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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 DECEMBER 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 07 DECEMBER 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 General Studies – 1


Topic– The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) Explain how the Justice Party in Madras became the stepping stone for political empowerment of non-Brahmins?(250 words)

The hindu

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first highlight the lack of political empowerment of non Brahmins and thereafter, examine the role of Justice party in political empowerment of non Brahmins in Madras.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that even as India was fighting British, there was another India fighting for liberation from perhaps an equally vicious hegemony within in South India.

Body

  • Highlight the poor literacy, political representation etc of the non Brahmins in Madras presidency. fighting the humiliation of not being allowed entry into public spaces including buses and hotels. It was fighting for its rightful space in administrative services and other job opportunities. It was fighting to find its voice in a political climate dominated by Brahmins. The opposition to Brahmin hegemony perhaps became more organized as a movement and later a political party for the first time in Tamil Nadu, in the form of Justice party and Justice movement.
  • Explain that in 1916, around 30 prominent non-Brahmin leaders including Dr Natesa Mudaliyar, Sir PT Theyagaraya Chetty, TM Nair and a woman Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal came together to form South Indian Liberation Federation (SILF) which would popularly be called as Justice Party after the ‘Justice’ newspaper it launched to propagate the ideals of the movement.
  • Explain how they helped in political empowerment
    • Justice Party released its non-Brahmin manifesto in December 1916. The manifesto became an important document that would shape the rise of Dravidian movement later. But at the time of its release, it received widespread criticism
    • Tamil Nadu’s legacy of social justice owes its existence to the formative years of Justice Party in power. The party introduced what is called as communal G.O to legislate reservations. Incidentally, Periyar quit the Congress after the party failed to pass the communal G.O. Women were given voting rights and noon-meal scheme was introduced when Justice Party was in power.
    • party also played a vital role in allowing women to contest elections paving way for Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy to become the first woman legislator in India. The pioneering efforts of Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy saw the abolition of Devadasi system when the Justice party was in power. Etc

Conclusion – Comment on the significance of the impact of the movement.

Background:-

  • Justice Party, officially the South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the Madras Presidencyof British India.
  • The Justice Party’s foundation marked the culmination of several efforts to establish an organisation to represent the non-Brahmins in Madras and is seen as the start of the Dravidian Movemen

Contribution:-

  • Poor literacy, political representation etc of the non Brahmins in Madras presidency , non Brahmins not being allowed entry into public spaces including buses and hotels led to fighting the humiliation.
  • Justice party was fighting for its rightful space in administrative services and other job opportunities. It was fighting to find its voice in a political climate dominated by Brahmins.
  • The opposition to Brahmin hegemony perhaps became more organized as a movement and later a political party for the first time in Tamil Nadu, in the form of Justice party and Justice movement.
  • It is also the fountainhead of the social reform movement in the country and the government led by Justice Party widened education and employment opportunities for the majority of the population and created space for them in the political sphere.
    • It opposed Brahmins in civil service and politics, and this anti-Brahmin attitude shaped many of its ideas and policies.
    • It opposed Annie Besantand her Home rule movement, because it believed home rule would benefit the Brahmins.
    • The party also campaigned against the non-cooperation movementin the presidency. It was at odds with  K. Gandhi, primarily due to his praise for Brahminism.
  • Its mistrust of the Brahmin–dominated Congress led it to adopt a hostile stance toward the Indian independence movement.
  • The Justice Party’s period in power is remembered for the introduction of caste-based reservations, and educational and religious reform. In opposition it is remembered for participating in the anti-Hindi agitations of 1937–40.

