Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 NOVEMBER 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 NOVEMBER 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic -The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

1) A revolutionary and a socialist, the contribution of Bhagat Singh to the Independence Movement of India is immense. Discuss.(250 words)

India’s struggle for independence by Bipin Chandra Pal

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to discuss the contribution of Bhagat Singh towards Indian freedom struggle and describe his revolutionary actions and socialist ideas/ ideals.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  contribution of Bhagat Singh towards Indian freedom struggle E.g Bhagat Singh is considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of Indian Nationalist Movement. He became involved with numerous revolutionary organizations and played an important role in the Indian National movement. He died a martyr at the age of just 23 years.

Body-

Discuss the important contributions of Bhagat Singh towards Indian Freedom E.g At Lahore, he organized several study circles with the help of Sukhdev and others and carried on intensive political discussions; helped establish the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 (becoming its founding Secretary), as the open wing of the revolutionaries.The Sabha was to carry out open political work among the youth, peasants and workers;organized the Lahore Students Union for open, legal work among the students;broaden the scope and definition of revolution ; a great innovator in two areas of politics. Being fully and consciously secular, he understood, more clearly than many of his contemporaries, the danger that communalism posed to the nation and the national movement; Initially, Bhagat Singh’s activities were limited to writing corrosive articles against the British Government, printing and distributing pamphlets outlining principles of a violent uprising, aimed at overthrowing the Government; On April 8 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb onto the corridors of the assembly, shouted ‘Inquilab Zindabad!’ and threw pamphlet outlining their missive into the air. Singh believed that something as precious as Independence can only be achieved by a thorough cleansing of the exploitative nature of imperialism. He opined that such change can only be brought forward by means of an armed revolution, in similar lines to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. He introduced the slogan “Inquilab Zindabad” which sort of transformed into the war cry of the Indian Independence movement etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Bhagat Singh is one of the only national heroes, perhaps after Gandhi, who is venerated across India. This could be attributed to his appeal as a martyr, which cuts across political ideologies.

Contribution of Bhagat Singh:-

  • Political ideology:-
    • His azaadi freedom was not limited to the expelling of the British; instead he desired azaadi from poverty, azaadi from untouchability, azaadi from communal strife, and azaadi from every form of discrimination and exploitation
    • The struggle in India would continue so long as a handful of exploiters go on exploiting the labour of the common people for their own ends. It matters little
      whether these exploiters are purely British capitalists, 
      or British and Indians in alliance, or even purely Indians.
    • Naujawan Bharat Sabhawas a public platform of the revolutionaries founded by Singh, and had a categorical position on the slogans to be used. T hey raised two slogans: “Inquilab Zindabad” and “Hindustan Zindabad,” hailing the revolution and the country.
      • Committed to inquilab (revolution), but not merely a political revolution. He wanted a social revolutionto break age-old discriminatory practices such as untouchability, communalism and gender discrimination. 
    • He was also associated with Hindustan Republican Association, Kirti Kisan Party, Kranti Dal.
    • Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev also organized the Lahore Students Union for open, legal work  among the students. 
  • Bhagat Singh’s nationalism:-
    • He grew up to appreciate nationalism and crave a British-free independent India. Extensive reading of European literature propelled him towards forming a socialist outlook strongly desiring a democratic future for India.
  • Atheism:-
    • Bhagat Singh veered towards Atheism after witnessing several Hindu-Muslim riots and other religious outbreaks.
  • Armed revolution:-
    • Singh believed that something as precious as Independence can only be achieved by a thorough cleansing of the exploitative nature of imperialism.
    • He opined that such change can only be brought forward by means of an armed revolution, in similar lines to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. He introduced the slogan “Inquilab Zindabad” which sort of transformed into the war cry of the Indian Independence movement.
  • Bhagat Singh differed from most other revolutionaries on two important aspects:
  • He had a vision of the Indian society that he envisaged post-independence and could articulate its essential characteristics.
  • He found fulfillment through serving humanity and liberating it from sufferings and distress. He equated that cause to that of India’s freedom.
  • Working towards building an India where poverty, socio-economic disparity and exploitation did not exist, rather than achieving freedom from the British alone, was his goal.
  • He even favoured untouchables that they must have their own elected representatives .They must demand greater rights for themselves.
  • Bhagat Singh, his intense patriotism coupled with cultivated idealism, made him an ideal icon for the youth of his generation. Through his written and vocal admonition of the British Imperial Government, he became the voice of his generation.

