[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 DECEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 DECEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Disaster and disaster management

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – India and its bilateral relations.

1) Chabahar port has immense possibilities as well as provides significant challenges for India, now that India has taken over operations of the port. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

India has formally taken over operations of Iran’s strategic Chabahar Port. The article discusses the possibilities and challenges provided by Chabahar port for India. Although Chabahar port has been in the news for quite some time now, the article provides good points which needs to be remembered.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first highlight the fact that India has taken over operations of Chabahar port. Thereafter we need to bring out the potential of Chabahar port for India and discuss the various challenges that remain ahead still. Finally, we need to provide a forward looking view on what needs to be done.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about Chabahar port and the fact that India has taken over operations of the port.

Body

  • Highlight the potential of the port for India
    • India can bypass Pakistan in transporting goods to Afghanistan. Chabahar port will boost India’s access to Iran, the key gateway to the International North-South Transport Corridor that has sea, rail and road routes between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia.
    • Chabahar port will be beneficial to India in countering Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea which China is trying to ensure by helping Pakistan develop the Gwadar port.
    • Chabahar port will ensure in the establishment of a politically sustainable connectivity between India and Afghanistan. Etc
  • Discuss the challenges such as
    • The Chabahar port has received a waiver from the U.S. sanctions on Iran for the moment, but these concessions could be withdrawn any time, given the constant upheaval in the administration
    • possibility of the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan, after the pullout from Syria, will add to security concerns for Afghanistan and impact on the Chabahar route as well etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the potential of Chabahar port for India and discuss the way forward.


Topic– Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

2) Use of sealed cover in its proceedings is well-intentioned, but may not be the correct way to approach issues of constitutional, national or institutional importance. Comment. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

Use of sealed covers to present facts, arguments in the proceedings before the SC has been often criticised for being opaque and against the principles of justice. In this context it is important to discuss their use in the judiciary, its main purpose and problems arising out of it.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the use of sealed covers in judicial proceedings in the SC and express our opinion as to why even though it has good intentions, its approach is not right.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  use of sealed covers in proceedings before the SC. E.g mention a few high profile cases where it was used like the Rafale case, NRC, BCCI case etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the main purpose of such arrangement. E.g The intent behind the use of sealed covers is to reduce public commentary and media discussion on the details so as to insulate the decision-making process from unmanageable public discourse. It is well-intentioned, but simply not the correct way to approach issues of constitutional, national or institutional importance etc.
  2. Discuss the negative implications. E.g The increasing trend in the Supreme Court (SC) in directing one of the parties, usually the state or its agencies, to submit factual details in a sealed envelope, without a copy to the contesting party, allows the state to increasingly prejudice or even misguide the court; Decisions on these matters have large social and political significance. It is therefore natural that citizens groups, media and political parties will have views on them;  In the absence of an appellate forum above the SC, its decisions gain acceptability, when its reasoning carries demonstrable credibility. Decisions based on untested facts, emanating from secret dialogue between the state and the court lack the desired credibility etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Indian polity : issues

3) Section 69 of the IT Act allows for disproportionate state action, and is antithetical to the right to privacy. Critically analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article examines section 69 of the IT Act and why it might be antithetical to privacy. The issue gains significance because of the recent notification of the government allowing certain central agencies to monitor online content and hence this issue needs to be discussed in detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out what section 69 of IT Act entails. It expects us to highlight that the recent notification has been brought out usi h section 69 of the IT act. We need to examine the implications of the said section on privacy and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that The Union Home Secretary, last week, promulgated an order authorising 10 Central agencies to monitor, intercept and decrypt information which is transmitted, generated, stored in or received by any computer. Highlight that The notification was reportedly issued in pursuance of powers stipulated in Section 69 of the Information Technology Act, 2000, which enables government agencies to intercept personal information of citizens under certain conditions.

