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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 NOVEMBER 2018


SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 NOVEMBER 2018


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


Topic – Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues

1) The recent Sabarimala controversy is a fight between socio-religious political entrepreneur and the social reformers. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article examines the recent Sabarimala controversy from a sociocultural perspective and links it with India’s freedom struggle where the same strategy worked against the British.

Directive word

comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent Sabarimala controversy. E.g briefly discuss the SC judgement on Sabarimala temple, one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage centre etc.

Body-

Discuss how the controversy reflects the fight between between socio-religious political entrepreneur and the social reformers. E.g Mention the two sides of the controversy- Political parties who are politicizing the issue trying to garner voter support in their favour and the women reformers, activists trying to enforce the SC judgement; Mention that reformers have always had to face opposition when they stood against socio-religious traditions.Rammohan Roy, the first Indian reformer of the modern era, had to fight conservatives for abolishing Sati. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, who fought for the remarriage of Hindu widows ; It would be wrong to assume that the people’s opposition is spontaneous, while it largely results from the instrumentalisation of traditions by ideologues; mention how the political parties have rallied behind the religious sentiments of people and mixed them with political tones in order to have selfish political gains etc.

You can also take an opposing stand and accordingly frame your answer. The purpose of the article is to refresh the knowledge of some critical ills in India’s polity.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Sabarimala is considered to be one of the holiest temples in Hinduism, with one of the largest annual pilgrimages in the world. The faithful believe that the deity’s powers derive from his asceticism, and in particular from his being celibate. Women between the ages of 10 and 50 are barred from participating in the rituals.
  • The exclusion was given legal sanction by Rule 3(b) of the Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965.

Judicial interpretation which led to controversy :-

  • The validity of the rule and other provisions restricting the entry of women was decided by the Supreme Court last month. The Court, by a majority of 4:1, held that the exclusion of women between these ages was violative of the Constitution.
  • The practice of excluding women did not constitute an essential religious practice. Crucially, the judges also relied on Section 3 of the Act which stipulates that places of public worship must be open to all sections and classes of Hindus, notwithstanding any custom or usage to the contrary. It was held that Rule 3(b) prohibiting the entry of women was directly contrary to this.
  • Right of women to enter Sabarimala was guaranteed under Article 25(1). This provision states that all persons are equally entitled to practise religion. According to SC, Rule 3 prohibiting the entry of women, was violative of Article 15(1) of the Constitution.

How the controversy reflects the fight between between socio-religious political entrepreneur and the social reformers:-

  • Reformers stand:-
    • Reformers have always had to face opposition when they stood against socio-religious traditions. Mahatma Gandhi had to put moral pressure on the members of his own ashram, even of his own family, to persuade them to fight untouchability.
    • Reforms claim that religion cannot be cover to deny women right to worship. To treat women as children of lesser God is to blink at Constitutional morality. Activists claim that not allowing women into the temple is violation of women’s rights .Discrimination based on biological reasons is not permissible going by the constitutional scheme.
  • Socio-political entrepreneurs stand :-
    • Political parties have rallied behind the religious sentiments of people and mixed them with political tones and trying to garner voter support in their favour.
    • Even during freedom struggle Tilak stated that religious thoughts and devotion may be possible even in solitude, yet demonstration is essential to the awakening of the masses. Through this nationalist appeal, the worship of Ganapati spread from the family circles to the public square
    • Also people see the judicial verdict as an encroachment on their customs, traditions and religion.

Conclusion:-

  • Progressive judgments take time to be accepted by the society be it laws against sati, child marriage, section 377 etc. India being a multicultural society respects views of all people and political parties need to work in public interest and look towards greater objective of building tolerance which is the cornerstone of Indian society rather than igniting insecurity amongst people.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic – Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

2) The relationship between central banks and government is being debated around the world and India is no different. Discuss the issues involved and suggest what needs to be done?(250 words)

Livemint

Indian express

Why this question

The article bring out the fact that around the world, there has been a rearrangement of the roles of and relationships between governments and central banks. We are seeing this happen in our country too where the RBI and government, it appears, have had some disagreement about how to manage the economy. These articles will help you understand the issue in greater depth .

