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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 12 January 2019

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 12 January 2019

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)


General Studies – 1


 

Topic– Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

1) Discuss the economic importance of Indian ocean region for India.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the economic significance of the Indian ocean for India. We have to give a complete picture of the importance of the region.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Indian Ocean Region (IOR). E.g The Indian Ocean basin is of particular importance for India, as the region’s most populous country and geopolitical keystone.

Body-

Discuss in points the economic significance of the IOR for India. E.g

  1. First, it enjoys a privileged location at the crossroads of global trade, connecting the major engines of the international economy in the Northern Atlantic and Asia-Pacific. This is particularly important in an era in which global shipping has burgeoned.
  2. Some 36 million barrels per day—equivalent to about 40 per cent of the world’s oil supply and 64 per cent of oil trade—travel through the entryways into and out of the Indian Ocean, including the Straits of Malacca and Hormuz and the Bab-el-Mandeb
  3. The Ocean’s vast drainage basin is important in its own right, home to some two billion people. This creates opportunities, especially given the high rates of economic growth around the Indian Ocean rim.
  4. The Indian Ocean is rich in natural resources. Forty per cent of the world’s offshore oil production takes place in the Indian Ocean basin.
  5.  Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 15 percent of the world’s total.
  6. Aquaculture in the region has also grown 12-fold since 1980.
  7. Although global fishing is reaching its natural limitations, the Indian Ocean may be able to sustain increases in production.
  8. Mineral resources are equally important, with nodules containing nickel, cobalt, and iron, and massive sulphide deposits of manganese, copper, iron, zinc, silver, and gold present in sizeable quantities on the sea bed.
  9. Indian Ocean coastal sediments are also important sources of titanium, zirconium, tin, zinc, and copper. Additionally, various rare earth elements are present, even if their extraction is not always commercially feasible etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

2) Afghanistan’s resources could make it the richest mining region on earth. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

wikipedia

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the mineral resources of Afghanistan. We have to discuss about the potential mineral resources and the quantum anticipated to be economically viable in the near future.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Afghanistan. E.g mention the insurgency and foreign involvement in Afghanistan including that of India.

Body-

Discuss in detail about the mineral wealth of Afghanistan. E.g

  • Afghanistan, often dismissed in the West as an impoverished and failed state, is sitting on $1 trillion of untapped minerals.
  • It is estimated that forty million years ago the tectonic plates of India-Europe, Asia and Africa collided in a massive upheaval. This upheaval created the region of towering mountains that now includes Afghanistan.
  • This diverse geological foundation has resulted in a significant mineral heritage.
  • The sheer size of the deposits – including copper, gold, iron and cobalt as well as vast amounts of lithium, a key component in electronics holds out the possibility that Afghanistan, ravaged by decades of conflict, might become one of the most important and lucrative centres of mining in the world.
  • Afghanistan could become the “Saudi Arabia of lithium”, with one location in Ghazni province showing the potential to compete with Bolivia, which, until now, held half the known world reserves.
  • Considerably more work needs to be carried out before it can be properly called an economic deposit that can be extracted at a profit.
  • Much more ground exploration, including drilling, needs to be carried out to prove that these are viable deposits which can be worked etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-   Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent)

3) With growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for “the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the raw material needed for generation of atomic energy and explain about the distribution of the resource.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that countries like India see nuclear energy as a crucial part of their energy matrix.

Body

  • Explain about the indian three stage nuclear programme – Indian Nuclear power program has three stage, first stage requires Uranium, second stage- creates plutonium from Uranium and third stage requires thorium. Therefore, among all the radioactive elements- uranium and Thorium are the most critical for generation of Nuclear Energy.
  • Discuss about the distribution of uranium and thorium

Conclusion – Explain that India has diversified it’s procurement agreements with a large number of countries


Topic –  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

4) Analyze the factors for the highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what do we mean by decentralised cotton textile industry in India. Next we need to explain the reasons why  cotton textile industry in India is decentralised in India

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that At present, cotton textile industry is largest organised modem industry of India. There has been a phenomenal growth of this industry during the last four decades. About 16 per cent of the industrial capital and over 20 per cent of the industrial labour of the country is engaged in this industry.

Body – Explain that initially textile industry developed in certain major centres such as Mumbai, Surat etc which had all the factors that are responsible for location of textile industries. Mention factors such as easy transportation, cheap labour, closer to market etc. Next, discuss the reasons for decentralization of cotton textile industry such as – Dispersal of industry from the old nuclei started after 1921 with railway lines penetrating into the peninsular region. New centres like Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara were favourably located in respect to raw material, market and labour than places of original locations. This industry also reached some places with some additional advantages, such as nearness to coal (Nagpur), financial facilities (Kanpur) and wide market with port facilities (Kolkata); Dispersal of cotton textile industry was further boosted with the development of hydroelectricity. The growth of this industry in Coimbatore, Madurai and Tirunelveli is largely due to the availability of hydroelectricity from Pykara dam. The industry also tended to shift from areas of high labour cost to those with low labour cost. The labour cost factor played a crucial role in establishing this industry at Madurai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore etc.


Topic- Salient features of Indian Society

5) The window of demographic dividend points to a differential approach to socio-economic policy planning. Examine.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the spread of demographic dividend in India across time and states and examines the kind of policy approach required to take advantage of such dividend.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out how demographic dividend in India points to a differential approach and the nature of socio economic planning required to reap dividends of this demographic dividend.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain about demographic dividend. Demographic dividend is said to be occurring when the ratio of the working age population is high and the dependency ratio in terms of proportion of children and elderly people low. This advantage can create the space needed to increase investments in enhancing human capabilities, which, in turn, can have a positive influence on growth and development.