Body

  • Explain in detail about section 69 of the IT Act. Discuss the reason why the said section is considered as antithetical to privacy.
    • In order for a restriction such as Section 69 allowing for interception of personal data on a computer to be constitutionally valid, it would not only have to pursue a legitimate state aim (say, for instance, national security) but also be proportionate, so that there is a rational nexus between the means adopted (i.e., authorisation of interception) and the aim.
    • Section 69 of the IT Act is so broadly worded that it could enable mass surveillance to achieve relatively far less serious aims such as preventing the incitement of the commission of a cognisable offence
    • Under Section 69, the government can intercept personal information under any of the following conditions: when it is necessary in the interest of Indian sovereignty or integrity; security of the state; friendly relations with foreign states; public order; and for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognisable offence related to these. While the first four feature in Article 19(2) of the Constitution, the last, namely preventing incitement to commission of cognisable offences, is not an enumerated restriction. A restriction in the form of authorised surveillance would not be justified unless it is in order to maintain public order, a reasonable restriction under Article 19(2). Etc
  • Examine why such an order might be necessary in light of genuine state interests.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


TopicConservation, environmental pollution and degradation,

4) A rapidly growing e-waste crisis needs rapid official decision making and time-bound responses. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

E-waste generation across the world has increased significantly on account of growing adoption of technology and electronic products. The e-waste can be recycled to collect valuable metals but the process in India has been associated with a lot of environmental and health problems. In this context it is important to analyze the problem in depth and seek possible solutions.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problem of e-waste in India, analyze all the related aspects and form an opinion on the issue as to what should be our course of action.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about e-waste generation, import and processing ratio in India. E waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. The Global E-Waste Monitor estimates that 44.7 million tonnes (mt) of e-waste was generated in 2016. India was the fourth-largest generator (2 mt)

Body-

  1. Discuss the adverse effects of e-waste processing on health and environment. E.g  a mere 5 per cent of India’s e-waste gets recycled, much less than the global recycling rate of only 20 per cent; 95 percent of India’s e-waste is managed by the unorganised sector using dangerous methods to recover metals from circuit-boards and wires.; Since electrical wires are almost invariably encased in PVC, which contains 57 percent chlorine, the act of burning produces deadly dioxins. The smoke from such burning is known to cause cancer, damage the nervous system, and also poses several other health hazards; Leakage of metals in the environment ending up in environmental and water pollution  etc.
  2. Discuss about the e-waste rules and problems faced thereto. E.g Management of e-waste requires its dismantling, refurbishment or recycling and safe disposal The E Waste Management Rules 2016 address these issues. Extended producer responsibility is mandated to ensure effective plans for collection, setting up collection centres and buy back mechanisms or a deposit refund scheme. But the Rules need to be backed by enforcement of the regulatory framework, provision of the necessary infrastructure, and an enabling environment for compliance etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. e.g Cities should organise quarterly collection drives or provide drop -off centres. Producers should set up collection centres for EEE. Meanwhile, we as users can reduce e-waste by buying long-life items, and supporting repair and refurbishment etc.


Topic – Disaster and disaster management

5) There is a need for an inclusive Disaster Risk Management (DRM). Discuss. Also discuss the factors A responsible for holding back inclusive DRM.(250 words)

Why this question

Disasters create havoc in the society and inflict damage which is beyond the coping capacity of a society. However, there are certain sections of the society which have to bear a higher burden of natural disasters. Therefore it is important to discuss the need for an inclusive DRM and obstacles faced therein.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to why there is a need for an inclusive DRM and then also discuss in detail as to what are the factors which prevent an inclusive DRM.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  differentiated impact of a disaster on a community/ society. E.g certain groups, including but not limited to the poor, children and youth, persons with disabilities, older persons, and ethnic minorities, are disproportionately impacted by disasters. Similarly women, who constitute half of humanity are also disproportionately affected by disasters.

Body-

  1. Discuss the need for inclusive DRM in detail. E.g
  • These groups have context specific and differentiated needs before, during and after a disaster, which are not taken into consideration when communities, cities and nations plan for disasters;
  • The disproportionate impact of disasters on these groups is due to a range of factors including exclusion from decision-making processes, often poor living conditions, inadequate infrastructure, income inequality or undiversified sources of income, and limited access to basic services, especially education and information.
  • For disaster risk management to be appropriate and effective for society at large, these differentiated needs must be taken into account and addressed, and the knowledge, talents and capacities of all stakeholders must be harnessed.
  1. Discuss the factors holding back inclusive DRM. e.g  
  • The knowledge and capacities of groups subject to more risk are not well acknowledged.
  • Existing coordination mechanisms do not facilitate local level actors and information inputting into national decision making.
  • A lack of readily available disaggregated data at the local level has limited how progress can be accounted for.
  • Institutional incentives for engaging those groups subject to more risk do not exist for the most part.
  • Where good practices are underway, marginalized groups do not have access to resources to take these to scale.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Infrastructure