Conclusion:-

  • Bhagat Singh and his comrades  made an abiding contribution to the national freedom movement. Their deep patriotism, courage and determination, and sense of sacrifice stirred the Indian people. They helped spread nationalist consciousness in the land.

Topic- The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

2) The Rajkot Satyagraha brought into clear focus the paradoxical situation that existed in the Princely States. Analyze. (250 words)

India’s struggle for independence by Bipin Chandra Pal

Directive word

Analyze- here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to probe into the Rajkot Satyagraha, discuss its background, its outcomes and how it conspicuously highlighted the paradoxical situation existing in the Princely states.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

write a few introductory lines about the  Rajkot Satyagraha. E.g mention the reasons behind Rajkot Satyagraha- protest against the Raja.

Body-

  1. Discuss the outcome of the Satyagraha. E.g Despite the apparent failure, the Rajkot Satyagraha had a powerful politicizing influence on the people of the States, especially in Western India; It brought clear to the Princes that they survived only because of the British support etc.
  2. Discuss the differences between the British India and the Princely States in terms of civil liberties, political backwardness etc. E.g The ultimate protection provided by the British enabled the rulers of the States to withstand popular pressure;The great differences in the political conditions between British India and the States, and between the different; States themselves, the general lack of civil liberties including freedom of association, the comparative political backwardness of the people, and the fact that the Indian  States were legally independent entities; the Indian States were legally independent entities, these were understandable restraints imposed in the interest of the movements in the States as well as the movement in British India;

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • A turning point in the history of western India princely states, the Rajkot Satyagraha of 1938-39 is an event of sub-continental significance.

Rajkot Satyagraha:-

  • Most of the princely states were autocratically ruled. The economic burden on the people was heavy with high taxation, education and social services were backward and civil rights were restricted.
  • State revenues were expended on the luxurious lifestyles of the rulers and since the British provided immunity from domestic and external aggression, they felt free to ignore the interests of the people.
  • The British government expected the states to support them in their imperialistic policies ,thereby acting against the development of nationalist sentiments.
  • The people under the British provinces were given some political rights and participation in the administration after the acts of 1919 and 1935.The people under the princely states did not have the rights equal to the rights enjoyed by the British provinces.
  • The onset of the nationalistic movement in British rule also had an impact on the people of the princely states .many revolutionary nationalists fleeing British authority came to the princely states in the first and second decades of the 20th century and initiated political activities there
  • Under the national movement the subjects of the princely states established people’s organisations.

Significance:-

  • It represented the first major attempt to secure constitutional change through mass civil disobedience.
  • Rajkot also was the first serious test of the Congress ability to carry the fight against British into princely India and of princely India’s readiness to take part in the all India struggle.
  • It was a test of the indirect support given by the  paramount power to the princes and of the durability of the latter against the nationalists.
  • It was a test of the methods of Gandhi in a yet untried political environment.
  • Rajkot Satyagraha showed the complexity of situation in princely states with paramount power always ready to interfere in its own favour but ever willing to use legal independence of the rulers as an excuse for non interference.
  • Though Rajkot satyagraha was a failure it exercised a tremendous politicising effect on the people of states .It also demonstrated to the rulers of the states the power of popular resistance and encourages many states to integrate with India after independence.
    • In Hyderabad a powerful people’s movement built up.
    • In Kashmir people organised themselves
  • It made it clear to the Princes that they survived only because of the British support etc.

Criticism:-

  • The significant aspect of this event by Gandhi’s own admission is a test that failed as he could not change the heart of the ruler and British government took severe repressive action.

