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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 DECEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 DECEMBER 2018

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) Critically examine why the recently passed Transgender bill fails to address the systemic discrimination faced by transgenders in India. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The bill had been pending since a long time and was recently passed by the Lok Sabha. The provisions of the bill have been criticized on various fronts. It is essential to analyze the bill in detail and bring out its shortcomings.

Directive word :

Critically examine- here we have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out as the reasons as to why  the recently passed Transgender bill has failed to address the issues regarding discrimination faced by the transgenders in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Transgender people passed by the LS recently. E.g the objectives of the bill includes protecting interests of transgenders, defining of the term ‘transgender’, to give them recognition and setting up of a national transgender council.

Body-

Discuss the pros/ positive points about the bill. E.g The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 seeks to empower the transgender community by providing them a separate identity; The bill proposes to setup a National Transgender Council to look after the interests and grievances of the transgender community etc.

Discuss the limitations/ deficiencies of the bill. E.g there are several laws in the country and it is not clear how these laws including the Companies Act would be applied to transgenders;Adequate attention has not been given in drafting this bill;the definition of transgenders is not complete and that other terms such as transmen and transwomen are not defined.The bill fails to define discrimination against transgenders;there is no clarity on the term “self perceived gender identity” and “how it will be enforced” etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian Economy and issues relating to employment.

2) Examine the issues faced by workers of gig economy? Evaluate how they stand in comparison to workers of formal economy?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

The article analyses the issues or the advantages faced by workers of gig economy versus how they compare to workers of formal economy. At a time when gig economy has become the new fad, and issues with respect to social protection for workers of gig economy remains, the question becomes important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to compare and contrast the issues faced by workers of gig economy versus workers of the formal economy. Thereafter, we need to analyze whether any step needs to be taken for securing rights of those working in gig economy.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is meant by gig economy – labour market characterised by the prevalence of short-term contracts or freelance work as opposed to permanent jobs

Body

  • Discuss the issues faced by workers of gig economy – no law governing their employments conditions such as working hours, working conditions etc
  • Compare and contrast the issue faced by workers of gig economy and formal economy with respect to various parameters such as social security benefits , minimum wages etc
  • Discuss what steps must be taken to improve the conditions of workers of gig economy, whether they need rights equivalent to workers in formal economy.

Conclusion – emphasize that gig economy is here to stay and the need of the hour is to protect the basic rights of these workers too.


Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

3) There is a need to foster the process of climate adaptation in agriculture, which involves reshaping responses across both the micro- and macro-level decision-making. Discuss.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

Agriculture is increasingly becoming susceptible to climate change and dependence of around half of India’s population on agriculture exhorts us to pursue climate adaptation and response at both micro as well as macro levels. The article provides a scientific discussion of the issue and suggests several solutions in this regard.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about  the need to foster process of climate adaptation in agriculture at both micro and macro level, what it means and how to do it.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  need to adopt climate resilient agriculture. E.g Climate adaptation actions in agriculture are closely intertwined with rural developmental interventions, calling for a holistic new paradigm etc.

Body-

Discuss about the need for climate adaptation in agriculture and discuss what needs to be done at the micro level as well as the macro level. E.g India, with its diverse agro-climatic settings, is one of the most vulnerable countries. Its agriculture ecosystem, distinguished by high monsoon dependence, and with 85% small and marginal landholdings, is highly sensitive to weather abnormalities;  There has been less than normal rainfall during the last four years, with 2014 and 2015 declared as drought years;. Research is also confirming an escalation in heat waves, in turn affecting crops, aquatic systems and livestock; The Economic Survey 2017-18 has estimated farm income losses between 15% and 18% on average, which could rise to 20%-25% for unirrigated areas without any policy interventions;

At the micro-level, Need for  Corroborating traditional wisdom and various age-old notions about weather variations with climate assessments and effective extension and promoting climate resilient technologies will enhance; Climate exposure can be reduced through agronomic management practices such as inter and multiple cropping and crop-rotation; shift to non-farm activities; insurance covers; up-scaling techniques such as solar pumps, drip irrigation and sprinklers etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-Environmental pollution and degradation

4) As per a medium term proposal of Niti Ayog, the only viable solution to dealing with the massive waste problem in India is to incinerate the waste of go from waste to energy. Do you agree with such a view. Discuss (250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the huge burden of waste management that has fallen upon the cities and our sheer inadequacy in managing this deluge of waste. The article also discusses the scope and limitations of the waste management technologies that are used today. Hence this article provides good resource for dealing with questions related to waste management.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the challenges of waste management being faced by the cities. Thereafter, we need to examine the causes why the issue of waste management is such a problem and critically examine whether incineration is the right way to go forward. Next, we need to discuss the various technologies in use for waste management. Finally, we need to provide a way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that With rapid urbanization, industrialization and an explosion in population in India, solid waste management will be a key challenge for state governments and local municipal bodies in the 21st century.