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first discuss the global scenario with respect to relationship between government and central banks and explain how the situation in India is quite similar. Discuss the reason behind such tussle in the would in general and India in particular. Here we need to discuss issues surrounding independence of RBI, monetary policy framework agreement, need for accountability , issues or capital reserves. Finally, a fair and balanced opinion is to be provided as to what must be the way forward.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention about the recent board meeting of RBI and how it has blown water over the heat generated in past few days.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Body

  • Explain that the adjustment in relationship between the two entities is part of the debate happening around globally. Give examples of UK etc
  • Explain the issue in general – Central banks everywhere, from Turkey to the US, are under increasing pressure from the governments. While central bankers say that they need to be free from pressures from the governments and lobby groups to focus on their job of containing inflation and maintaining financial stability, their critics say that they are too secretive and have leaned in favour of big financial institutions over the interests of common citizens they are duty-bound to serve. Explain what is happening in India
  • Examine the micro reasons over which there is a disagreement and discuss what needs to be done to improve the situation and maintain market sentiment.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.

 

Background:-

  • Reserve Bank of India (RBI) signalled a truce agreeing, among other things, to allow banks to boost lending to small businesses. The central bank also agreed to study a demand for transfer of its reserves to the government, although it didn’t concede to the demand.
  • This was the aftermath of the issues that were affecting the delicate balance between RBI and government.

Relationship between central banks and governments around the world is debated:-

  • Central banks everywhere, from Turkey to the US, are under increasing pressure from the governments. While central bankers say that they need to be free from pressures from the governments and lobby groups to focus on their job of containing inflation and maintaining financial stability, their critics say that they are too secretive and have leaned in favour of big financial institutions over the interests of common citizens.
  • Earlier this year, the mandate of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ), which first put in place an inflation targeting regime was changed from its sole objective of price stability to also include fostering sustainable employment.
  • In the UK, the Bank of England and Her Majesty’s Treasury signed a memorandum of agreement on the financial relationship between the two outlining the framework for determining its capital, payment in lieu of its dividend, issue of notes and the information sharing arrangements between the Bank and the Treasury.

Indian scenario :-

  • Recently simmering differences between the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Central government over issues of public sector bank regulation, resolution of distressed assets and the central bank’s reserves, independent payments bank regulator, easing credit to small firms have raised questions about the independence of RBI.
  • Recent issues surrounding the Section 7 of RBI act:-
    • The issue of invoking Section 7 (1) of RBI Act came up during the hearing of Allahabad high courtin a case filed by the Independent Power Producers Association of India challenging RBI’s 12 February circular. The high court said the government could issue directions to RBI under Section 7 of RBI Act.
    • Against this backdrop, the government issued a letter to the RBI governor seeking his views on exemption for power companies in relation to the 12 February circular. The second instance was when the government on sought the governor’s views on using RBI’s capital reserves for providing liquidity.
    • Exercising powers under this section, the government has sent several letters to the RBI governor  in recent weeks on issues ranging from liquidity for non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), capital requirement for weak banks and lending to micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) , withdrawal of Prompt Corrective Action for public sector banks
    • Government believed that easing of lending rules for the banks under the prompt corrective action (PCA) framework could help reduce pressure on MSMEs .However, the RBI argued that such a move would put the clock back and undo clean-up efforts.
    • With the credit markets tightening after the IL&FS default in September, non-banking finance companies lobbied the government for more liquidity. But RBI maintained its position since the bankingsystem did not witness any spike in borrowing costs and the market was just repricing risk in an evolving situation
    • Reportedly, the government and the RBI disagree on a large number of important issues such as classification of non-performing assets (NPAs) and setting up of a payments regulator independent of the RBI.