6) Discuss the multifaceted advantages offered by Bogibeel bridge and how it aids the Act East policy for india?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the significance of the newly inaugurated Bogibeel bridge connecting Assam and Arunachal Pradesh and the immense advantages this holds for North eastern states which are already infrastructure deficient. The article discusses the issue in detail and needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the advantages of Bogibeel bridge for Northeast in particular and India in general. Thereafter, we need to bring out the need of such infrastructural development in North East where Bogibeel bridge can serve as a template for development. We need to explain how it helps in India’s act east policy.

Directive word

Discuss – your discussion should bring out the immense advantages that the bridge has to offer and the fact that such infrastructural development is much needed in the north east.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that the 4.9km long rail-road bridge, facilitating connectivity between Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, and costing ₹5,900 crore to build, is more than just an engineering marvel—it entails a double-line railway track on the lower deck and a three-lane road on the upper deck.

Body

  • Discuss the immense advantages of the bridge
    • provides the much needed connectivity both within Assam and also to neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh, India’s strategically frontier state flanking China.
    • walks the talk on the policy of “Look East” first coined by the then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao in 1991. Projects of this nature could jump-start economic activity in the region and end its isolation.
    • North-East of India, which is landlocked, has been neglected; recent migration trends have, however, begun to ensure greater integration. This neglect had understandably triggered a sense of alienation from rest of India—a key reason stoking extremist movements in the region etc
  • Explain about India’s act east policy and how infrastructural development in North East would enable India to gain economic as well as strategic advantages.

Conclusion – Give your view on the advantages of Bogibeel bridge and the way forward for carrying out more such infrastructural development in northeast.


Topic – Infrastructure.

7) Investment in airports and roads has seen an upswing in recent years. Examine the reasons and discuss the challenges going forward?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the improved investment outlook for roads and aviation sector and the challenges ingrained therein. This article would enable us to be aware of the recent developments in boosting infrastructure and be aware of the challenges therein.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the fact that investment potential of roads and airports have improved and discuss how this improvement has been brought about. Thereafter we need to bring out the challenges that need to be taken into account going forward and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India’s roads sector has turned more attractive for investments in the recent past. Now, airports, too, are becoming so, after a raft of initiatives by the government.

Body

  • In case of roads discuss the reason why roads have attracted more investment off late
    • Highlight the changes made in investment model in case of roads
    • Discuss the roadblocks that have been erased which has ensured that the pace of such construction has increased etc
  • Discuss the reasons why investment in airports has also improved
    • Potential of the aviation sector in India
    • Privatization of airports etc
  • Discuss the challenges going forward for airports
    • The government should make sure that all the land required for development is made available at the bidding stage itself.
    • It should provide an easier exit option on achieving the commercial operations date. Etc
  • Discuss the challenges going forward for roads
    • About 50% of all projects awarded in fiscal 2018 are under HAM. Given the challenges in terms of budgetary resources, the time is ripe for getting built-operate-transfer (BOT) back in the fray
    • Address the banking sector’s concerns over funding of HAM projects. Etc

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions;

8) Discuss the three jewels of jainism and their relevance for today’s society.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the three jewels of jainism and their ethical aspects as well as their applicability in today’s society.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Jain philosophy. E.g The aim of Jain life is to achieve liberation of the soul.This is done by following the Jain ethical code, or to put it simply, living rightly by following the three jewels of Jain ethics.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the three jewels of jainism. E.g
  • Right faith – Samyak darshan

This doesn’t mean believing what you’re told, but means seeing (hearing, feeling, etc.) things properly, and avoiding preconceptions and superstitions that get in the way of seeing clearly.

  • Right knowledge – Samyak jnana

This means having an accurate and sufficient knowledge of the real universe – this requires a true knowledge of the five (or six) substances and nine truths of the universe – and having that knowledge with the right mental attitude.

  • Right conduct – Samyak charitra

This means living your life according to Jain ethical rules, to avoid doing harm to living things and freeing yourself from attachment and other impure attitudes and thoughts.

 

  1. Discuss whether those principles are still applicable today and what are the possible problems faced by the world today l, that they can solve. E.g be creative and try to create hypothetical situations or cite real situations where these principles can be applied in our life.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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