1) Explain the various landforms associated with volcanic activities?(250 words)

GC Leong – Ch 3

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the various intrusive and extrusive landforms associated with volcanism.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that volcanic activities have a profound influence on the earth’s landform.

Body – Explain the various intrusive igneous landforms associated with volcanoes. Eg lopoliths, phacoliths, batholiths and laccoliths etc.

Explain the various extrusive landforms associated with volcanoes such as lava plains and basalt plateaux.  Draw diagram to explain it in a more Lucie manner.

Conclusion – Emphasize that volcanoes have a huge bearing on the landforms.


Topic-  changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2) Coastal districts of India must continue to take measures to make them more resilient against extreme weather events. Discuss. (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain that coastal areas have become more susceptible to extreme weather events and thus there is a greater need to make them more resilient and discuss the ways in which this can be done.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the report of IPCC etc which has warned about the increased frequency and intensity of such extreme weather events.

Body

  • Explain about the various extreme weather events such as tsunamis, cyclones etc which impact the coastal regions and the kind of devastation it causes with examples of cyclone gaja etc
  • Explain the measures taken by the government to make coastal regions more resilient
  • Discuss what more needs to be down
    • Coastal States must, therefore, focus on reducing the hazard through policies that expand resilient housing, build better storm shelters and create financial mechanisms for insurance and compensation.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic –    changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

3) What could be the effects of warming of ocean waters across the world. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the possible anticipated effects of warming ocean waters on the planet- on environment and ecology and economy and society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  warming ocean waters as has being witnessed in recent decades. E.g

Body-

Discuss in points, the effects being witnessed and possibly anticipated in future, due to warming of ocean waters. E.g

  • Rise in sea-levels.
  • Rise in frequency of extreme weather events
  • Threat and loss of Coral reefs
  • Severy food security risks especially in the tropics where fisheries form a significant source of food.
  • Melting of sea ice and threat to biodiversity- like the polar bears, of those areas etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Discuss the provisions of right to disconnect Bill and analyze its need?(250 words)

Hindustantimes

 

Why this question

This private member Bill has been introduced with a purpose of making work life balance easier. The provisions of the Bill along with with other issues in the Bill needs to be discussed.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the key provisions of the bill, discuss the provisions of the Bill and examine the reasons why the Bill is needed and issues involved therein.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should bring out the key provisions of the Bill.

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the Bill is a private member Bill aiming to improve the work life balance.

Body

  • Discuss the provisions of the Bill
    • Aim: The Right to Disconnect Bill aims at “reducing stress and ease tension between an employee’s personal and professional life.”
    • The Bill gives employees the right to not respond to calls or any kind of communications from the employers after office hours.
    • Bill requires the setting up of an Employee Welfare Authority, which will publish reports related to the impact employees have from prolonged use of digital tools beyond office hours etc
  • Highlight the need and significance of the bill
    • Work life imbalance leads to stress, anxiety and many mental health issues etc
    • traditional service sector has to often deal with unreasonable work hours, working overtime without extra compensation, or carrying their work home.
    • Right to Disconnect Bill 2018, if passed, will help people strike work-life balance and lead a better life.
  • Give example of other countries who have already adopted such laws

Conclusion – give your view on the utility of the Bill and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

5) India has made a lot of progress in reducing plastic waste but a lot more still needs to be done. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

India has resolved to end single-use plastics by 2022 and in this connection it has also released the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016. In this context it is important to discuss what has been achieved and what more needs to be done.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of India’s fight against plastic use and express our opinion as to why still more needs to be done in this regard.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines highlighting India’s efforts to reduce plastic waste. E.g India has resolved to beat plastic pollution by eliminating single-use plastics by 2022.