How Justice party helped in political empowerment :-

  • Justice Party released its non-Brahmin manifesto in December 1916. The manifesto became an important document that would shape the rise of Dravidian movement later. But at the time of its release, it received widespread criticism
  • Tamil Nadu’s legacy of social justice owes its existence to the formative years of Justice Party in power. The party introduced what is called as communal G.O to legislate reservations. Incidentally, Periyar quit the Congress after the party failed to pass the communal G.O. Women were given voting rights and noon-meal scheme was introduced when Justice Party was in power.
  • Party also played a vital role in allowing women to contest elections paving way for Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy to become the first woman legislator in India. The pioneering efforts of Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy saw the abolition of Devadasi system when the Justice party was in power. Etc
  • Periyar eschewed electoral politics, preferring to play the role of unhidden persuader. Yet his impact on Tamil politics continues to remain palpable.
    • A breakaway group, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, pulled the carpet from under the Congress and scripted the political empowerment of backward castes.
    • On the other hand, Periyar’s movement also triggered the debrahminisation of the Congress, and his support bolstered the chief-ministership of K. Kamaraj.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies
constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

2) Discuss the various constitutional safeguards for protection of women and schemes introduced by the government to empower women?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to list out the constitutional provisions related to empowerment of women, the various schemes launched for women’s empowerment. Thereafter we need to discuss the impact of such measures and what more needs to be done.

Directive word

Discuss – In your discussion, you need to answer the key demand of the question

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the status quo of women and why they are considered as vulnerable section.

Body

  • Explain the constitutional safeguards for women such as Art. 15(3), Art. 23, Art. 39: Guarantees equal pay to women for equal work. In the case of Randhir Singh vs Union of India, SC held that the concept of equal pay for equal work is indeed a constitutional goal and is capable of being enforced through constitutional remedies under Art. 32, art 40, art 42, art 44 etc
  • Discuss some of the welfare schemes for employment of women, literacy of women, pregnancy  support etc
  • Discuss that the schemes have evolved over the years from treating women as passive recipients of state generosity to active participants of the development process.

Conclusion – Discuss  the impact of these schemes and what more needs  to be done.

 

Background:-

  • Women make up half of India’s population. Over the years we have seen women grow in public life- working in offices, representing in international sports, in bureaucracy, politics, international organisations and much more. This change is positive and is happening at a pace faster than ever before.

Constitutional safeguards:-

  • The Constitution of India guaranteed justice-social, economic and political, liberty of thought, and equality to all citizens.
  • Constitution provided for equality of women and called State to take measures to neutralize the socio-economic, educational and political disadvantage faced by women
  • Article 14:
    • It guarantees equality before law and equal protection of law with in the territory of India.
  • Article 15:
    • It prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth. According to article 15(3), State can make special provisions for the benefit women and children.
  • Article 16:
    • Equality of opportunity for all citizens in matter relating to employment. No citizen can be denied employment on grounds of religion, race, cast, sex, decent, place of birth residence or any of them.
  • Article 39:
    • Article 39(a) provides for an adequate means of livelihood for all citizen. Article 39 (b) has provisions for equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Article 39 (c) has provisions for securing the health and strength of workers, men and women, and not to abuse the tender age of children.
  • Article 42:
    • It guarantees just and humane condition of work and maternity relief. Article 42 is in accordance with Article 23 and 25 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • Article 325 and 326:
    • They guarantee political equality, equal right to participate in political activity and right to vote, respectively.
  • Article 243 (D):
    • It provides for the political reservation to women in every panchayat elections. It has extended this reservation to elected office as well.