Way forward:-

  • International examples:-
    • There has to be a forum within the democratic structure where the RBI is obligated to explain and defend its position.
    • Different countries have taken different routes and by and large each model is appropriately tuned to their specific contexts.
    • US example is a good model to work upon. Presentation by the chairman of the Federal Reserve to the Congress makes for public exposure and transparency but does not take away the chairman’s autonomy.
  • The governor should be responsible and accountable to Parliament and not to a particular government or the ministry of finance, or ministe He can testify to Parliament twice a year. In separate testimony in both houses of Parliament, the lawmakers can ask questions of the RBI Governor and the latter can respond.
  • A better way to sort out these differences and to come to a conclusion is to have a larger debate with technical experts weighing in.
  • On issues of operational autonomy, the central government needs to lay off its pressure on the RBI.
  • On macro issues such as exchange rate management and RBI’s dividend policy, written agreements that clearly demarcate roles and responsibilities can be thrashed out.
  • The Monetary Policy Framework Agreement and the FRBM Act are good illustrations of how a mutually agreed rule-based framework can broker peace between the central bank and the executive arm of government.
  • If the issues are not resolved, the tussle will undermine investor confidence and strengthens fears about institutional erosion when India is already experiencing economic turmoil.

Conclusion:-

  • A healthy and functional relationship between the fiscal and monetary arms of the government is necessary to maintain India’s long-term economic growth and lift millions of its citizens out of poverty.

Topic –   Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3) Discuss the similarities and the difference between the Election Commision of India and the State Election Commissions. (250 words)

Indian express

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the similarities between ECI and SECs. It also wants us to highlight and discuss the difference between the ECI and SECs.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  ECI and SECs. E.g Supervision and conduct of elections are entrusted with two constitutional authorities — the Election Commission (EC) of India and the State Election Commissions (SECs).

Body-

  1. Discuss the similarities between the ECI and SECs. E.g like the removal of a Chief Election Commissioner, the State Election Commissioner can only be removed via impeachment. In 2006, the Supreme Court emphasised the two constitutional authorities enjoy the same powers. In Kishan Singh Tomar vs Municipal Corporation of the City of Ahmedabad, the Supreme Court directed that state governments should abide by orders of the SECs during the conduct of the panchayat and municipal elections, just like they follow the instructions of the EC during Assembly and Parliament polls. Article 243-O of the Constitution bars interference in poll matters set in motion by the SECs; Article 329 bars interference in such matters set in motion by the EC. Only after the polls are over can the SECs’ decisions or conduct be questioned through an election petition.
  2. Discuss the differences between the two. E.g Set up in 1950, the EC is charged with the responsibility of conducting polls to the offices of the President and Vice President of India, to Parliament, and to the state Assemblies and Legislative Councils. The SECs, which were appointed in each state more than four decades after the EC was set up, supervise municipal and panchayat elections. Although the two authorities have a similar mandate, they are independent of each other and draw powers from different laws. Each SEC is governed by a separate state Act etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Supervision and conduct of elections are entrusted with two constitutional authorities which are the Election Commission (EC) of India and the State Election Commissions (SECs).

Similarities between election commission and state election commissions:-

  • The provisions of Article 243K of the Constitution, which provides for setting up of SECs, are almost identical to those of Article 324 related to the EC.
  • The SECs enjoy the same status as the EC.
    • The removal of a Chief Election Commissioner, the State Election Commissioner can only be removed via impeachment.
  • In 2006, the Supreme Court emphasised the two constitutional authorities enjoy the same powers.
    • In Kishan Singh Tomar vs Municipal Corporation of the City of Ahmedabad, the Supreme Court directed that state governments should abide by orders of the SECs during the conduct of the panchayat and municipal elections, just like they follow the instructions of the EC during Assembly and Parliament polls.
  • Courts cant interfere:-
    • Article 243-O of the Constitution bars interference in poll matters set in motion by the SECs. Article 329 bars interference in such matters set in motion by the EC.
    • Only after the polls are over can the SECs decisions or conduct be questioned through an election petition. This powers enjoyed by the SECs are the same as those by the EC.

Differences between EC and SEC:-

  • Older :-
    • EC was setup in 1950 .SEC’s were appointed in each state more than four decades after the EC was set up
  • Appointment:-
    • The President appoints the members of the EC while the members of SEC are appointed by the respective state governors. 
  • Responsibilities:-
    • The EC is charged with the responsibility of conducting polls to the offices of the President and Vice President of India, to Parliament, and to the state Assemblies.
    • The SECs supervise municipal and panchayat elections in that particular state.
  • They are independent of each other and draw powers from different laws:-
    • The SEC in Bengal draws it powers from the West Bengal State Election Commission Act, 1994.
    • It has nothing to do with the Representation of the People Act, which lays down the EC’s powers.
    • Each SEC is governed by a separate state Act.

