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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Modern Indian History.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Modern Indian History”

1) Railway development in India provides an interesting instance of private enterprise at public risk. Comment.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain explain the statement in question which is that risk was unevenly shared between private and public sector in railway construction. It also expects us to comment on the purpose for which railway construction was undertaken and whether railway construction was a part of policy of British to drain India of its wealth by allowing it to be constructed by private enterprise at public risk.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that Lord Dalhousie took the decision to construct railways in India.

Body

  • Explain what it meant by the statement in question
    • Cost borne by Indians and profit reaped by British
    • 5% guaranteed interest on British capital investment
    • Award of free land with 99 year’s lease etc
  • Highlight that the railways primarily served British needs through points such as no linkages of Indian markets, freight charges, transfer of technology remained limited to low technology areas etc
  • Discuss the unintended benefits of railways for India

Conclusion – Comment on whether the public investment made in railways did benefit the people of India or it benefitted British capitalist and was another form of economic drain.


Topic- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

2) Discuss the impact of British rule on India in terms of commercialization of agriculture.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to how the advent and continuance of British rule impacted commercialization of agriculture in India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  British rule in India. E.g The mass production of goods through machines that we witness today was pioneered through the Industrial Revolution which occurred first in England during the late 18th and the early 19th century. This led to a massive increase in the output of finished products

Body

Discuss in points the impact of British rule in India in terms of commercialization of agriculture. E.g  

  1. Different kinds of commercial crops such as tea, coffee, indigo, opium, cotton, jute, sugarcane and oilseed.  were introduced with different intentions. Indian opium was used to balance the trade of Chinese tea with Britain in the latter’s favor; The market for opium was strictly controlled by British traders which did not leave much scope for Indian producers to reap profit. Indians were forced to produce indigo and sell it on the conditions dictated by the Britishers; Commercialisation of agriculture further enhanced the speed of transfer of ownership of land thereby increasing the number of landless laborers. It also brought in a large number of merchants, traders and middlemen who further exploited the situation; There was an enormous drain of wealth from our country to Britain due to the various economic policies. Additional financial burden was placed on India due to expenditures on salaries, pensions and training of military and civilian staffs employed by the British to rule India; Because the peasants now shifted to commercial crops, food grain production went down. So, less food stock led to famines. It was therefore not surprising that the peasants revolted.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

3) The early years of the 20th century marked important landmarks in the history of the Indian women’s movement. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the women’s movement in India during the 20th century. It wants us to discuss at length about the landmarks witnessed during the early years of the 20th century and bring  out their significance.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  women’s movements in India. E.g

Body-

Discuss the important landmarks in women’s movements that marked the early 20th century India. E.g The early years of the 20th century marked two important landmarks in the history of the Indian women’s movement : the birth of nationwide women’s organizations and the beginning of women’s participation in the national movement. Certain core ideas surface repeatedly in the proceedings of women’s organizations such as the All-India Muslim Ladies’ Conference (Anjuman) 1914, the Women’s India Association (WIA) 1917, the National Council of Women in India (NCWI) 1925, and the All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) 1926. A key idea was a belief that advancement of a society hinges on the progress of women; To resist the cultural onslaughts of the West and articulate one’s own cultural identity it became all the more important to project an image of womanhood, which would symbolize both the strength and distinctiveness of Indian tradition. This search for unsullied symbols of tradition somewhere rested with purdah,as debates within the Anjuman would indicate, and elsewhere with “deification” of Hindu/Indian womanhood as discussed by the WIA,Hindu militants and Gandhi etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

4) Proposals to pass an ordinance and then legislation in favour of construction of Ram temple at Ayodhya are extremely ill-advised. Do you agree. Comment. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article discusses the legal hurdles in legislation or implementation by ordinance, the construction of Ram Mandir. It also highlights the other reasons as to why Indian govt should not take the route of ordinance in this direction.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the legal background of the issue of building Ram temple in Ayodhya, by ordinance or legislative route. It wants us to form an opinion as to whether such an endeavour would be ill advised or not.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent mulling of the idea of building Ram temple at Ayodhya via ordinance route.