Body-

Discuss what India has achieved in this direction. E.g

  • 22 States and Union Territories have announced a ban on single-use plastics such as carry bags, cups, plates, cutlery, straws and thermocol products. Puducherry will implement a ban from March 1.
  • Voluntary initiatives are having an impact in many States, as citizens reduce, reuse and sort their waste.
  • The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 are clear that producers, importers and brand owners must adopt a collect-back system for the plastic they introduce into the environment etc.
  • Discuss what more needs to be done. E.g
  • Waste plastic from packaging of everything from food, cosmetics and groceries to goods delivered by online platforms remains unaddressed.
  • Local bodies should consult manufacturers or importers to assess the problem. Delaying such a measure has created the anomalous situation of small producers of plastics facing the ban, while more organised entities covered by the Extended Producer Responsibility clause continue with business as usual.
  • Cities and towns need competent municipal systems to achieve this.
  • The fast moving consumer goods sector that uses large volumes of packaging, posing a higher order challenge.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

6) COP-24 held at Katowice in Poland, brings little cheer on the climate front for developing countries. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Our future is in a precarious situation. Globally the effects of climate change are being felt with more intensity and severity with each passing year. COP-24, the latest of the climate change negotiations under the Paris Pact framework have been widely criticised for being inadequate in addressing the issue. In this context it is important to discuss the outcomes of the conference, particularly for the developing countries.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to why the COP- 24 brings little cheers for the developing countries. We have to discuss the outcomes of the conference in terms of it’s underachievements and limitations.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  COP-24. E.g mention its relation with the Paris agreement and mention its key outcome- the rulebook for Paris agreement.

Body-

Discuss in points as to how/ why COP-24 brings little cheer on the climate front for developing countries. E.g

  • substantial rollback of differentiation between the global North and South in climate action, with uniform standards of reporting, monitoring and evaluation for all countries.
  • While all developing nations are ostensibly allowed flexibility in these reporting requirements, the concession has been hedged in with a number of conditions, with the intention of forcing them to full compliance in short order.
  • the requirement of reporting as little as 500 kilo tonnes or 0.05% of national emissions per country has little scientific significance.
  • a smaller percentage of the emissions of a large emitter will be a larger quantity in absolute terms compared to the larger percentage of emissions of a small emitter.
  • As the “rulebook” stands today, private sector flows or loans, which will increase the indebtedness of developing countries, are to be considered adequate fulfilment of developed country obligations under the UNFCCC etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic-  Ethical issues in corporate governance

7) Analyze how corporates are dealing with the scourge of climate change?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

The issue of climate change has taken centre stage off late and everyone is doing or is expected to do their bit to deal with the impacts of climate change. Corporate ethics require the corporates as well to put in efforts to mitigate climate change and this question enables you to examine the issue.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain why is it ethical for companies to contribute to the cause of climate change and the way in which they are doing so.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that climate change has become a pressing issue and everyone needs to do their bit to tackle the problems associated with climate change.

Body

  • First, discuss why is it necessary for corporates to deal with the issue of climate change –
    • Converting national climate plans into reality is a complex process that requires contribution from everyone—it needs a public-private partnership. Governments and industries must work together to ensure successful implementation of Paris Agreement commitments.
    • Sustainability is no longer a buzzword; it’s a core component of business strategy. It’s an approach to creating long-term value by taking into consideration how a given organisation operates in ecological, social and economic environments. Sustainability is built on the assumption that developing such strategies foster company longevity.
  • Discuss the steps taken by corporates to deal with climate change

Conclusion – give your view on the necessity of this contribution and discuss way forward.


Topic–  Right to Information.

8) Participation of people is sine qua non of any democratic form of government in achieving the ideal of good governance and RTI is a measure step towards this goal. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about the relationship between RTI and good governance, and express  our opinion as to how RTI promotes citizen participation and good governance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  RTI. E.g There is very close link between right to information and good governance. Right to Information is the tool of achieving the goals of good governance.

Body-

Discuss how RTI promotes citizen participation and good governance. E.g

  • People who have access to information and who understand how to make use of the acquired information in the processes of exercising their political, economic and legal rights become empowered, which, in turn, enable them to build their strengths and assets, so as to improve the quality of life. And ultimately this is only the aim of good governance.
  • An informed citizen is better equipped to keep necessary vigil on the instruments of governance and make the government more accountable to the governed.
  • One of the brilliant features of RTI is that it makes public authorities answerable to the general public, which strengthen the participatory democracy. Every public authorities is required to provide reasons for its administrative and quasi judicial decisions to the affected persons.
  • The transformation from mere governance to good governance is possible only if the citizens of the country have right and access to information of and participation in the governance. The good governance is the governance in which people are served by their representatives not ruled by their representatives etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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