Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 NOVEMBER 2018

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Modern Indian History.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic -Part of static series under the heading – “Important personalities of freedom struggle”

1) Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. It expects us to elaborate on the difference in approaches of Gandhi and bose with respect to the national movement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the macro difference in their political approach – Subhash chandra bose was a supporter of Gandhiji during initial days, the later part of 1930s witnessed a radicalisation of his thought. He was not satisfied with Gandhiji’s strategies and unhappy with the lack of momentum in independence movement.

Body

  • Discuss their difference in thinking over issues such as
    • Moderate vs extremist
    • Complete independence vs independence in phases
    • Bose was more international in his outlook and approached Russia , Germany and japan while Gandhiji relied on indegineous forces like swadeshi and satyagraha.
    • Bose adopted violent means and led Indian National Army while Gandhiji relied on non violent means.For gandhiji it was “means justify the end” for Bose it was” end justifies the means. Etc

Conclusions – Highlight that both made significant contribution to freedom struggle in their own ways.


Topic- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

2) Discuss the role of Sri Narayana Guru in social reforms in India. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the role and contribution of Sri Narayana Guru, as a social reformer in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Sri Narayana Guru. e.g Sree Narayana Guru was a great saint, scholar, philosopher, poet, and the forerunner of social renaissance in Kerala. Sree Narayana Guru was born in 1856 in a middle class peasant family of the then untouchable Ezhava caste,in Thiruvananthapuram.  

Body

Discuss in points, the role played by Sri Narayana Guru as a social reformer in India. E.g Even as a child he had strong abhorrence toward the caste distinctions and untouchability and he always protested against injustice; he himself consecrated a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva in Aruvippuram in 1888. When questioned by the Brahmins, he replied that he had consecrated a Shiva belonging to his community. The irony of the message was very clear – how could Shiva be owned by any particular community? It was a strong warning to the upper castes and a bold proclamation that everyone irrespective of his caste or religion has the right to realize God; He opened a Sanskrit school at Sivagiri to teach poor students, irrespective of their caste;He believed that other than the freedom from the curse of untouchability, the downtrodden classes needed education and wealth. They needed opportunities to improve like others. He was a real Karma Yogi and his whole life was dedicated for the betterment of the suppressed etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

3) Discuss the phases of the working class movements in pre-independent India.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the working class movements in pre-independent India; their phases and significant events etc.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  working class in pre-independent India. E.g The modern Indian working class arose in consequence to the development and growth of factory industries in India from the second half of the nineteenth century. It is however about the turn of the twentieth century, it took the shape of working class.

Body-

Discuss the phases of the working class movements in pre-independent India. E.g

  1. The First phase : 1850s -1918; The actions of the working class in the earliest stage were sporadic and unorganised in~ature and hence were mostly ineffective. It is only from the late 19th century in Madras, and from the second decade of the twentieth century in Bombay that serious attempts were made for the formation of associations that could lead organised form of protests; Though the Congress was formed in 1885,it seriously thought of organising the working class only in the early 1920s. The Working class in the country was organising struggles against capital much before the 1920s. Inthe last decades of the 19th century, Lieten informs us, there occurred strikes at Bombay,Kurla, Surat, Wardha, Ahmedabad and in other places;  The strikes however were only sporadic,spontaneous, localised and short-lived and were caused by factors such as reduction in wages, imposition of fines, dismissal or reprimand of the worker. These actions and militancy, which they showed, helped in the development of class solidarity and consciousness, which was missing earlier. The resistance was mediated by outsiders or outside leaders. Agitations grew and they were not on individual issues but on broader economic questions, thus leading to a gradual improvement later on.
  2. Second phase- 1918 to independence; The unorganised movement of the workers took an organised form;trade unions were formed on modern lines. In several ways the decade of the 1920s is crucial in this regard. Firstly in the 1920s serious attempts were made by the Congress and the Communists to mobilise the working class and hence from then onwards henational movement established a connection with the working class. Secondly, it was in 1920 that the first attempt to form an all India organisation was made; in this decade, India witnessed a large number of strikes; the strikes were prolonged and well participated by the workers. The number of strikes and number of workers involved in these strikes went on increasing in the subsequent decades etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