Women Empowerment Schemes:-

  • Financial empowerment:-
    • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana was launched in 2015, under which small affordable deposits are made in the bank accounts of girls, with the benefit of higher rate of interest.
    • Support to Training and Employment Program (STEP) is aimed at adding new skills to women.
    • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, has within two years brought in 16.34 crore women under the banking system.
  • Encouraging Entrepreneurship
    • Under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, the government has provided credit to small entrepreneurs without collateral. 75% of these loans have been given to women, with 9.81 crore women entrepreneurs already benefitting from them under the scheme.
    • Over 47 lakh SHGs have been promoted under the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM).
    • Skill development is another key aspect for raising the potential of our female workforce. Half of the certificates awarded under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana have been given to women candidates.
    • To reach the yet unreached women across the country, ministry has recently launched the Mahila Shakti Kendra scheme. Under this 3 lakh student volunteers are fanning out across the country to directly reach women at village level with government schemes and services for their empowerment.
    • The government seeks to bring women to the forefront of India’s entrepreneurial ecosystem by providing access to loans, markets and training.
    • The MSME Development Organisations (MSME-DO), the various State Small Industries Development Corporations (SSIDCs), the nationalised banks and even NGOs are conducting various programs including Entrepreneurship Development Programs (EDPs) to cater to the needs of potential women entrepreneurs.
    • SIDBI has been implementing two schemes for women entrepreneurs namely, Mahila Udyam Nidhi and Mahila Vikas Nidhi.
    • A few government efforts at promoting entrepreneurship and innovation are:
      • Start-up India.
      • Stand-up India.
      • Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP).
      • Trade related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD).
      • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY).
      • Science for Equity Empowerment and Development (SEED).
      • Mudra Yojana for women.
      • NITI Ayog launched Women Entrepreneurship Platform (WEP).
    • Empowering Motherhood
      • The paid maternity leave for working women to 26 weeks empowers them as they need not fear loss of salary or job due to childbirth.
      • In order to extend protection to the unorganised sector as well, pregnant and lactating mothers are provided cash incentives under the PM Matru Vandana Yojana.
    • Women health:-
      • To empower women and protect their health, the Ujjawala scheme has been introduced, which provides free LPG cylinders to women from BPL families to replace unclean cooking fuels.
    • Women safety:-
      • 33% reservation for women in the police force is also being implemented.
      • The Nirbhaya Fund is also being used to roll-out comprehensive plans to make 8 major cities in the country safer for women and also improve our forensic analysis abilities in cases of sexual assault.
    • National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) scheme 2016-17 is a combined strategy for inter-sectoral convergence of programs for women, with the use of multiple communication tools in advocacy campaigns.
    • Women’s helpline came into existence to reach out to women in distress.
    • Women’s SHGs have mobilised and facilitated women in availing facilities for development, be it information, financial or material resources or services.
      • In all such women-centric programs, Information, Education and Communication (IEC) forms an inseparable part.
    • The issue of women’s empowerment caught the entire nation’s imagination with the launch of ‘Beti Bachhao Beti Padhao’ program at Panipat in Haryana in 2015, one of the worst affected districts in the state, with the abysmally low Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB).
      • The program has already begun showing positive gains. Reason for its success is the success of public communication strategy which is based on innovative local level interventions.
  • Other schemes are:-
    • One Stop Centre Scheme
    • UJJAWALA :
      •  A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation
    • Working Women Hostel
    • Swadhar Greh (A Scheme for Women in Difficult Circumstances)
    • Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP)
    • Nari shakti puraskar
    • Mahila E-Haat
    • Mahila Shakti Kendras (MSK)

Success of the schemes :-

  • India has been successful in achieving gender parity in school education. Even in technical and professional education the representation is significantly increasing.
  • The literacy rate of women has risen from a mere 9% in 1951 to 65% in 2011.
  • In the workplace today, every fourth worker in India is a woman. With their increasing participation in a variety of fields, women’s bargaining power in both private and public life is
  • Elected women representatives now make up about 46% of our panchayat members. With this the landscape of our country is changing from ground up.
  • Institutional births have risen to an all-time high of 79% in 2014-15. The maternal mortality rate has dropped by half in the decade between 2001-03 and 2011-13.
  • The number of women with a bank account has also increased.

Criticism:-

  • Women still face serious dangers to their life and liberty in our country. We hear of horrific incidents of violence every day.
  • Women still contribute a disproportionate amount of unpaid work in their homes and on farms.
  • They are often not given an equal say in household or work decisions.
  • The conventional ‘one size fits all’ empowerment programmes fail to address problems of the most marginalised women.
  • Women’s multiple identities of class, caste, ethnicity, gender and other forms of hierarchy and differences including social locations in households as daughters, daughter-in-law, mothers, mother-in-law, wives and widows tend to push women to the margins and make them more vulnerable to discrimination in terms of access to basic human rights, opportunities and resources.
  • To challenge the dominant beliefs of the society in terms of hierarchy, patriarchy and power politics requires empowerment policies and programmes that seek to and understand how the convergence of multiple identities with gender manifests to impede women’s empowerment
  • Banking Correspondents (BCs):
    • The strategy has not given fruitful results due to lack of adequate branding of BCs because of low incentive and compensation structure and preference for brick and mortar branch by the rural economy.
  • Stereotyping of women continues:-
    • New stories of violence or sexual harassment against women do appear on newspapers, but often with a bias in reporting.
  • Women as serious decision makers or as hard core professionals are mostly being overlooked.
  • Their success stories only find place, when they have been able to break the glass ceiling and or have reached the pinnacle of success.