Body

  • Explain that study on demographic dividend in India by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) throws up two interesting facts. One, the window of demographic dividend opportunity in India is available for five decades from 2005-06 to 2055-56, longer than any other country in the world. Second, and more interesting, is the fact that this demographic dividend window is available at different times in different states because of differential behaviour of the population parameters.
  • Explain the reasons behind such an occurrence
  • Explain what kind of differential planning is required.
    • For example, the focus in the states where the window is closing soon will have to be on ageing and migrant-friendly policies and programmes, while the focus in the states where the window is open and will close in the next 10-15 years will have to be on empowering girls and women, provisioning of health, education and skill development for young people, and employment generation.
    • The focus in the states where the window is yet to open will have to be threefold—addressing harmful practices such as child marriage, access to quality sexual and reproductive health services and family planning services to all, and provisioning of health, education, life and vocational skills to all the young people.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic–  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

6) While the Good Samaritan law is a step in the right direction, at the same time there needs to be more awareness around the subject. Discuss. (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article delves deep into the need for a good Samaritan law, the issues involved in its implementation and what needs to be done. With Karnataka becoming the first state to bring a good Samaritan law, the focus needs to shift in replicating this in other states and iron out the flaws in the law. The topic is important both for GS2 and GS4.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about good Samaritan law, highlight why such a law is important, bring out the details of the law and examine why despite such a verdict by SC, people are still wary of becoming good Samaritans.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain who are good Samaritans and why such a law is needed. Sizeable proportion of these deaths could have been avoided if victims had received emergency medical treatment on time. In fact, the Law Commission of India in a report, noted that over 50 per cent of road accident deaths can be averted with timely medical care within the first one hour. This translates to 70,000 lives that could be saved.

Body

  • Explain that In 2016, in a landmark judgement in the case of SaveLIFE Foundation versus Union of India, the Supreme Court instituted a Good Samaritan Law to insulate such persons from legal and procedural hassles that have traditionally followed the act of helping an injured person. Highlight the legislation brought about by Karnataka government.
  • Discuss what the law entails. Explain that despite the law people are not willing to come forward to act as good Samaritans. Explain that massive gap exists between the law and its on-ground implementation.
    • The law explicitly instructs police and hospitals to allow Good Samaritans to keep their anonymity and minimize procedural hassle. However, over half (57%) of the medical professionals surveyed and almost two-thirds (64%) of the police officials interviewed still ask for the personal details of the people bringing the injured to hospitals.
    • The study also revealed that most of the health professionals and police personnel interviewed had not received any priming on implementing the Good Samaritan Law.
    • None of the hospitals and police stations surveyed had displayed a charter of rights for Good Samaritans, as mandated by the Supreme Court judgement.
  • Discuss the measures needed to address this – state governments must actively translate the judgement into state-specific Good Samaritan laws in order to establish implementation mechanisms for the law, including effective grievance redressal systems and reward and recognition schemes for Good Samaritans.

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic– Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability,

7) There is a need to iron out the flaws in RTI act rather than manipulating its loopholes. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

The hindu

Why this question

RTI has been a revolutionary legislation and has significantly increased the transparency and accountability in government functioning. However recently there have been certain attempts to undermine the act which needs to be discussed.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about the RTI act and express our opinion as to whether there is a need to iron out the problems in RTI act or not.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  RTI act- its aims and significance.

Body-

  1. Discuss the present problems with the act and the need to rectify the same E.g right to information formed the foundation of good governance, as transparency is one of its core elements; strengthening of the RTI would be a step towards transforming the covert public administrative system into a “public-centric” administrative system; There is need for measures to toughen the Act and make procedures to access information people-friendly.
  2. These measures range from the repealing of the Official Secret Act, introducing an oath of transparency to use of multi-media campaigns in local languages for awareness and opening up the working of parliamentary standing committees for public access.
  3. Central Information Commission took an average of 319 days to hear and give an order on an appeal from the date it was filed before the commission, with the maximum number of days taken by the CIC reaching to 862 days. The callous attitude of Information Commissioners (ICs) reflects in the fact that an average of 56 per cent of orders recorded violations of Section 20 of the RTI, based on which penalties should have been imposed. But a penalty was imposed in only 4 percent of the cases etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

8) Universal Basic Income has its own pros and cons. Discuss in the context of Indian economy.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Indianexpress

Why this question

The Union government has recently mooted the idea of UBI for BPL Indian citizens. In this context it is important to discuss the pros and cons of the UBI especially in the context of Indian economy.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the UBI and bring out its positive points as well as cons/ limitations.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the central government’s idea to introduce UBI and also mention about the state of Sikkim.

Body-

  1. Discuss about UBI. E.g It characterises the basic income in five divisions — Periodic (being paid at regular intervals, not lump sum), cash payment (not in kind or vouchers, leaving it on the recipient to spend it as they like), individual (not to households or families), universal (for all), and unconditional (irrespective of income or prospects of job).
  2. Discuss the pros and advantages of UBI. E.g A Universal Basic Income promotes many of the basic values of a society which respects all individuals as free and equal. It promotes liberty because it is anti-paternalistic, opens up the possibility of flexibility in labour markets. It promotes equality by reducing poverty. It promotes efficiency by reducing waste in government transfers. And it could, under some circumstances, even promote greater productivity etc.
  3. Discuss the cons/ limitations of the UBI. E.g None of the places where UBI has been tried have levels of income disparity that exist in India. So, while the idea might work in Sikkim, it might not in, say, Bihar; The reason for maintaining conditional social assistance is to “prioritize those at the bottom of the [income] distribution; access to banking is poor in rural and backward areas; issue of gender equality as the income would be controlled by the males of the family; amount of financial resources required etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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