4) The next step in addressing sanitation woes should be a focus on waste management. Analyze. (250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Successfully tackling the issue of waste management is one of the major challenges facing the Indian state and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to draw a linkage between addressing sanitation woes and how waste management can help in. Thereafter, we need to bring out the current issues surrounding waste management and the steps that need to be taken to make it more effective and efficient for the success of clean India campaign.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India is projected to have an additional 300 million new urban residents by 2050. This is cause for alarm. Policy makers, planners, the private sector, innovators, researchers and others need to create a sustainable ecosystem for sanitation.

Body

  • Explain that Centre launched the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) with an aim to eradicate open defecation by 2019. Since then, the number of people practising open defecation has decreased significantly with 1,678 cities declared open defecation free at the end of 2017. But, in order to further strengthen its mission of universal sanitation, India now needs to make human waste treatment a sustainable business proposition. This is also an important step to helping India achieve the sixth Sustainable Development Goal—sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
  • Explain that sustainable sanitation ecosystem includes not only access to toilets, but also effective evacuation, transport, and treatment of waste along with reuse or responsible disposal of the treated product.
  • Discuss the major issues related to waste management – financial requirement to build, operate and maintain piped sewerage networks and treatment plants, issues in urban planning etc
  • Explain how these issues can be resolved.

Conclusion – you can conclude by giving your opinion on how crucial waste management is for success of swachh Bharat mission and the way forward.


Topic-  Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

5) The misery or sanitation workers need to be put to an end, for the success of swachh Bharat mission. In this regard, analyze the problems faced by sanitation workers and ways to resolve it?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The plight of sanitation workers is an oft recurring issue. While the government is focussing so severely on toilet provision in tandem with Swacch Bharat Abhiyan, the focus on behavioural change towards sanitation and a moral change towards sanitation workers is what is lagging behind and hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the key issues plaguing sanitation workers, explain the steps being taken to protect them, lacunae therein and finally suggestions for improvement.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that while the government is focussing so severely on toilet provision in tandem with Swacch Bharat Abhiyan, the focus on behavioural change towards sanitation and a moral change towards sanitation workers is what is lagging behind.

Body

  • Paint a picture of the status quo of sanitation workers – Over 1.1 million sanitation workers, primarily engaged in sewer cleaning, septic tank cleaning, railway cleaning, and community/public toilet cleaning, more than 500,000 of these are women.  CEC study of 200 DJB manhole workers found that 92.5% of workers wore the safety belt. But this did not prevent 91.5% of them suffering injuries, and 80% suffering eye infections.
  • Discuss the major issues faced by sanitation workers –
    • Economic issues – contractual workers and thus no job security
    • Health issues
    • Socio-economic issues – experience untouchability, are unable to find employment outside sanitation work, and their children, despite gaining basic level education, are unable to find any other form of employment
  • Discuss the steps taken by the government
    • The Prohibition Of Employment As Manual Scavengers And Their Rehabilitation Act, 2013
    • Prevention of Atrocities Act, commissions such as National Safai Karmchari Commission (NSKM), and schemes available through National Safai Karmchari Development and Finance Corporation (NSKFDC) and SC/ST Development Corporation (SDC) at national level and Maha Dalit Vikas Missions at state level
  • Examine the lacunae in these measures
    • most sanitation workers are unaware of their rights under these schemes; even when they are aware, they do not know the processes to avail benefits. Further, because most sanitation workers are urban poor and reside in informal settlements, they do not have adequate documents such as residence proof, birth certificates and identity cards making it next to impossible for them to apply for these schemes.
  • Give suggestions regarding what can be done

Conclusion – emphasize on their plight and the need to address it for the success of swachh Bharat mission.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Awareness in the fields of Space.