Way forward:-

  • Strengthening economic citizenship of women involves meeting her personal aspirations, while she contributes to household’s income and is a caregiver.
  • Pursuit of inclusive growth involves the role of the state as a regulator while providing public goods and services alongside liberal socio-cultural norms within the household/ community.
  • Fiscal policies like lower taxes did not improve female employment as the gains from it perhaps did not offset the costs involved.
  • With stagnant and low share of formal sector employment, the announcement in the Budget 2018, that contribution by new women recruits to EPFO be reduced from 12% to 8% to increase the take home pay may neither incentivize participation nor retention rates.
  • MGNREGA increased FWPR, reduced gender gaps in wages in other markets with positive implications on poverty, child and own nutritional status and empowerment.
  • Collection of time use data would inform how women spend their time in social production but will also give insights about how men in many families share household work.
  • Caregiving and breadwinning are equally important for improved well-being of the individuals in a nation.

Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s
interests, Indian Diaspora.

3) Money has been central to many a fight at the climate negotiations. Discuss the issues surrounding climate finance that are dominating headlines before COP24?(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

Prior to COP24, one of the major issues of contention between developed and developing countries has been the issue of climate finance and framing rules for the same. The article discusses the major points of contentions and would help you enhance your understanding of the subject matter.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about GCF, discuss the issues in climate finance and how those issues are attempted to be resolved at COP24.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that the GCF was set up in 2010 under the UNFCCC’s financial mechanism to channel funding from developed countries to developing countries to allow them to mitigate climate change and also adapt to disruptions arising from a changing climate.

Body

  • Explain the macro issue – For many years, the fight was to get the developed countries to commit themselves, in writing, to providing this money. Written commitment has not ended the fight, and has not assured developing countries a steady supply of at least $100 billion from 2020.
  • Discuss the issues involved
    • Framing the rulebook means agreeing on such things as common standards to measure emissions, processes for monitoring, reporting and verification (‘MRV’ in climate jargon) of the various actions being taken by individual countries, and guidelines and institutions to facilitate diffusion of appropriate technologies to countries and regions that need them. It also means putting in place clear and transparent accounting mechanisms to measure and verify flows of climate finance.
    • track record of the developed countries in fulfilling their finance commitments has been disappointing. They have often been accused by developing countries of double-counting, inflating claims, re-packaging existing aid money as climate finance, and ignoring the requirements of adaptation activities. Developing countries insist that climate finance must be “new and additional” and must be provided for mitigation as well as adaptation efforts as mentioned in the Paris Agreement. Etc
  • Explain how the issue is attempted to be resolved at COP24 and what the next course of action should be

Conclusion – Emphasize on the necessity of coming to an agreement as soon as possible for mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Background :-

  • The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under which climate talks have been taking place, requires a group of rich and developed countries to provide financial assistance to developing nations to deal with climate change, because it was the rich world’s emissions over the last 150 years that caused the climate problem in the first place.

Issues regarding climate finance :-

  • At the 2015 climate meeting in Paris even though the $100 billion figure, which the developed countries agreed to “mobilise” for the developing nations every year from 2020, was not mentioned in the Paris Agreement itself, but was part of other decisions taken at the meeting.
  • Track record of the developed countries in fulfilling their finance commitments has been disappointing.
    • They have often been accused by developing countries of double-counting, inflating claims, re-packaging existing aid money as climate finance, and ignoring the requirements of adaptation activities.
  • Data confusion :-
    • Developed countries have at various times made optimistic claims about the money that has already started to flow in.
    • A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) claimed in 2015 that nearly $62 billion in climate finance had flown in until the previous year. In response, India had put out a discussion paper saying a more credible figure was just $2.2 billion.
    • The UNFCCC’s Standing Committee on Finance has said in a recent report that the total climate finance not just from government sources  was $33 billion in 2015 and $38 billion in 2016, and that the rate of year-on-year increase had actually declined from 24% in 2015 to 14% in 2016.
  • Money flows through multilateral institutions like the Green Climate Fund have also stagnated.
    • Even the initial offer of $10 billion has not been fulfilled because of the decision of the US to walk out of the Paris Agreement.
    • The promised replenishments are still to materialise. A recent discussion paper by the Indian government noted that only about 12% of the total pledges to multilateral climate funds had actually materialised into disbursements.
  • Developing countries have been pointing out that the $100 billion amount was woefully inadequate to meet climate challenges, and have been asking that this be increased significantly.
  • Complicated accreditation process:-
    • For a country to directly access GCF finance, it must first nominate a national designated authority usually an existing government department like the finance or environment ministry  which then nominates an institution for accreditation.
    • Simplifying the accreditation process would perhaps be the biggest help