Body

  • Explain the magnitude of the problem – India’s cities already generate over 150,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste every day, with Mumbai being the world’s fifth most wasteful city. The waste heaps that dot the edges of India’s cities are set to double in size by 2025. Only one-third of the waste undergoes even rudimentary treatment, according to the urban ministry’s optimistic assessment, and hardly any of it is segregated, which would make processing easier. Highlight that According to the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment, cities are already beginning to run out of land on which to dump their waste and have begun throwing it in the backyards of smaller towns, suburbs and villages
  • Explain the reason behind the problem assuming massive proportion – apathy shown by municipal authorities , problems in processing of waste etc. Discuss the debate surrounding Niti ayog’s proposal and evaluate alternate technologies.
  • Discuss the scope and limitation of the various technologies in use to deal with solid waste management such as bioremediation, composting etc

Conclusion – Highlight that business as usual approach will not work and new methods have to be tried. Provide a way forward.


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5) Discuss the potential of agroforestry in India and also discuss the factors impeding the growth of agroforestry.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

India has less than the desired forest cover and agroforestry provides scope for not only complementing the forest cover but also supplement the farmers’ income. The MoEF & CC has recently issued a policy document in this regard. In this context it is essential to understand the scope of agroforestry in India and hurdles faced by it.

Directive word:

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question:

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of agroforestry in      India and also the reasons decelerating its growth and development

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Agroforestry in India. E.g agroforestry system is usually combination of tree crop, food crop, livestock rearing along with land based livelihood practices like bee keeping, pisci-culture in farm ponds, vermicomposting, organic farming of vegetables etc.

Body-

Discuss the potential and scope of agroforestry in India. E.g agroforestry system not only gives a stability to farm income but also enhances it due to cash flow from multiple streams; In such an integrated system, if food crop which is vulnerable to climate get affected, farmers can get assured income from other sources;Other livestock rearing or livelihood means can give him some assured farm income. In India, more than 50% land of its Geographic Area is under cultivation; Agro-Forestry/Farm Forestry, which is a subset of TOF, has the maximum potential in extension of green cover etc.

Discuss the factors impeding growth of agroforestry in India . E.g  Inhibition among farmers, especially small and marginal farmers, regarding shade of tree canopies, root competition, birds damage leading to reduced crop production ; Trees as obstacle in mechanized farming;  Undue harassment to farmer for obtaining felling permit from competent authorities; Complex procedure for obtaining Transit Pass Non-availabilities of organized trade in wood; Absence of wood processing units in the neighborhood;  Lack of proper agro-forestry extension; Getting Quality Planting Material etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Conservation”

6) The coercive top down approach of managing protected areas has led to socio cultural disruptions without much benefit for conservation efforts. Discuss. (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the issues associated with top down approach of managing protected areas and how it causes socio cultural disruptions and  how effective such protected areas are in conservation. We need to provide a fair and balanced opinion and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what are protected areas and highlight that Protected areas (PAs) are the main strategy to face the global deterioration of ecosystem goods and services due to human causes.

Body

  • Explain that global agreements are giving PAs a starring role in many aspects other than biodiversity conservation. One extended mission included in its most updated definition is providing while preserving ecosystem goods and services and associated cultural features other than biodiversity.
  • Discuss that the socio economic objectives that are expected to be served by legislations related to protected areas are unable to meet the needs of those dependent on it. Bring out the case of top down legislations like forest rights act or the way tribal population are pushed at the margins of protected areas.
  • Discuss the results of such protection measures in biodiversity conservation

Conclusion – give your view on the efficacy of such measures and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) “Honesty is for the most part less profitable than dishonesty- Plato”. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about ethics in general and the value of honesty in particular. We have to express our opinion as to why/ why not honesty is less profitable than dishonesty. We have to support our opinion with proper discussion and presentation of valid and proper arguments/ examples.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Give a simple definition of Honesty. E.g it is the quality or state of being honest; probity; fairness and straightforwardness of conduct, speech, etc.

Body-

Discuss the benefits of dishonesty. E.g dishonesty can be a good strategy for someone who is trying to maximize short-term profits; It helps in material gains sometimes; it helps in avoiding punishment etc.

Discuss the negative implications of dishonesty and bring out the virtues of honesty. E.g  Honesty is a fundamental factor, it helps to builds one’s character. A man of dead conscience is a person of bad character. An honest man is always successful in his practical as well as spiritual life; even telling a small lie risks to damage our reputation but also reduce the proclivity of others to trust us; further, one lie often leads to the need to tell another, more significant lie, which risks even greater negative consequences if discovered; finally, we can’t necessarily predict the consequences of telling even a small lie, and if such consequences turn out to be more significantly adverse than we anticipated, our sense of responsibility and therefore guilt could cause us far more distress than we imagine etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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