 General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian economy : Issues

4) Examine the reasons India lags behind in contract enforcement in EODB rankings? Suggest what needs to be done?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

India has recently made rapid strides in doing business ranking system. While improvement has been seen across various parameters, one aspect where India has remained stagnant is in enforcing contracts. Considering the importance contracts have for businesses, it is one aspect which needs close attention and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the current rank of India in enforcement of contracts and explain the reasons why India has not been doing so well. Next, we need to explain in brief the impact of non enforcement of contracts for businesses and give suggestions on what can be done to improve the situation.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that while India’s overall position in doing business ranking has gone up, in contract enforcement we haven’t improved.

Body

  • Explain the reasons why contract enforcement is important for a business.
  • Explain the reasons behind poor performance on this particular metric – lack of commercial courts despite regulatory changes, Government contracts get modified or nullified post contract signing, leading to significant damage to shareholder value, bring out the issues with revision of power purchase agreements in case of electricity companies etc
  • Give suggestions as to what can be done to improve the situation – setting up commercial courts, beefing up the arbitration process etc

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of improving on this metric and discuss way forward.

Background:-

  • World Bank’s Doing Business Report is an assessment of business regulation across 190 economies. India has jumped 23 places to rank 77 in the Doing Business 2019 report.
  • In contact enforcement India stands at 164 rank out of 190 countries.

Reasons why India lags behind in contract enforcement are:-

  • In business practices in India, there is significant disregard for upholding commercial contracts.
  • Failure of states:-
    • In spite of regulatory changes allowing dedicated commercial courts to be established by state governments, hardly any state has actually set up the commercial courts which could have helped in greater contract enforcement in the country.
  • Contract enforcement is not just a challenge with other private sector entities but also with the government:-
    • Government contracts get modified or nullified post contract signing, leading to significant damage to shareholder value.
    • This has especially been observed in the infrastructure sector, where concessionaire agreements have been summarily discarded, with the remark that the concessionaire has made enough profits and hence need not make more profits. This is against the spirit of the contract.
  • The issue of overburdened and understaffed judiciary and slow judicial system.
    • According to 2016 data published by National Judicial Data Grid, two crore cases were pending in district courts in India, one-third of which were civil cases. At the time, analysts said that at the current rate of clearing, the district civil courts will never finish the backlog of cases.
  • According to the Ease of Doing Business Index Report, enforcing a contract in India can take 1445 days and 30% of the claim value as cost.
  • Failure of alternative dispute redressal mechanisms:-
    • Even arbitrations in India has been plagued by high costs and terrible delays, which keeps arbitration out of the reach of common citizen.
    • Big corporations prefer to take their arbitration to jurisdictions like Dubai and Singapore as in India for these reasons.

Impact due to low rank in contract enforcement:-

  • Legitimate businesses will find it difficult to operate in environments where there is a lack of contract enforcement.
  • Contract enforcement is very important for private enterprise.
  • Poor contract enforcement tends to increase the risk and reduce the returns (increased legal costs) thus affecting the overall risk to return ratio.
  • Another effect of a poor contract enforcement mechanisms is the spurt of informal and often illegal channels of dispute resolution.
  • Along with biased and poor quality decisions, this also brings undue power into the hands of middlemen and facilitators.
  • There is a huge uncertainty cost attached to doing business in India due to uncertain enforceability of contracts, and it makes Indian businesses globally less competitive. 

Way forward:-

  • Coordination across all departments and between the Centre, the States and local level to get the implementation right and fast.
  • It is imperative to create awareness of the reforms introduced so that the enterprises can benefit from it.
  • Devolution of powers to decentralise the system for faster decision-making.
  • An effective legal system provides the necessary level playing ground for smaller firms.
  • Reforms in judiciary needed:-
    • If enforceability problem is to be solved, sufficient number of judges must be recruited and vacancies in courts must be quickly filled. 
    • Another major way to increase productivity of judges will be to introduce fully digital systems in the courts.
  • In major cities, commercial courts are being introduced at the level of district judges.
    • This is likely to have a long term positive impact provided that judges in larger numbers are actually appointed in these courts rather than just giving additional duties to existing judges who are already overburdened with cases for optical purposes
  • It is also important that individuals and businesses also make an effort to learn more about contracts and contract enforceability.
  • Poor and costly registration system in India can be dealt with digital signatures and other technology such as blockchain.
  • India therefore needs to bring in improvements in ease of starting a business and in contract enforcement to really make it easier for legitimate businesses to flourish in India and to generate jobs and bring in prosperity.