Way forward:-

  • Developing countries insist that climate finance must be “new and additional” and must be provided for mitigation as well as adaptation efforts as mentioned in the Paris Agreement.
  • Five Europe-based multinational banks recently pledged to employ cash lying with them to nudge clients away from polluting businesses. The banks on the sidelines of the COP24 summit stated that with five banks having a combined loan book of over €2.4 trillion, believe banks have an important role to play in scaling and accelerating the transition toward a climate-resilient world. 

General Studies – 3


Topic –  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

4) India and most of the developing world face a twin challenge—closing the infrastructure financing gap and changing the composition of financing. Critically Analyze.(250 words)

Livemint

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to delve deeper into the infrastructure and infrastructure needs of India and describe the twin challenges it faces. On the bases of our discussion we have to form an opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  infrastructure needs of India. E.g It is estimated that infrastructure investments needed in energy, transport, telecommunications, water and sanitation, education, and health projects will amount to more than 5% of gross domestic product (GDP) in developing countries.

Body-

  1. Discuss the twin challenges faced by developing economies like India. E.g Meeting the financing gap needed for infrastructure services will be one of the biggest challenges in development. Unlike in the UK and the US, in developing economies, nearly 70% of the funding for infrastructure projects comes from the government budget, 20% from private players, and 10% from multilateral development banks; Commercial banks have dominated the financing of infrastructure projects. This amounts to the government transferring a huge amount of risk from public to the private sector. With the structure of financing such that there is heavy reliance of private financing on the public sector and with heavy termination clauses included in PPP contracts, the government is potentially exposed to fiscal risks; Given rising global macroeconomic and trade concerns, changing the composition of financing is as important as maximizing infrastructure capital. Changing the composition of capital flow also has the potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of public finance and infrastructure projects etc.
  2. Bring out the need for multiple sources of financing development projects. E.g While commercial banks will continue to be an important source of infrastructure finance, capital markets need to play a bigger role, given the increased demand for long-term sources of finance for infrastructure projects. Bond markets, especially local currency bond markets, will be critical to filling the infrastructure-investment gap etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background :-

  • In a modern society people are demanding improved infrastructure to meet their aspirations. This aspiration is particularly acute in the developing world, given the poor infrastructure and huge development financing needs.
  • The infrastructure investments needed will amount to more than 5% of gross domestic product (GDP) in developing countries

Countries are facing twin challenge:-

  • Complicated mix of financing:-
    • Unlike in the UK and the US, in developing economies, nearly 70% of the funding for infrastructure projects comes from the government budget, 20% from private players, and 10% from multilateral development banks. 
  • Banking risks:-
    • Commercial banks have dominated the financing of infrastructure projects. This amounts to the government transferring a huge amount of risk from public to the private sector. So due to this the government is potentially exposed to fiscal risks.
  • The infrastructure financing gap has widened due to shortfall in PPP projects, especially in power and telecom, land and forest clearance issues, and above all, the adverse impact of stressed balance sheets of private sector.

However there are changes visible:-

  • While the infrastructure financing gap is huge in the developing world, the potential for attracting private investment for infrastructure projects is also huge.
    • The basic traits of infrastructure projects, such as market size, long-term steady revenue stream, and investment returns that exceed inflation, make them attractive for institutional investors.
  • Countries are taking positive policy models:-
    • India has experienced a rapid increase in the number of public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects during the last two decades.
  • Untapped sectors:-
    • India’s energy efficiency market, estimated to be more than $12 billion per year, is one of the largest untapped energy-efficiency markets in the world. 

