- Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
- Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
Henley Passport Index
What to study?
For Prelims and Mains: Passport Index- features, performance of various countries and significance of the index.
Context: Henley Passport Index 2019 has been released. The Index is based on data provided by the International Air Transport Authority (IATA) and covers 199 passports and 227 travel destinations.
The Henley Passport Index (HPI) is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom for their citizens. It started in 2006 as Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) and was modified and renamed in January 2018.
The HPI consists of a ranking of passports according to how many other territories can be reached ‘visa-free’ (defined below). All distinct destination countries and territories in the IATA database are considered.
Rankings of various countries:
- India jumped two positions from 81st in 2018 to 79th this year.
- Japan retained its top spot as the world’s most travel-friendly passport due to the document’s access to 190 countries.
- Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nepal ranked further low at 104, 102 and 94 respectively.
- South Korea edged up the ranking from October’s index to join Singapore, offering access to 189 jurisdictions.
- China jumped almost 20 places in just two years, from 85th in 2017 to 69th this year.
- European countries also performed favourably, with European Union member states along with Norway and the US filling in the places behind the top three nations although the UK continues to drop down the rankings, along with the US.
Sources: the hindu.