Topic–  Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India; Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

3) Explain the Tribal Panchsheel policy of Jawaharlal Nehru? Discuss in light of this policy whether Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation has helped in protection of indigenous tribals?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Our policy towards the tribal population has been under intense scrutiny in the past few days post the incident of killing a foreign national in sentinel islands. This issue is important for mains as we need to understand our tribal policies and the impact that these policies are having.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the tribal panchsheel policy of Nehru. Thereafter, we need to discuss how this policy led to the development of ANPATR and how these regulations has impacted the tribal population. Thereafter, we also need to highlight the changes in these regulations and the impact they have had. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion on these changes and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss –

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain why the Sentinelese are in news

Body

  • Explain about the Tribal Panchsheel policy –
    • Non-imposition: People should develop along the lines of their own genius, and the imposition of alien values should be avoided.
    • TribaI rights in land and forest should be respected.
    • Teams of tribals should be trained in the work of administration and development. Introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory should be avoided.
    • TribaI areas should not be over administered or overwhelmed with a multiplicity of schemes.
    • Results should be judged not by statistics or the amount of money spent, but by the human character that is evolved.
  • Explain ANPATR and the impact it has had. Jawaharlal Nehru’s Tribal Panchsheel were the guiding principles after Independence to formulate policies for the indigenous communities of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Based on them, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation (ANPATR), 1956 was promulgated by the President. This Regulation protected the tribals from outside interference, specified the limits of reserved areas and said no land in a reserved area shall be allotted for agricultural purposes or sold or mortgaged to outsiders. Those violating the land rights of the tribals were to be imprisoned for one year, fined Rs. 1,000, or both. Despite this, there continued to be constant interactions between the tribals and settlers/ outsiders. Discuss the impact of this policy.
  • Explain the changes brought about and the impact it had – In 2005, nearly 50 years after it was promulgated, the ANPATR was amended. The term of imprisonment as well as the fine were increased. However, in the years in between, the Andaman Trunk Road had already ensured increased interaction with the tribals. In the case of the Jarawas, this had led to the spread of diseases, sexual exploitation, and begging. Similarly, a policy for protecting the Shompen tribes was released only in 2015. However, in spite of the 2005 amendment, videos of commercial exploitation of the Jarawas in the name of “human safaris” were widely reported in the media. Following this, the government amended the ANPATR yet again in 2012, creating a buffer zone contiguous to the Jarawa tribal reserve where commercial establishments were prohibited, and regulating tourist operators. Despite all these amendments and provisions, there continue to be numerous reports of civilian intrusion into the Jarawa tribal reserve.

Conclusion – give a fair and balanced opinion in the impact of the changes and the way forward.

Background:-

  • The policy towards the tribal population has been under intense scrutiny in the past few days post the incident of killing a foreign national in sentinel islands. 

Tribal panchsheel policy :-

  • Jawaharlal Nehru’s Tribal Panchsheel were the guiding principles after Independence to formulate policies for the indigenous communities of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
    • He formulated the following five principles for the policy to be pursued vis-a-vis the tribals:
    • People should develop along the lines of their own genius, and the imposition of alien values should be avoided.
    • TribaI rights in land and forest should be respected.
    • Teams of tribals should be trained in the work of administration and development.
    • TribaI areas should not be over administered or overwhelmed with a multiplicity of schemes.
    • Results should be judged not by statistics or the amount of money spent, but by the human character that is evolved.

Andaman and Nicobar islands regulation :-

  • Based on the above principles, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation (ANPATR), 1956 was promulgated by the President.
  • This Regulation protected the tribals from outside interference, specified the limits of reserved areas and said no land in a reserved area shall be allotted for agricultural purposes or sold or mortgaged to outsiders.
  • Those violating the land rights of the tribals were to be imprisoned for one year, fined Rs.1,000, or both. Despite this, there continued to be constant interactions between the tribals and settlers/ outsiders.