Topic – Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5) Discuss the problems faced by small towns in India. Do you think they have gained enough attention from various urban development programmes. Comment.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

While various urban development programmes have been launched across the country, Indian towns in which about one-fourth of Indian population resides have not been able to develop at par with big cities. The article discusses the economic dilemma and problems faced by such towns and their importance in various urban development programmes.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the problems faced by small Indian towns. It then wants us to express our opinion as to what extent have the various urban development programmes helped the small towns of India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the Indian population living in small towns. E.g One-fourth of the urban population lives in small towns (20,000 to 1,00,000 population).

Body-

  1. Discuss the problems faced such small towns. E.g Small towns in India are something of an oxymoron. They are far removed from cities in character and appearance and are constantly struggling to establish. Every small town in India has its unique story and significance but their problems are similar — lack of basic services, dilapidated infrastructure, overcrowded spaces and dwindling job opportunities.They have private schools and clinics, a variety of fast-food eateries, modern tailoring shops and mobile and electronic stores. Such entrepreneurial energy says something about the growing small-town population which desires better services and an improved quality of life. But this is relatively unrecognised by the government.

 

  1. Discuss the various urban development programmes and their contribution towards development of small towns in India. E.g The UPA government’s urban development programme, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), covered both big cities and small towns but gave financial preference to the former.JNNURM was replaced by the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) that focuses on infrastructural development for Class I cities (those with a population of one lakh and above). The Smart Cities Mission (SCM) was launched to address our growing fascination with world-class cities that use technology to improve their services etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Background:-

  • Small towns in India are in a desperate need for better infrastructure which can boost the local economy and help improve the quality of life. 
  • In India one-fourth of the urban population lives in the small towns (20,000 to 1,00,000 population). These 7 crore people need amenities to match up to their “urban” status.

Problems faced by small towns:-

  • Lack of basic services, dilapidated infrastructure, overcrowded spaces and dwindling job opportunities.
  • Waste management:-
    • This is a key infrastructure required to improve sanitation and prevent outbreak of diseases. At present, wastes from households are mostly disposed in city outskirts by municipalities.
    • Also, drainage facilities are a major problem with most towns getting flooded during the monsoons.
  • Education:-
    • Many small towns lack basic educational infrastructure. Most schools don’t have proper toilets, electricity, and proper buildings with roofs. There is also lack of drinking water. 
  • Healthcare:-
    • According to a study, rural public health facilities have a hard time ensuring a regular presence of medical professionals, trained doctors and pharmacists.
    • In addition, there is a high level of absenteeism of those already employed.
  • Telecom:-
    • India is nowhere close to China and USA in terms of network connectivity because of low penetration in rural areas due to lack of telecom infrastructure. 
  • Water supply:-
    • There is inadequate piped water supply across small towns and the houses that receive water are mostly untreated.

Urban development programmes failed to deal with the issues of small towns :-

  • Focus on large cities:-
    • The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), covered both big cities and small towns but gave financial preference to the former
    • JNNURM was replaced by the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) that focusses on infrastructural development for Class I cities (those with a popu1ation of one lakh and above).
    • The Smart Cities Mission (SCM) was launched to address our growing fascination with world-class cities that use technology to improve their services.
    • The common thread between these urban schemes is that they cater to Class I cities, which already have better access to services.
    • Though they are small in size, many of these small towns have an enormous growth potential. Yet, mega cities continue to be seen as engines of economic growth and attract large sums of central investments just to sustain the weight of their population.
  • Policy failure:-
    • Many studies have shown that the benefits of small town development can spill over to villages, especially in terms of employment generation. Others have talked about the need for a well-spread network of cities to counter the problems of migration. But this discourse hasn’t translated into policy.
    • Programmes on MNREGA focused on rural areas so small towns have been largely ignored.
  • Roads:-
    • The government has allocated thousands of crores for building a strong transport network that can link different cities and small towns with regional hubs.
    • However, several projects across the country have seen slow progress over the years severely impacting the economic progress of the small towns.
  • They have private schools and clinics, a variety of fast-food eateries, modern tailoring shops and mobile and electronic stores. Such entrepreneurial energy says something about the growing small-town population which desires better services and an improved quality of life. But this is relatively unrecognised by the government.

