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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Modern Indian History.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Modern Indian History”

1) It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years but for the experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question basically expects us to debate how great an impact GoIA, 1935 had on the constitution, the similarities as well as the differences. We have to examine whether it  was merely the similarities with 1935 Act which fastened the constitution drafting process , or whether there were other sources of inspiration as well. Finally we need to provide a fair and balanced opinion regarding this.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the constituent assembly and GoIA, 1935.

Body

  • Discuss the features of the constitution which were borrowed from 1935 Act such as residuary power, Separation of powers by three different lists, Bicameralism, Powers of President. Explain what did the constituent assembly learn from the experiences of GoIA Act, 1935
  • Thereafter, explain that provision related to federalism in GoIA, 1935 never got tested because they were not implemented
  • Discuss the other provisions which got added to Constitution such as fundamental concepts like Equality, Freedom, Adult franchise.
  • Also explain that the seeds of principles of constitution were also laid down throughout the course of freedom struggle. Give other sources from where the constitution was inspired.

Conclusion – Your conclusion can be on these lines – While we agree that the GOI Act, 1935 reduced the time frames of constitution creation, we should not forget that it was created to manage (or control) the affairs of a colony upon vested commercial interests of The Great Britain. At the same time we need to accept that there were many Indian intellectuals laid a strong foundation well before GOI Act, 1935 for this cause.


Topic- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

2) Discuss the reasons as to why the proposals of the Cripps mission were rejected by the Congress and the Muslim league. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the salient provisions of the Cripps mission and bring out the reasons as to why those proposals were rejected by the Congress and the Muslim league.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Cripps mission. E.g signing of the Atlantic Charter guaranteed the “right of all people to choose the form of Government under which they will live.” Stafford Cripps with this aims and directives arrived in India bringing with him a new constitutional scheme approved by the British Cabinet.

Body-

  1. Discuss the main proposals of the mission. E.g India was promised Dominion Status with the power to secede from the British Commonwealth; it proposed that immediately after the war is stopped, steps would be taken up to set up an elected body charged with the task of making the constitution for India adding that until the formation of the new constitution the British Government would remain responsible for the defence of India; The constitution finally framed by this body would also be implemented by the British Government but any province of British India would have the right to reject the constitution so made and to retain its existing constitutional position or frame another constitution by agreement with the British Government. The province had the option to accede subsequently to the Indian Dominion if it so desired etc.
  2. Discuss why the Congress rejected the proposals. E.g The Cripps proposals were rejected by the Congress in its meeting 11th April, 1942;The Working Committee expressed its disapproval of the proposed Composition of the Constitution making body and the right of the rulers of the Indian States to decide the future of millions of people living in these states. This was a “negation of both democracy and self determination.” The proposals therefore were rejected by the Congress as Vague and incomplete.
  3. Discuss why the Muslim league rejected the proposals. E.g The Muslim league rejected the proposals because it had given greatest importance and priority to the creation of one Indian Union. The League reaffirmed its conviction that the “only solution of India’s constitutional problem is the partition of India into independent Zones.”

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Important Geophysical phenomena

3) Explain how cyclones are formed and what happens after they hit land? Explain what is rare about Cyclone Titli?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) for Africa and Asia, a 45-nation international organisation on disaster warning, has termed ‘Titli’, the severe cyclonic storm that devastated Odisha in October, as ‘rarest cyclone’. This provides us an opportunity to revisit our concepts related to cyclones and what makes titli such a rare cyclone.

Key demand of the question

The first part of the question is quite straightforward and can be answered using basic concepts of cyclones. The second part can be answered after going through the article.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what cyclones are

Body – explain how cyclones are formed and what happens after their hit land. Thereafter explain what makes titli a rare cyclone. Titli cyclone is the rarest of rare in terms of its characteristics such as recurvature after landfall and retaining its destructive potential after landfall and recurvature away from the coastal areas for more than two days

Conclusion – mention the need for a detailed risk assessment in light of these facts.


General Studies – 2


Topic– Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

4) There is a need to strengthen the whistleblower protection mechanism not dilute it. Discuss in the context of proposed changes to whistleblower protection Bill?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

While the Whistle Blowers Protection Act 2014 (WBP Act), passed to protect the whistle-blowers, has not yet been notified, an amendment Bill has been introduced, seeming to dilute the original statute rather than strengthening it. Hence there is a need to know about this amendment and discuss issues related to it.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to establish the need of a string whistleblower protection mechanism, talk about the proposed amendments to Whistleblower protection Bill and analyze why there is a need to strengthen it.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain why this issue is in news by talking about the amendment Bill.

Body

  • Explain why there is a need for strong whistleblower protection mechanism – you can highlight some of the rankings of India in Corruption Perceptions Index, issues with transparency etc that are direct fallout of poor whistleblower protection mechanism
  • Discuss the changes proposed by the newly introduced bill and highlight why diluting the provisions would not be a good idea.
  • Bring the other side of the debate with respect to official secrets act etc

Conclusion – Give a balanced view which brings out that strengthening the whistleblower protection mechanism will go a long way in ensuring that the integrity of the fourth pillar of democracy is protected, cherished and upheld.


Topic-  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5) The World Malaria Report 2018 of the World Health Organisation notes that India’s record offers great promise in the quest to cut the number of new cases and deaths globally. Critically Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The World Malaria report, 2018 provides a moment of satisfaction or India. The report highlights India’s recent achievements in controlling the disease and deaths associated with it. It is therefore important to analyze the report in order to learn from the initiatives taken in this direction.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the issue and bring out the findings of the given report and deliberate upon the initiatives responsible for the success achieved by India and also form a personal opinion in the form of  discussion of any further suggestions in this direction.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent world Malaria report. E.g The World Malaria Report 2018 of the World Health Organisation notes that India’s record offers great promise in the quest to cut the number of new cases and deaths globally by at least 40% by 2020, and to end the epidemic by 2030.