How Andaman and Nicobar islands regulation has helped in the protection of indigenous tribals :-

  • In 2005, nearly 50 years after it was promulgated, the ANPATR was amended.
  • The term of imprisonment as well as the fine were increased.
    • However, in the years in between, the Andaman Trunk Road had already ensured increased interaction with the tribals.
    • In the case of the Jarawas, this had led to the spread of diseases, sexual exploitation, and begging.
  • Similarly, a policy for protecting the Shompen tribes was released only in 2015.
  • However, in spite of the 2005 amendment, videos of commercial exploitation of the Jarawas in the name of “human safaris” were widely reported in the media.
  • Following this, the government amended the ANPATR yet again in 2012, creating a buffer zone contiguous to the Jarawa tribal reserve where commercial establishments were prohibited, and regulating tourist operators.
    • Despite all these amendments and provisions, there continue to be numerous reports of civilian intrusion into the Jarawa tribal reserve.

Way forward:-

  • Recently the government relaxed the restricted area permit (RAP) for 29 islands in the Andaman and Nicobar, including North Sentinel Island. If the government has decided to ease the restrictions in a phased manner, this could adversely affect the indigenous population in the long run. Such commercialisation of tribal spaces could lead to encroachment of land. This needs to be avoided.
  • Considering the significance of the indigenous tribes of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the government needs to reorient its priorities towards protecting them from outside influence.
  • India needs to sign the 1989 convention of the ILO, and implement its various policies to protect the rights of the indigenous population.
  • It should also make efforts to sensitise settlers and outsiders about them.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance-
applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency &
accountability and institutional and other measures.

4) The RBI, the RBI board and the government must understand the limits to which they can push each other. Discuss. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The interrelationship between RBI, RBI board and government and the limits and scope of their power had been under scrutiny in recent days. This is a general trend being seen all over the world. The regulations government this and how to reconcile the scope of power of each needs to be understood.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the relationship between the RBI and the government and between the RBI management and its board. Thereafter we need to discuss the issues and analyze their ramifications.

Directive word

Discuss –

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the recent turn of events relating to RBI and government which has brought this issue in focus.

Body

  • Discuss about section 7 of RBI Act – This section gives the government the right to issue directions to the RBI in public interest. Highlight how this section governs the relationship between RBI and government from a historical, economic and political perspective
  • Explain about the recent change in the monetary policy framework setting up the Monetary Policy Committee and giving it full freedom to determine the policy rate is a giant step forward in terms of giving the RBI autonomy.
  • Discuss about the relationship between the RBI management headed by the Governor and the board. Explain why the debate arose because of the contentious issues between the government and the RBI being referred to the board. The question that has been raised is whether the board as it is constituted today can discuss such issues and compel the Governor to act according to the majority view.

Conclusion – Give your view on the interrelationship between the three and discuss way forward.

Background:-

  • Recently simmering differences between the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Central government over issues of public sector bank regulation, resolution of distressed assets and the central bank’s reserves, independent payments bank regulator, easing credit to small firms have raised questions about the independence of RBI and its relationship with government and RBI board.

How were the limits pushed in the past:-

  • Section 7 of the RBI Act sets out the relationship between the government and the RBI.
    • The Central Government may from time to time give such directions to the Bank as it may, after consultation with the Governor of the Bank, consider necessary in the public interest.
    • Subject to any such directions, the general superintendence and direction of the affairs and business of the Bank shall be entrusted to a Central Board of Directors which may exercise all powers and do all acts and things which may be exercised or done by the Bank
    • Save as otherwise provided in regulations made by the Central Board, the Governor and in his absence the Deputy Governor nominated by him in this behalf, shall also have powers of general superintendence and direction of the affairs and the business of the Bank, and may exercise all powers and do all acts and things which may be exercised or done by the Bank.
  • Clearly, the section empowers the government to issue directions in public interest to the central bank, which otherwise does not take orders from the government.
  • This section gives the government the right to issue directions to the RBI in public interest. Monetary policies must necessarily depend upon the larger policies which a government pursues. It is in the ambit of those larger policies that the Reserve Bank can advise.
  • Similarly the earlier instance of the issue of ad hoc Treasury Bills along with the above act shows the tone of the relationship set between RBI and the government.
  • The recent change in the monetary policy framework setting up the Monetary Policy Committee and giving it full freedom to determine the policy rate is a giant step forward in terms of giving the RBI autonom Literally, the Finance Minister gets to know the decision along with others.