What needs to be done?

  • There is a need to enhance a huge potential for creating markets and improving the preparation and regulation of PPP projects in areas such as time taken to prepare projects, contract management, risk management, socioeconomic impact, affordability, and bankability of projects, and meeting the strategic importance of development goals.
  • Capital markets need to play a bigger role, given the increased demand for long-term sources of finance for infrastructure projects. Bond markets, especially local currency bond markets, will be critical to filling the infrastructure-investment gap.
  • There is also a need to avoid currency mismatches from borrowing in foreign currency for projects that generate revenues largely in local currency.
  • Combining resources i.e..,international and domestic, public and private, corporate and philanthropic is needed to achieve the necessary levels of financing. 
  • More fiscal reforms could also generate more revenues to bridge the infrastructure financing gap.
    • Taxation will play a key role in incentivizing investment and ensuring that the proceeds of investment are redistributed and reallocated in line with sustainable development priorities.
  • A lot more regulatory and institutional reforms are also needed to make infrastructure projects more attractive for private investors.
  • Recent economic survey stressed the need to fill the infrastructure investment gap by financing from private investment, institutions dedicated for infrastructure financing like National Infrastructure Investment Bank (NIIB) and also global institutions like Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and New Development Bank (erstwhile BRICS Bank).

Topic – Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints;

5) Discuss how the recently released agriculture export policy is a welcome step in the direction of doubling  farmers’ income by 2022.(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

Doubling farmers’ income by 2022 is not an easy task but at the same time is absolutely essential, given the precarious condition of most of the farmers in India. In this context it is important to discuss the agriculture export policy which has been recently released in line with the government’s commitment to double the farmers’ income by 2022.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the recently released agriculture export policy, its salient provisions and how it is a positive step in the direction of doubling  farmers’ income by 2022.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  New agriculture export policy. E.g It will boost exports of agricultural commodities such as tea, coffee and rice and increase the country’s share in global agri-trade etc.

Body-

Discuss about the salient provisions of the policy and how it will help in doubling farmers’ income by 2022. E.g The policy would focus on all aspects of agricultural exports including modernising infrastructure, standardisation of products, streamlining regulations, curtailing knee-jerk decisions, and focusing on research and development activities;It will also seek to remove all kinds of export restrictions on organic products, the implementation of the policy will have an estimated financial implication of over Rs 1,400 crore etc

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue

Background :-

  • Union cabinet approved an export policy for agriculture, lifting all restrictions on organic and processed food, to help the government’s efforts to double farmers income by 2022.
  • In order to provide an impetus to agricultural exports, the Government has come out with a comprehensive “Agriculture Export Policy” aimed at doubling the agricultural exports and integrating Indian farmers and agricultural products with the global value chains.

Objectives :-

  • Objectives of the Agriculture Export Policy are as under :-
    • To double agricultural exports from present US$ 30+Billion to US$ 60+ Billion by 2022 and reach US$ 100 Billion in the next few years thereafter, with a stable trade policy regime.
    • To diversify export basket, destinations and boost high value and value added agricultural exports including focus on perishables.
    • To promote novel, indigenous, organic, ethnic, traditional and non-traditional Agri products exports.
    • To provide an institutional mechanism for pursuing market access, tackling barriers and deal with sanitary and phyto-sanitary issues.
    • To strive to double India’s share in world agri exports by integrating with global value chain at the earliest.
    • Enable farmers to get benefit of export opportunities in overseas market.

The recommendations in the Agriculture Export Policy are in two categories :-

  • Strategic  2. Operational
  • Strategic:It Includes 

(a) Policy measures 
(b) Infrastructure and logistics support 
(c) Holistic approach to boost exports 
(d) Greater involvement of State Governments in agri exports 

  • Operational:It includes

(a) Focus on Clusters 
(b) Promoting value added exports 
(c) Marketing and promotion of “Brand India” 
(d) Attract private investments into production and processing 
(e) Establishment of strong quality regimen 
(f) Research & Development 
(g) Miscellaneous 

Key features of agricultural export policy :-

  • Agriculture Export Policy, 2018 seeks to double farm exports to $60 billion by 2022 from $30 billion last year.
  • 1,400 crore to set up specialised clusters in different states for different produce to push exports.

