- Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
- Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
- Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
- Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
UN framework to combat international terrorism
What to study?
- For Prelims: About the framework.
- For Mains: Significance and the need for framework, challenges ahead and the need for international cooperation.
Context: The United Nations has launched a new framework titled ‘UN Global Counter-Terrorism Coordination Compact’ to combat international terrorism and coordinate efforts across the peace and security, humanitarian, human rights and sustainable development sectors.
About the ‘UN Global Counter-Terrorism Coordination Compact’:
- The framework is an agreement between the UN chief, 36 organisational entities, the International Criminal Police Organisation (INTERPOL) and the World Customs Organisation to better serve the needs of member states when it comes to tackling the scourge of international terrorism.
- The Coordination Committee of the United Nations will oversee the implementation of the framework and monitor its implementation. The committee will be chaired by UN Under-Secretary-General for counter-terrorism.
Why do we need the framework?
The policies that limit human rights only end up alienating the very communities they aim to protect, which normally have every interest in fighting extremism and as a result, such policies can effectively drive people into the hands of terrorists and undermine prevention efforts. The new framework has been introduced keeping in mind the need to ensure full respect for international human rights standards and rule of law in countering terrorism.
Need for international cooperation:
Despite recent successes against the ISIS and its affiliates, the threat posed by returning and relocating fighters, as well as from individuals inspired by them, remains high and has a global reach.
- The 2018 Global Terrorism Index released by the Institute for Economic and Peace, indicates that despite a 27% fall in the number of deaths from acts of terrorism worldwide, the impact of terrorism remains widespread, with 67 countries experiencing deadly attacks, which is the second highest recorded number of countries in the past twenty years.
- Emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, drones and 3D (three-dimensional) printing are also being misused.
Sources: the hindu.