RBI and its board:-

  • The second issue is about the relationship between the RBI management headed by the Governor and the board. The debate arose because of the contentious issues between the government and the RBI being referred to the board.
  • The question that has been raised is whether the board as it is constituted today can discuss such issues and compel the Governor to act according to the majority view.
  • In order to understand the relationship between the government and board there is a need to look at Clause 2 of Section 7 :-
    • The affairs and business of the Bank shall be entrusted to a Central Board of Directors which may exercise all powers and do all acts and things which may be exercised or done by the Bank.
  • However, Clause 3 says
    • The Governor shall also have powers of general superintendence and direction of the affairs and business of the Bank and may exercise all powers and do all acts and things which may be exercised or done by the Bank.
  • The right way of interpretation is that both the board and the Governor have concurrent powers in almost all matters. The board has members nominated by the Central government from various walks of life including industry leaders.This can result in a conflict of interest because the actions taken by the RBI could directly affect their interest. Therefore, the tradition that had evolved is that the board has largely functioned as an adviser.
  • However it is not as if the board has not passed resolutions on matters which are operational and policy oriented.
    • The change in the Bank rate in the past had the prior approval of the board. But with the Governor’s concurrent powers, in the past, on occasions, the Bank rate had been changed without going to the board.
    • The board has the powers to discuss and even pass resolutions, which have been done. But given the nature of the board and the interests of the members, it becomes difficult to let the board to take binding decisions.

Way forward:-

  • Section 7 gives powers to the board and it gives powers to the Governor as well. The way the relationship between the board and the Governor has evolved over time in India is a good one. The board by and large has played an advisory role. Based on this background while the Governor can act on his own, he must listen to what the members feel and the sense of the board must be fully reflected in his actions. A spirit of accommodation must prevail.
  • International examples:-
    • There has to be a forum within the democratic structure where the RBI is obligated to explain and defend its position.
    • Different countries have taken different routes and by and large each model is appropriately tuned to their specific contexts.
    • US example is a good model to work upon. Presentation by the chairman of the Federal Reserve to the Congress makes for public exposure and transparency but does not take away the chairman’s autonomy.
  • The governor should be responsible and accountable to Parliament and not to a particular government or the ministry of finance, or ministe He can testify to Parliament twice a year. In separate testimony in both houses of Parliament, the lawmakers can ask questions of the RBI Governor and the latter can respond.
  • A better way to sort out these differences and to come to a conclusion is to have a larger debate with technical experts weighing in.
  • On issues of operational autonomy, the central government needs to lay off its pressure on the RBI.
  • On macro issues such as exchange rate management and RBI’s dividend policy, written agreements that clearly demarcate roles and responsibilities can be thrashed out.
  • The Monetary Policy Framework Agreement and the FRBM Act are good illustrations of how a mutually agreed rule-based framework can broker peace between the central bank and the executive arm of government.
  • If the issues are not resolved, the tussle will undermine investor confidence and strengthens fears about institutional erosion when India is already experiencing economic turmoil

General Studies – 3


Topic –  Awareness in the fields of bio-technology

5) What do you understand by human microbiome? Why is it important to study human microbiome? Explain the nature of research being carried out in India related to human microbiome?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

Human microbiome is an emerging research area where India has started research and thus awareness about this area is necessary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Pune hosted an international conference on microbiome research — a field of study that is still in its infancy in India. That could be set to change, with a proposed project that would study and map the human microbiome across the country.