Way forward:-

  • Development of small towns can make these urban centres fulfill the long-standing demand for a link between rural India and the country’s big cities and towns. The growing population in these small towns needs to be backed by adequate investments by the Centre.
  • There should be a key role for these urban centres in development planning.
  • There is an urgent need to set up recycling facilities as a lot of times the waste often ends up in rivers polluting them.

Topic– indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6) Explain the advantages of additive manufacturing? Discuss what advantages it would bring to indian manufacturing sector?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article explains in a very Lucie manner what advantages are offered by 3d printing for manufacturing process and how it can benefit economies. It also examines the potential of India in appropriating the usage of additive manufacturing. This is a technology which has immense potential and hence this question is important for mains.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what additive manufacturing is and the advantages of it. Next, we need to discuss the advantages offered by this technology to optimize the manufacturing process in India, the industries where this can prove beneficial as well as discuss India’s readiness for this technology.

Directive word

Discuss  – here in your discussion, you need to bring out the advantages that such technology would bring to India and also explain the drivers that make India ready for accepting such a technological shift.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what additive manufacturing is.

Body

  • Discuss the advantages offered by additive manufacturing as explained in the article – bring down cost, decentralize manufacturing etc
  • Discuss the advantages that it can have for India – eliminates large capital outlays. Machines are cheaper, inventories can be small and space requirements are not large. Thus, jump-starting manufacturing does not face the massive hurdle of large capital requirement and the traditional small and medium enterprises can easily be adapted and retooled towards high technology manufacturing, Indian expertise in software sector etc
  • Explain what makes India ready to take this technological leap – programs such as digital India, digital penetration etc

Conclusion – Summarize the advantages of adopting additive manufacturing and way forward.

Background:-

  • Additive manufacturing has now gone mainstream in developed countries and is beginning to replace traditional manufacturing for many different applications.
  • One recent survey of U.S. manufacturers shows that about 12% have started using additive manufacturing for their products and expectations are that this will result in about 25% of products in the next three-five years. 

Additive manufacturing:-

  • In additive manufacturing, the physical object to be built is first designed in software. This design is fed to computerised machines, which build that object layer by layer.
  • The technology is suitable for building the entire system in one go, with hollow interiors without assembly or interlocked parts

Advantages:-

  • Retooling of machines is not required and each unit can be customised. By eliminating the need to hold a large inventory of parts, set up an assembly line and purchase costly machines, adaptive manufacturing reduces capital and space requirements as well as the carbon footprint.
  • Multiple applications:-
    • This technology is used to build helmets, dental implants, medical equipment, parts of jet engines and even entire bodies of cars. In some industries, the progress is astonishing. Nearly all hearing aid manufacturers now use additive manufacturing.
  • Variety is free :-
    • Changing a part is simple and can be made easily in the original CAD file and the new print can be taken easily. 
  • Complexity is free:-
    • Printing of a complex part costs less than simple cubes of the same size. The less solid or more complex object, it can be fastly and cheaply made through additive manufacturing. 
  • Little-skill manufacturing
  • Less Waste :-
    • Material needed is only used and hence there is less chance of materials being wasted.

Issues:-

  • Affects labour:-
    • It decreases reliance on assembly workers and bypasses the global supply chain that has allowed countries like China to become prosperous through export of mass-produced items. 
  • It  will transfer value creation towards software and design and away from physical manufacturing. This would imply that labour intensive manufacturing exports may be less profitable.
  • For countries that have already invested in heavy manufacturing, this shift to adaptive manufacturing will be difficult and expensive.
  • Discontinuous production process :-
    • To prevent economies of scale, parts can only be printed one at a time. 
  • Requires post-processing:-
    • The surface finish and dimensional accuracy are of low quality than other manufacturing methods. 