Impact :-

  • The Policy will double the agricultural exports and integrate Indian farmers and agricultural products with the global value chains. Exports of agricultural products would play a crucial role in achieving the goal of doubling farmers income by 2022.
  • The policy will promote organic, ethnic and indigenous products.
  • The policy seeks to diversify exports by products and destination and will focus on high value-added farm produce and perishables. At present, rice, wheat and marine products account for about 52% of the total farm exports.
    • It will boost exports of agricultural commodities such as tea, coffee and rice and increase the country’s share in global agri-trade.
  • Dedicated clusters could be set up for mangoes, pomegranate, bananas, grapes, tea, coffee, turmeric, and marine products, among others. The government will set up ‘Brand India’ to promote exports and establish as strong quality regime for exports, and states will be extensively involved.
  • The policy that has strategic and operational elements will also seek to attract private investment into production and processing.
  • It will harness export potential of Indian agriculture through suitable policy instruments to make India global power in agriculture and raise farmers income.
  • Considering the sanitary and phyto-sanitary issues that farm exports usually run into with many countries, the policy will provide an institutional mechanism to pursue market access and tackle barriers.
  • The policy has been designed with extensive consultations with states that have agreed to remove a lot of restrictions including mandi taxes and APMC (Agricultural Produce Market Committee) related conditions.
  • Policy would focus on all aspects of agricultural exports including modernising infrastructure, standardisation of products, streamlining regulations, curtailing knee-jerk decisions, and focusing on research and development activities.
  • It will also seek to remove all kinds of export restrictions on organic products, the minister added.

Topic – challenges to internal security

6) Mob violence in India is an indicator of the dysfunctional criminal justice system. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

India has witnessed a series of mob violence related incidents with the killing of the SHO in UP being the latest one. In this context it is essential to evaluate the inefficiencies of the criminal justice system in India and how it is related to mob violence.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to look into the mob violence related incidents in the country and bring out how they do/ don’t indicate the dysfunctional criminal justice system in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  spate of mob violence related incidents in India e.g a full-fledged SHO of Uttar Pradesh police, Inspector Subodh Kumar Singh, was shot dead, allegedly by a mob of cow vigilantes etc.

Body

Discuss the various ills affecting the Indian criminal justice system and bring out their relationship to mob violence. E.g The fundamental link between crime and punishment, that is the foundation of the rule of law, has been broken in affected areas for a while now. Trials take decades. Conviction rates are abysmal. Witnesses turn hostile as a matter of routine with no adverse consequences. Forensic facilities are negligible. Prisons are overcrowded and more often than not, they serve as safe havens for well-connected gangsters to run their empires from; there simply aren’t enough policemen to police states;the belief cutting across party lines, that the police are simply the bounden servants of the government of the day. Their primarily role is not to serve the public or uphold the rule of law, but to further the cause of the ruling party and strike terror in the heart of its political opponents etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue

Background:-

  • There is growing evidence of hate crimes which are criminal acts against people based on their real or perceived membership of a particular group, such as caste, religion or ethnicity across India. Recently a full-fledged SHO of Uttar Pradesh police was shot dead allegedly by a mob of cow vigilantes.
  • The fundamental link between crime and punishment, that is the foundation of the rule of law, has been broken in some states.

Mob violence is an indicator of dysfunctional criminal justice system:-

  • The most important factor is there simply aren’t enough policemen to police. By UN standards, at current population levels, UP needs around a million police personnel. At present it has around 3,00,000. 
    • Those who are there are not just overburdened and under-resourced, but their professional spine has been broken by casteism, corruption and frequent transfers.
  • Besides being severely understaffed and starved of critical resources, the structure of policing, in a continuation of its colonial legacy, remains subservient to political control.
    • Political interference at every stage from investigation to prosecution ensures that the police is accountable not to the citizenry, but to the powerful political class who is in a position to reprimand them.
  • Criminal justice system seeks largely to respond to the acts of violence itself, while leaving the causal factors unchecked.
  • Failure of police machinery:-
    • They consistently fail to lodge FIRs or charge sheets on time. In many cases, allegations of collusion have been made against them. Poor investigation and reluctance of public prosecutors to pursue cases have resulted in bails for alleged culprits. 
  • Conviction rates are abysmal.
  • Witnesses turn hostile as a matter of routine with no adverse consequences.
  • Forensic facilities are negligible.
  • Prisons are overcrowded and more often than not, they serve as safe havens for well-connected gangsters to run their empires from.