Body

  • Explain about microbiome – The human body carries diverse communities of microorganisms, which are mainly bacterial. These are referred to as “human microbiome”. These organisms play a key role in many aspects of host physiology, ranging from metabolism of otherwise complex indigestible carbohydrates and fats to producing essential vitamins, maintaining immune systems and acting as a first line of defense against pathogens.
  • Discuss why microbiome are important – Research on the human microbiome has thrown light on various aspects — how different parts of the human body are occupied by characteristic microbial communities, and how various factors contribute in shaping the composition of the microbiome, including the genetics, dietary habits, age, geographic location and ethnicity. These studies laid a strong foundation to decipher the microbiome’s implications on health and a wide range of diseases
  • Discuss about the research project in India – Various research groups in the country are working on the human microbiome, Scientists at NCSS have conducted a meta-analysis on gut microbiota of healthy Indian individuals and compared it with that of individuals from other parts of the world. It shows that the Indian population harbours a distinct gut microbial community, which, scientists say, calls for an in-depth investigation of the Indian microbiome. India has a large number of tribal populations largely unaffected by “modern” diet and lifestyle. The prevalence of lifestyle-related disorders such as obesity and diabetes has been known to be significantly lower compared to the non-tribal (urbanised) populations across the globe. Hence, scientists say, a study on the tribal population would help improve knowledge of evolution of the mutualism between gut microbiota and the host.

Conclusion – Conclude by discussing the importance and implication of this research.

Human microbiome:-

  • The human body carries diverse communities of microorganisms, which are mainly bacterial. These are referred to as “human microbiome”.
  • These organisms play a key role in many aspects of host physiology, ranging from metabolism of otherwise complex indigestible carbohydrates and fats to producing essential vitamins, maintaining immune systems and acting as a first line of defense against pathogens.
  • The human microbiomerefers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.

Why is it important to study human microbiome:-

  • Research on the human microbiome has thrown light on various aspects like
    • How different parts of the human body are occupied by characteristic microbial communities
    • How various factors contribute in shaping the composition of the microbiome, including the genetics, dietary habits, age, geographic location and ethnicity.
    • These studies laid a strong foundation to decipher the microbiome’s implications on health and a wide range of diseases
  • key roles of microbes include programming the immune system, providing nutrients for our cells and preventing colonisation by harmful bacteria and viruses. So it necessary to know about human microbiome.
  • Over recent years the gut microbiome in particular has been linked to a plethora of diseases and conditions, from diabetes to autism and anxiety to obesity.
  • The gut microbiome has also been linked to how individuals respond to certain drugs, including how cancer patients respond to chemotherapy, and it has even, tentatively, been suggested that it could be linked with how well we sleep.

Indian scenario:-

  • Indian population harbours a distinct gut microbial community, which, scientists say, calls for an in-depth investigation of the Indian microbiome.
  • A high-level committee at the Department of Biotechnology has shown a keen interest in the proposed project.
    • The project will include collection of saliva, stool and skin swabs of 20,000 Indians across various ethnic groups from different geographical regions.
    • India provides for a wide range of research with more than 4,500 ethnic groups and presence of two global biodiversity hotspots (Himalayan range and Western Ghats).
  • The prevalence of lifestyle-related disorders such as obesity and diabetes has been known to be significantly lower compared to the non-tribal (urbanised) populations across the globe. Hence, scientists say, a study on the tribal population would help improve knowledge of evolution of the mutualism between gut microbiota and the host.

General Studies – 4


Topic– Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6) The World needs more emotionally intelligent leaders. Do you agree. Comment by giving example of an emotionally intelligent leader.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding about emotional intelligence and express our opinion on the need for leaders to be emotionally intelligent. We also have to give an example of a leader that we think is emotionally intelligent.