How it will help India’s manufacturing sector:-

  • It eliminates large capital outlays:-
    • Machines are cheaper, inventories can be small and space requirements are not large. Thus, India will not face the massive hurdle of large capital requirement
    • Even the traditional small and medium enterprises can easily be adapted and retooled towards high technology manufacturing.
  • The Indian software industry is well-established, and plans to increase connectivity are well under way as part of ‘Digital India’.
    • This would allow for the creation of manufacturing facilities in small towns and foster industrial development outside of major cities.
  • It is possible to build products that are better suited for use in harsh environmental conditions.
    • Products that required assembly of fewer parts also implies that they may be better able to withstand dust and moisture prevalent in our tropical environment and be more durable.
  • Maintaining old products is far easier because parts can be manufactured as needed and product life-cycles can be expanded.
  • Maintaining uniform product quality is far easier because the entire system is built at the same time and assembly is not required.

Way forward:-

  • India needs to accelerate research at its premier engineering schools on manufacturing machines and methods and encourage formation of product design centres so that the products built suit the Indian environment and consumers.
  • India also would need government support to provide incentives for distributed manufacturing in smaller towns, and for the IT industry to work on creating platforms and marketplaces that connect consumer demands, product designers and manufacturers in a seamless way.

Conclusion:-

  • Therefore a pinch of Indian entrepreneurship thrown in, will allow India to develop a manufacturing ecosystem that will not only allow India to compete with global manufacturing, it will also create products that are uniquely suited to Indian conditions. 

 


General Studies – 4


Topic-Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

7) What do you understand by empathy? How does it differ from forgiveness? Analyze whether cultivating empathy would rid the world of acrimony?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article discusses the role empathy plays in human actions and discusses the other attitudes which compliment it. This question would help you understand the concept to empathy in significant detail.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to to first explain what empathy is. Next we need to bring out the difference between empathy and forgiveness and how the motive and manner of these two differ. Finally, we need to explain whether empathy alone would rid the world of all acrimony and make it more peaceful or whether it works in combination with other attitudes.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that these form a part of our attitude.

Body

  • Explain what empathy is – imaginative exercise in which one sees the world from the other person or group’s viewpoint. Empathy, so defined, is morally neutral.
  • Discuss how empathy differs from forgiveness – forgiveness is the waiving of angry feelings toward someone as the result of a process in which the offender confesses, apologises, and promises not to offend again. The process standardly involves significant abasement and even humiliation. All this is deeply built into the idea of forgiveness
  • While answering the third part you can divide your answer in 3 parts. The thesis will be that empathy alone would help us in understanding the motivations of other and make the world more peaceful. The antithesis will be that empathy alone is not sufficient where you can discuss the example of criminals. Finally, the synthesis will be the combination of attitudes with empathy that would make the world less acrimonious.

Conclusion – reiterate the arguments behind your synthesis discussed above.

Answer:-

Empathy is one of the primary spiritual, intellectual and a practical moral virtues. Empathy implies feeling with a person, rather simply feeling sorry for them. Empathy refers to the ability to imagine oneself in another’s place and understand others’ feelings, desires, ideas and actions. The ability to empathize is directly dependent on your ability to feel your own feelings and identify them.

It means trying to understand other’s feelings, perspectives, emotions, actions (reactions) etc. and thereby communicating it to the person concerned. It is the competency for emotional intelligence.

Forgiveness is the waiving of angry feelings toward someone as the result of a process in which the offender confesses, apologises, and promises not to offend again. The process standardly involves significant abasement and even humiliation. All this is deeply built into the idea of forgiveness

Cultivating empathy is necessity to make world a better place:-

  • One of the best arguments in favour of empathy is that it really does make you kinder to the person you are empathising with.
  • Empathy represents a social awareness competency and is a person’s ability to connect with others. This is vital to building and managing healthy relations.
  • Empathy is highly important as otherwise people will only see things and situations from their own perspectives with utter disregard to others feelings.
  • Lack of empathy often takes decision away from its purpose and generates mistrust amongst people.
  • It is the bridge that exposes and embodies the connection you have with the world around you by seeing the world around you with the same intimacy and assumptions that you see with yourself
  • Empathy is what many religious & philosophical traditions laud as the central virtue of being a flourishing human being. Empathy is the foundation that makes a healthy, thriving world possible.

