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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 01 DECEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 01 DECEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic -Part of static series under the heading – “ The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country”

1) Several women leaders contributed immensely in shaping the constitution of India by participating in the debates of the Constituent Assembly of India. Discuss prominent contribution by women leaders in making constitution of India.(250 words)

Reference

Livemint

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the contribution made by women members of constituent assembly and how it made the constitution more representative.

Directive word

Discuss – Your discussion should bring out the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that Among the 299 members of the assembly, 15 were women who had either been voted or chosen to represent their provinces, who left their mark on the making of the republic. The assembly was a platform from which they could assert their equality and craft a politically balanced republic.

Body – discuss their contributions.

  • Annie Mascarene emphasised that centralisation was important, but should be introduced at later stages of democracy and not the initial stages, where it would seem like autocracy.
  • supported India’s membership to the Commonwealth, which many members were opposed to.
  • Enriched the debates related to reservation and separate electorates
  • gave voice to need for humane treatement of those detained or arrested etc

Conclusion – Highlight the overall sense of the contribution that women members made in drafting the constitution.


Topic-  Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2) Contrary to popular apprehensions, state reorganization on linguistic lines didn’t hamper the federal structure and unity of our nation. Do you agree. Comment. (250 words)

India since Independence by Bipin Chandra Pal.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the linguistic reorganisation undertaken in post-independent India, and express our opinion as to how it affected the federalism and integration of the country.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

Write a few introductory lines about the  need for linguistic organization felt in early independent India. E.g mention the ill conceived divisions of the country into princely states and British Presidencies which paid no attention to linguistic, cultural homogeneity etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the states demanding reorganisation on linguistic lines and the logic forwarded thereupon. E.g Andhra Pradesh in the very early independent India; Telangana; Bombay etc;
  2. Discuss the positive impact it had vis a vis federalism and national integration. E.g
  3. Discuss the negative impacts. E.g

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance-
applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency &
accountability and institutional and other measures.

3) Do you think that there is a need to make  international structures governing more democratic in the wake of rise of transnational conflicts . Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the growing number of international conflicts of business nature. It discusses why there is a need to make the associated international structures more democratic in this regard.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the growth of transnational conflicts. It wants us to express our opinion as to why there is a need to make the related international structures more democratic.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

Write a few introductory lines about the  rise of MNCs and global tech companies like Facebook, Google, Uber etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the factors responsible for the growth and rise of transnational conflicts e.g Globalization and technological advances; growth of bilateral treaties of economic nature; claims of IPRs by foreign and multinational pharmaceutical companies etc.
  2. Discuss how they threaten the traditional democratic structures and notions. E.g issues that were earlier resolved within a sovereign state in accordance with its constitutional system have now acquired a transnational character; Whatever a country’s Constitution may say about the right to life and the right to health for its citizens, it will still be dragged before an international tribunal if it attempts to forestall or mitigate a public health crisis by lifting patent restrictions upon, for example, a life-saving drug; final decision is taken by a set of individuals who are beyond the structures of accountability that are established in democratic and constitutional states;  clashes between national regulatory authorities and the corporations that drive the new “gig economy”, such as Uber etc.
  3. Discuss how they could be made more democratic and accountable to the wishes of the people. E.g mention the need for an international progressive movement that mobilizes behind a vision of shared prosperity, security and dignity for all people, and that addresses the massive global inequality that exists, not only in wealth but in political power etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and
issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4) Examine the advantages that PHC model of healthcare has over UHC model? Discuss how these models manifest in Pradhan Mantri Jan Aarogya Yojana?(250 words) 

Indian express

Why this question

At a time when focus over attaining SDG has enhanced, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG-3) which pertains to healthcare and seeks to ensure  healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages is important for several reasons. Also, India has introduced schemes focussing on UHC and hence the significance of these models becomes important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what UHC and PHC model is and the advantages of one over the other. Thereafter, it expects us to explain which model is prevalent in PMJAY and analyze what it means. Finally we need to give a way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is meant by the two.

Body

  • Explain that Astana Declaration underscored the importance of Primary Health Care (PHC) as an essential complement to UHC. UHC concentrates on ensuring healthcare access through medical insurance “coverage” in order to “prevent catastrophic medical expenditures”. This was a move away from the comprehensive PHC approach that was reiterated by the WHO in 2008. The Astana declaration (2018) attempts to integrate the two approaches. “We will apply knowledge, including scientific as well as traditional knowledge, to strengthen PHC, improve health outcomes and ensure access for all people to the right care at the right time and at the most appropriate level of care, respecting their rights, needs, dignity and autonomy,
  • Thereafter, explain the model in PMJAY. In India, the UHC-PHC complement is embodied in the Ayushman Bharat scheme — the Pradhan Mantri Jan Aarogya Yojana (PMJY) reflects the UHC model, while the health and wellness centres claim to reflect the PHC component at the primary level. This is a shift from the earlier strategy for strengthening public healthcare system, reflected in the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), 2005-2012 — later the National Health Mission with incorporation of the National Urban Health Mission. NRHM addressed primary and secondary levels, leading to an increase in public health expenditure,
  • Examine the impact of the two models in health schemes and discuss what would be better going forward.

Conclusion – Give your view and mention the way forward.


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes.

5) Explain the maternity benefits available in formal and informal sector? Examine issues and give suggestions?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article explains the benefits under the two and issues with the two maternity benefit schemes. Both are important schemes and hence needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the difference in provision of the two schemes and the issues in their design and implementation . Finally we need to provide suggestions for tackling these issues.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that The provision for maternity entitlements in the NFSA is very important for women who are not employed in the formal sector. The PMMVY, however, undermines this provision due to the dilution of the entitled amount and the exclusion criteria.

Body

  • Discuss the differences
    • Under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) of 2013, every pregnant woman is entitled to maternity benefits of ₹6,000, unless she is already receiving similar benefits as a government employee or under other laws.
    • The PMMVY announced in December 31, 2016 violated the NFSA on 3 grounds – First, the benefits have been reduced from ₹6,000 to ₹5,000 per child. Second, they are now restricted to the first living child. Third, they are further restricted to women above the age of 18 years.
  • Explain the other issues
    • Cumbersome application process
    • Little assistance to women who lose their babies
    • excludes more than half of all pregnancies because first-order births account for only 43% of all births in India. Etc
  • Give suggestions for improvement

Conclusion – The government’s maternity benefit programme must be implemented better and comply with the Food Security Act. Maternity benefits should be raised to ₹6,000 per child at least, for all pregnancies and not just the first living child.


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact
assessment

6)  Increased incidence of heat waves across the world is a cause of concern for all countries especially India. Analyze. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Episodes of Heat waves have increased dramatically in the wake of Climate change. India is no immune to the fact and faces more difficult challenges on account of various inherent socioeconomic factors which needs to be deliberated upon.

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to probe deeper into the increasing episodes of heatwaves, briefly discuss the causes and discuss in detail what are the socioeconomic costs inflicted by heat waves, which make them a cause of worry for India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

write a few introductory lines about the  recent report highlighting the increased incidence of heat waves across the world including India.

Body-

  1. Briefly discuss the meaning of a heat wave and  reasons behind increased incidence of heat waves. E.g mention the IMD definition of heat wave; mention the increasing anthropogenic emissions and climate change as the reasons behind the phenomenon etc.
  2. Discuss the socioeconomic costs associated with heatwaves especially in case of India. E.g

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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