Way forward:-

  • There is a need to an overhaul of legal systems and policy objectives. Police reforms calling for greater independence need to be implemented .Specifically, the nexus between state governments and the police needs to be dismantled by shifting police supervision to a more independent body
  • Mechanisms like the proposed Police Complaints Authoritiesneed to be introduced to ensure that the police force is also accountable for its failures to follow the law.
  • In order to improve police intelligence and recognise and quell social unrest at its roots, initiatives like community policing and violence observatories, which can be established to systematically study the causes of violence in risk-prone areas, should be given impetus.
  • Finally, liability and accountability for mob violence must not end at the actual participants in the violence. Those found responsible for spreading dissatisfaction and organising or mobilising against specific communities must also be brought to book.
  • Supreme court recently stated that act of lynching is unlawfulsince it has become a sweeping phenomenon with a far-reaching impact. No citizen can assault the human dignity of another, for such an action would comatose the majesty of law. This needs effective implementation.
  • The following measures can also be taken:-
    • Hold registered political parties and other registered entities accountable for the acts of commission or omission by their members involved in hate crimes and direct suitable penal action against them.
    • Prohibit those holding constitutional and public offices from identifying themselves with lynch-mob accused publicly in any manner and in case of any infraction hold them responsible and subject to immediate disqualification from such offices.
    • Sensitise subordinate judiciary and higher judiciary dealing with such hate crimes so as to protect the vulnerable sections of the society including those belonging to minority communities as well as women, children and Dalits by holding seminars and workshops at regular intervals involving social activists, psychologists, other activists, lawyers and responsible citizens from all communities.

General Studies – 4


Topic– Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7) “The good for man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, or if there are more kinds of virtue than one, in accordance with the best and most perfect kind.” Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the goodness of the virtues for a man and its relation to his happiness and success.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of a virtue (according to the Aristotle/ virtue ethics).

Body

Discuss further about the relationship of being virtuous with happiness and a good living. E.g the good for man is an activity.” The word activity translates from the Greek energeia, which signifies not only physical activity but also mental activity as seemingly inactive as contemplation or daydreaming. The point is that the good life is not an end state that we achieve but rather a way of life that we live; virtues are dispositions to behave in the correct way. They are not themselves activities, but they ensure that our activities will be of the right kind. To live “in accordance with virtue,” then, is to live in such a way that our activities flow naturally from a virtuous disposition etc.

conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Answer:-

 

  • virtueis a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. It is a behavior that shows high moral standards.
  • Ethicsis devoted to discussing the various moral and intellectual virtues. These virtues are dispositions to behave in the correct way. They are not themselves activities, but they ensure that our activities will be of the right kind. To live “in accordance with virtue,” then, is to live in such a way that our activities flow naturally from a virtuous disposition.
  • The statementconnects Aristotle’s conception of happiness and the good life with his conception of virtue. The word activity translates from the Greek energeia, which signifies not only physical activity but also mental activity as seemingly inactive as contemplation or daydreaming. Good life is not an end state that we achieve but rather a way of life that we live.
  • Aristotle is arguing that once we have discovered the function of man we find that happiness is the virtuous activity of the soul. Aristotle treats happiness as an activity, not as a state. He uses the word energeia, which is the root of word energy, to characterize happiness.
  • The point is that happiness consists of a certain way of life, not of certain dispositions. In saying that happiness is an energeia,he contrasts happiness with virtue, which he considers a hexis, or state of being.
  • Possessing all the right virtues disposes a person to live well, while happiness is the activity of living well, which the virtuous person is inclined toward.