- Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
- Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
Democracy Index 2018
What to study?
- For Prelims: Democracy Index 2018- features and performance of various countries, what is a flawed democracy?
- For Mains: Concerns expressed over India and measures needed to improve.
Context: Democracy Index 2018 has been released. It is released annually by The Economist.
The EIU Democracy Index provides a snapshot of the state of world democracy for 165 independent states and two territories.
The Democracy Index is based on five categories: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. Based on their scores on 60 indicators within these categories, each country is then itself classified as one of four types of regime: full democracy; flawed democracy; hybrid regime; and authoritarian regime.
Performance of India:
India is ranked at 41 – a notch above last year. It is still classified as a ‘flawed democracy’ according to the index. India achieved a score of 7.23 on the index to maintain its position – the same it did last year. This is the lowest ever score attributed to India in the index ever since its publication.
India ranks below the US (ranked 25th in the index) and other so called ‘flawed democracies’ like Italy, France, Botswana and South Africa.
The report defines a flawed democracy as nations that “have free and fair elections and, even if there are problems (such as infringements on media freedom), basic civil liberties are respected. However, there are significant weaknesses in other aspects of democracy, including problems in governance, an underdeveloped political culture and low levels of political participation.”