Structure of the answer

Introduction–  write a few introductory lines about the  emotional intelligence E.g Emotional intelligence is not a golden ticket but rather, a core competency essential to lead in turbulent times etc

Body-

  1. Discuss the qualities of a good leader wrt EI E.g leaders who are more emotionally intelligent were more likely to achieve their goals; Leaders higher on the EI measure are slightly more likely to achieve their concrete goals than leaders lower in EI; higher EI leaders are more likely to display behaviors such as exemplifying personal drive and integrity, or cultivating productive working relationships; Emotional intelligence is essential to lead in turbulent times.
  2. Discuss the example of an emotionally intelligent leader. E.g Abraham Lincoln, Gandhi etc. E.g Possessed of a powerful emotional intelligence, Lincoln was both merciful and merciless, confident and humble, patient and persistent — able to mediate among factions and sustain the spirits of his countrymen. He displayed an extraordinary ability to absorb the conflicting skills and wills of a divided people and reflect back to them an unbending faith in a unified future etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Answer:-

Emotional Intelligence has to do with one’s ability to both recognize and control his/her own emotions, while leveraging emotions appropriately as situations dictate. It also has to do with one’s awareness of and sensitivity towards others emotions. It could easily be argued that emotional intelligence is an important characteristic for anyone at any level of an organization.

A leader’s emotional intelligence can have far-reaching influence over their relationships, how they manage their teams, and generally how they interact with individuals in the workplace.

Why world needs emotional intelligent leaders:-

  • Most leaders frequently face stressful situations. Leaders who are low in emotional intelligence tend to act out in stressful situations because they’re not able to manage their own emotions. They may be prone to behaviors such as yelling, blaming, and being passive aggressive. This can create an even more stressful environment.
  • Not being emotionally intelligent can inhibit collaboration. When a leader doesn’t have a handle on his own emotions and reacts inappropriately, most of his employees tend to feel nervous about contributing their ideas, for fear of how the leader will respond.
  • Leaders who are emotionally intelligent foster safe environments, where employees feel comfortable to take calculated risks and to voice their opinions. Working collaboratively isn’t just a goal, but it gets woven into the organizational culture.
  • When a leader is emotionally intelligent, s/he can leverage emotions for the good of the organization. Leaders often have to act as change agents, and if they are aware of how others will react emotionally to changes they can anticipate this and plan the most appropriate ways to introduce and carry out the change.
  • Emotionally intelligent leaders don’t take things personally and are able to forge ahead with plans without worrying about the impact on their egos.
  • Leaders with emotional intelligencehave an improved ability to gauge others responses to their words and actions. This makes it easier for you to tell if your employees really understand what you are saying or are confused but unwilling to say so.

Emotional leadership example:-(Abraham Lincoln)

·         ABILITY TO MANAGE HIS EMOTIONS

o    When challenged, as he often was, by subordinates Lincoln was able to able to channel his emotions and not retaliate or lash out in anger. Instead, he used letters as a way of diffusing his anger.

o    When Lincoln felt anger he would write a letter and not send it until he had a chance to cool off, usually the day after. In most cases he did not send the letter as he had calmed down and saw that acting on his emotions would not be of any real benefit, but rather result in more acrimony.

·         LISTENING AND COMMUNICATING

o    Lincoln was a great listener, and the people who were in contact with him always felt heard, even though he did not always agree with them.

o    He had the ability to take complex ideas and put them into terms that everyone was able to grasp.

·         AWARENESS OF THE NEEDS AND FEELINGS OF OTHERS

o    Lincoln had the ability to bring people of differing opinions together and was a great mediator.

o    At the end of the Civil War he went to great lengths to not humiliate a defeated enemy through his words and actions. He treated their leader, General Lee, with dignity and allowed the Confederate soldiers to return home with all of their possessions apart from their weapons.

·         FLEXIBILITY, HUMILITY, AND THE ABILITY TO LEARN FROM MISTAKES

o    Lincoln was known for his open attitude and willingness to listen to new ideas, especially those that were different from his own.

o    He had the self-awareness and humility to recognize that he was fallible and that there were others that had knowledge and information that was better than his own.

o    When he made mistakes, he neither tried to hide or deny them. Instead of dwelling on them, he acknowledged them and moved on as quickly as possible.