However sometimes empathy is misused and so there is a need to be a bit careful :-

  • Throughout history, courageous cultural pioneers for example, the emperor Ashoka have shown kindness and respect to nonhuman animals, and this decision to show concern need not rest on a prior attempt to understand how these animals see the world 
  • World contains people who strategically exploit empathy for bad ends. For instance, the feelings that many have for needy children motivate other individuals to establish a steady supply of child beggars ,labour etc so there are orphanages that pay or coerce poor parents to give up their sons and daughters. The act of doing so may end up supporting criminal organisations .
  • Empathy can spark violence as our feelings for the sufferer can motivate anger towards whoever caused the suffering. 
  • Problem with true empathy is that it can cloud the ability to make sound moral decisions.

Conclusion:-

  • Empathy by itself is not enough, but it can often open the door to respect and the willingness to acknowledge dignity.

Topic-    Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

8) One of the underlying assumptions about the link between attitudes and behavior is that of consistency. Comment.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the linkage between attitude and behaviour. We have to discuss to what extent can attitude determine the behaviour of a person.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of attitude. E.g An attitude is “a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols”.

Body-

  1. Discuss the principle of consistency. E.g One of the underlying assumptions about the link between attitudes and behavior is that of consistency. This means that we often or usually expect the behavior of a person to be consistent with the attitudes that they hold. This is called the principle of consistency; The principle of consistency reflects the idea that people are rational and attempt to behave rationally at all times and that a person’s behavior should be consistent with their attitude(s).
    Whilst this principle may be a sound one, it is clear that people do not always follow it, sometimes behaving in seemingly quite illogical ways; for example, smoking cigarettes and knowing that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease.
  2. Discuss about the strength of an attitude and its influence on behaviour. E.g The strength with which an attitude is held is often a good predictor of behavior.Attitude strength involves:Importance / personal relevance refers to how significant the attitude is for the person and relates to self-interest, social identification and value.If an attitude has a high self-interest for a person (i.e. it is held by a group the person is a member of or would like to be a member of, and is related to a person’s values), it is going to be extremely important.As a consequence, the attitude will have a very strong influence upon a person’s behavior. By contrast, an attitude will not be important to a person if it does not relate in any way to their life.The knowledge aspect of attitude strength covers how much a person knows about the attitude object.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

Answer:-

Attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols. It is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.

 

Attitude can be defined as our response to people, places, things, or events in life. It can be referred to as a person’s viewpoint, mindset, beliefs, etc. Our attitude towards people, places, things, or situations determines the choices that we make.

Principle of consistency:-

  • This means that we often or usually expect the behavior of a person to be consistent with the attitudes that they hold. This is called the principle of consistency.
  • The principle of consistency reflects the idea that people are rational and attempt to behave rationally at all times and that a person’s behavior should be consistent with their attitude.
  • Whilst this principle may be a sound one, it is clear that people do not always follow it, sometimes behaving in seemingly quite illogical ways; for example, smoking cigarettes and knowing that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease.
  • There is evidence that the cognitive and affective components of behaviour do not always match with behaviour.

Influence of attitude on behaviour:-

  • People behave in accordance with their attitudes. Our attitudes develop over time and not only reflect where we have come from but also how we will proceed with our life in the future. Attitudes are therefore a powerful element in our life, are long enduring and hard to change easily.
  • However, attitudes and actual behaviours are not always perfectly aligned.  The degree of influence begins with the assumption that we behave in accordance with our conscious intentions. They are based, on our rational calculations about the potential effects of our attitude towards our behaviour and about how other people will feel about it.
  • People may actually alter their attitudes in order to better align them with their behaviours. Cognitive dissonance is a phenomenon in which a person experiences psychological distress due to conflicting thoughts or beliefs. In order to reduce this tension, people may change their attitudes to reflect their other beliefs or actual behaviours.
  • The strength with which an attitude is held is often a good predictor of behaviour.
    • Importance / personal relevance refers to how significant the attitude is for the person and relates to self-interest, social identification and value.
    • If an attitude has a high self-interest for a person (i.e. it is held by a group the person is a member of or would like to be a member of, and is related to a person’s values), it is going to be extremely important.
    • As a consequence, the attitude will have a very strong influence upon a person’s behaviour.