6) Discuss about the NASA’S InSight mission on Mars?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The landing of InSight on Mars is a significant development in the field of space technology. In the past, UPSC has asked about such space mission, like the question on Juno and thus this event needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain about the InSight mission, discuss its objectives and explain about its significance.

Directive word

Discuss – The discussion herein, should revolve around the key demand of the question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the current event due to which InSight is in news.

Body

  • Explain about the InSight mission
    • Mars Insight’s goal is to listen for quakes and tremors as a way to unveil the Red Planet’s inner mysteries, how it formed billions of years ago, and by extension, how other rocky planets like the earth took shape.
    • The unmanned spacecraft, launched nearly seven months ago, is NASA’s first to attempt to touch down on Mars since the Curiosity rover arrived in 2012.
    • More than half of 43 attempts to reach Mars with rovers, orbiters and probes by space agencies from around the world have failed.
    • NASA is the only space agency to have made it, and is invested in these missions as a way to prepare for the first Mars­bound human explorers in the 2030s.
    • InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is on a 24-month mission. The landing site is Elysium Planitia, where InSight can stay still and quiet all through.
  • Discuss its objectives – InSight won’t be looking for life on Mars. It will study its insides — what it’s made of, how that material is layered and how much heat seeps out of it. This is important because Earth and Mars used to be similar — warm, wet and shrouded in thick atmospheres — before they took different paths 3-4 billion years ago. Mars stopped changing, while Earth continued to evolve. With InSight, scientists hope to compare Earth to Mars, and better understand how a planet’s starting materials make it more or less likely to support life.
  • Explain why it is significant

Conclusion – Highlight that this is a major development and would help us enrich our knowledge about the solar system and conditions necessary for formation of life.


Topic –  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.

7) Well-being within ecological limits requires a societal transformation redefining ‘happiness’. Comment in the context of the rising environmental pollution in India.(250 words)

Livemint

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on the rising environmental pollution in India and the requirement for social transformation in order to secure well-being within ecological limits.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the increasing environmental pollution in India.

Body-

Discuss why there is a need to redefine happiness and how it should be defined in order to stay within the ecological limits. E.g mention consumerism as a major driver of ecological degradation and environmental pollution; In addition following technological solutions for the consequences of human behaviour, we should really consider how to change that behaviour itself; Industrialization, infrastructure development and urban consumption patterns cumulatively contribute to well-being; Infrastructure, rather than industry, is indispensable for the provision of services essential for human well-being. It has used up half of the material stock, has no substitute and will use up more than half the available carbon budget before saturation levels are reached around 2050. By modifying long-term trends, we can enhance the remaining budget and abate urban air pollution; Even after industrialization and infrastructure reach stabilization levels, consumption will continue to be propelled by the shift of the economy to the services sector and increasing levels of pollution from wasteful lifestyles. Two-thirds of the energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide come from cities; two-thirds of this is from vehicles etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Ethics in private and public relationships.

8) Morality is the basis of things and truth is the substance of all morality. Comment in the light of dwindling public services values in India.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word
Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the importance of morality in one’s life and in the world, and the importance of truth as a value in determining, shaping, influencing and strengthening our moral character.

Structure of the answer
Introduction– introduce your answer by briefly presenting a picture of degrading public service values in India. E.g mention the abundance of corruption in public life, inefficiency of public services etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss why/ how morality is the basis of things. E.g man is a social animal and without morality no cooperation would be possible rendering humans as wild and uncivilized as any other animal etc. Give examples from hypothetical situations in public services to support your answer.
    B. Discuss how truth is the basis of morality. E.g not being true in any sense/ any situation is a sign of weak morals of a person, no morality can be based on lies (briefly discuss why), etc. Give examples from hypothetical situations in public services to support your answer.

Conclusion– present a balanced, fair and concise conclusion based on the above discussion.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

We suggest you to Compliment Secure with Insights Daily Current Affairs to comprehensively cover Mains GS Syllabus

 [jetpack_subscription_form]