Body-

  1. Discuss the initiatives/ reasons responsible for the reduction of incidence/ deaths due to malaria in India. E.g  In Odisha( one of the most endemic States) investments were made in recruiting accredited social health workers and large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated bednets, together with strategies to encourage health-seeking behaviour; The WHO report highlights a sharp drop in the number of cases in the State. The reduction in cases by half in 2017 compared to the same study period in 2016 appears to reinforce research findings: malaria cases in Odisha have been coming down steadily since 2003, with a marked reduction since 2008, attributed to greater political and administrative commitment. This positive trend should encourage authorities not just in Odisha, but in the northeastern States and elsewhere too to cut the transmission of the disease further etc.
  2. Discuss what more should be done by India to reduce the burden of the disease and the deaths associated with it. E.g Eliminating malaria requires an integrated approach, and this should involve states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal, which have a higher burden of the disease. Odisha’s experience with using public health education as a tool and reaching out to remote populations with advice needs to be replicated etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g Given that emerging resistance to treatment has been reported in Myanmar, among other countries in this belt, there is a need for a coordinated approach to rid southern Asia of malaria.


Topic-  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

6) Regional agreements such as the BRI could embrace greater trade liberalisation goals. Do you agree. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

In the face of growing protectionism being witnessed across the globe it is important to evaluate the BRI of China to see how it could positively balance or even overcome the protectionism policies and politics.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the Belt and Road initiative of China and form an opinion as to whether such regional agreements could help in achieving greater trade liberalisation goals.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  trade protectionism witnessed across the world in recent years. E.g  write a few introductory lines about the growing protectionist policies and politics of the US and the China.

Body-

  1. Discuss the positive points of the BRI in terms of how it could help embrace greater trade liberalisation goals. E.g There is indeed an ambition to influence the world if not directly control it — by making the rules on which it functions. This normative determination to achieve a far greater objective has hardly been addressed when analysing China’s BRI and its impact; The BRI “shared interest” and “shared growth” hence coexist with Marxism-Leninism and “capitalism with Chinese characteristics” in a country now said to be more trade-friendly than its protectionist American rival, the U.S. Beijing has never been afraid of contradictions in terms and this capacity to ‘Sinicise’ concepts is a signature trait; The BRI indeed develops without any dedicated law, nor is it a comprehensive trade or economic partnership. It is different from conventional trade agreements that seek to eliminate market access barriers, harmonise regulations and impose preconditions for entry; The BRI’s dispute resolution will be predominantly on commercial disputes, involving either projects or contractual obligations. However, with the world trading system passing through a turmoil, the possibility of regional trade agreements or amorphous legal devices such as the BRI embracing greater trade liberalisation goals cannot be entirely ruled out.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

7) Discuss the key challenges to India’s counterterrorism efforts and also suggest solutions?(250 words)

Livemint

Indian express

Why this question

26 Nov 2018 marks a decade of Mumbai terror attacks and forces us to rethink about the progress we have made in stepping up our counterterrorism efforts. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the major challenges to India’s counterterrorism efforts, explain how we are countering such challenges and discuss the way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – Here your discussion should bring out the key challenges, explain how we are dealing with them and thereafter suggest steps for the future.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the rising challenge of terrorism and innovative ways used by terrorists which forces law agencies to upgrade themselves.

Body

  • Explain about the major challenges in India’s counterterrorism efforts
    • terrorism is handled by different state police systems with no legal role by the central government under Schedule 7 of our Constitution
    • Lack of citizen participation and private sector participation in beefing up the security apparatus
    • absence of “bottom up” security architecture
    • Lack of coordination between agencies etc
  • Discuss the ways in which we are beefing up our counterterrorism efforts by focussing on intelligence – creation of a new National Investigation Agency, Multi Agency Centers (MAC) collate intelligence information from different sources and disseminate them, stringent acts such as UAPA etc. Analyze how effective these reforms have been.
  • Suggest reforms – Capacities of the state police forces should be increased, cyber security and intelligence gathering and dissemination requires improvement (NATGRID) etx

Conclusion – Emphasize on the need for beefing up our counterterrorism efforts and end with way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

8) The life of Martin Luther King provides us with many valuable lessons. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the lessons we can learn from the life of Martin Luther King.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about Martin Luther King. E.g Dr. King left us not only a world historical legacy of thought and practice, but defined us as a moral and social vanguard across the world. At the heart of his ethical philosophy is his recognition and reaffirmation of the rights, dignity, divine destiny and potentiality of Black people.

Body-

Discuss in points the lessons one can learn from his life. E.g

  1. Dr. King rightly saw that unless we believe in ourselves, we could not believe in or successfully carry out our mission. And thus, he called for respect for the Divine in us and for what he called “a divine dissatisfaction” with the wrongs and evils of the world—oppression, injustice, inequality and war.

 

  1. the moral right and responsibility to resist evil and injustice, including disobeying the established order and its unjust laws.

“to accept passively an unjust system is to cooperate with that system.” One also collaborates when one turns a blind eye to injustice. For “to ignore evil is to become an accomplice to it.”

 

  1. like all our great leaders, taught that religion must have a social role as well as a spiritual one. Indeed, he taught they are interrelated. A true religion, he states, is obligated to deal “with the whole man; not only with his soul but also with his body, not only with his spiritual well-being, but also with his social wellbeing.”

 

  1. centrality of struggle, not only to free ourselves, but also to repair, transform and strengthen ourselves in the ongoing efforts to build and sustain the Beloved Community or good world. “Human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable,” he stated. “Every step toward the goal of justice requires sacrifice, suffering and struggle.”

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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