Topic- Salient features of Indian Society
5) The window of demographic dividend points to a differential approach to socio-economic policy planning. Examine.(250 words)
Why this question
The article discusses the spread of demographic dividend in India across time and states and examines the kind of policy approach required to take advantage of such dividend.
Key demand of the question
The question expects us to bring out how demographic dividend in India points to a differential approach and the nature of socio economic planning required to reap dividends of this demographic dividend.
Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic, get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .
Structure of the answer
Introduction – explain about demographic dividend. Demographic dividend is said to be occurring when the ratio of the working age population is high and the dependency ratio in terms of proportion of children and elderly people low. This advantage can create the space needed to increase investments in enhancing human capabilities, which, in turn, can have a positive influence on growth and development.
- Explain that study on demographic dividend in India by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) throws up two interesting facts. One, the window of demographic dividend opportunity in India is available for five decades from 2005-06 to 2055-56, longer than any other country in the world. Second, and more interesting, is the fact that this demographic dividend window is available at different times in different states because of differential behaviour of the population parameters.
- Explain the reasons behind such an occurrence
- Explain what kind of differential planning is required.
- For example, the focus in the states where the window is closing soon will have to be on ageing and migrant-friendly policies and programmes, while the focus in the states where the window is open and will close in the next 10-15 years will have to be on empowering girls and women, provisioning of health, education and skill development for young people, and employment generation.
- The focus in the states where the window is yet to open will have to be threefold—addressing harmful practices such as child marriage, access to quality sexual and reproductive health services and family planning services to all, and provisioning of health, education, life and vocational skills to all the young people.
Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.