Body

  1. Discuss the legal background of the case which would entail several challenges and delay in getting a judicial nod for building the Ram temple. E.g Even if passed, any such statute would have to cross many hurdles. First, there is the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act of 1991. In this Act, the cut-off date for freezing the religious character of a place of worship is August 15, 1947 and all suits regarding their status would abate. But Section 5 of the Act said: “Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the place or place of worship commonly known as Ram Janma-Bhumi -Babri Masjid situated in Ayodhya in the State of Uttar Pradesh and to any suit, appeal or other proceeding relating to the said place or place of worship.” This, however, does not pave the way for simply repealing the section, for that would give further protection to the Muslim case;  Acquisition of Certain Area at Ayodhya Act, 1993, which acquired the site to put an end to the litigation, and vested the property in Central government.; Third, the Act of 1993 was interpreted in Ismail Faruqui v. Union of India (1994) so that the property would remain with the Central government as a “statutory receiver”, a concept invented by the court. According to the SC judgement the Central government has the responsibility to wait for the result of the suit. No ordinance or statute can sit in appeal on the Ismail Faruqui judgment of 1994 etc
  2. Discuss the social reasons as to why the step would be ill advised. E.g as elections are near it may flare up communal tensions across the country; such an adventure would degrade India’ secular image internationally etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-   Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

5) CBI has come under the scanner in recent days. Discuss the issues faced by India’s premier investigative agency and the role of judiciary in ensuring that CBI no longer functions as a “caged parrot”?(250 words)

Epw

Why this question

CBI has been caught in a den of controversies with allegations and counter allegations being thrown left, right and centre. The issue of interest for us is understanding the reasons behind the current state of affairs and the role judiciary has played in ensuring some semblance of independence in CBI.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain in detail the issues faced by CBI and the role played by judiciary in reforming CBI and the impact of such measures. We need to finally provide a forward looking view explaining the nature of reforms required by CBI.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about CBI as an organization , about DSPE Act etc

Body

  • Highlight that the current controversies associated with CBI is symptomatic of larger problems.
  • Discuss the issues plaguing CBI –
    • CBI is Vulnerable to political pressure.
    • Less than 10 per cent of the cases handed over to the CBI have political overtones, and this is what gives the organization a bad name.
    • CBI is facing the staff shortage, which is required to deal with the daily dealings of the CBI office.
    • Supreme Court and High Courts are handing over a large number of sensitive cases to the CBI for investigation without additional manpower
    • The CBI is facing an acute shortage of manpower in the ranks of Constable, Head Constable, Inspector and Superintendent of Police.
    • Enormous delays in concluding investigations.
    • In majority of the cases of corruption and financial irregularities probed by the CBI, the accused goes unpunished.
    • Biased and casual course of action in the cases where its own official is under suspicion
    • Agency often fails to establish the money trail involved in the corruption
    • situations like withdrawal of notification of empowerment by the state with hidden motives.
  • Discuss the role judiciary has played in reforming CBI as discussed in the article with respect to reforming the appointment process etc
  • Give suggestions as to what can be done to improve the functioning of CBI. Can mention that in the past, CBI directors have given the suggestions to tackle this problem of coordination with state governments. Like:- Promulgation of the CBI act on par with the customs act or income tax act.
    It would provide CBI officers with independence outside CrPC without any state government interference. Suggest other measures of reforms in the CBI

Conclusion – Explain the importance of an independent and effective investigative agency and discuss way forward.


Topic-  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

6) Vietnam is crucial to India’s Look East Policy and bilateral ties must build on common concerns among the two nations. Analyze.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

Vietnam is an important regional player in SE Asia and its growing economic clout demands increased engagement with the country. Besides there are several common concerns among India and Vietnam which need to be used as foundations to build the bilateral relationship.    

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the India-Vietnam relationship and bring out the importance of Vietnam in India’s look East policy. It wants us to discuss the concerns common to the two countries which demand closer cooperation.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  Look East (or Act East) policy of India. E.g briefly mention the main purpose of the policy.

Body-

  1. Discuss the growing importance of Vietnam in India’s look East policy. E.g A close ‘ally’ of India for over 70 years, and not limited to official diplomatic ties, Vietnam is critical for India’s foreign policy at the regional and systemic levels;  Vietnam ratified the CPTPP, asserting its growing economic impact globally, with exports increasing to approximately $240 billion for the year 2018. Membership to the CPTPP, which accounts for nearly 14% of the global GDP, will boost Vietnam’s economic growth, from 6.8 % in 2017-18, by a further 1.1% to 3.5% by 2030 etc.
  2. Discuss the common concerns among the two countries which can be used to further strengthen the relationship. E.g An area of potential convergence for both Vietnam and India is health care. Vietnam has highlighted the importance of linking economic growth to universal health care, whereby 80% population would be covered by health insurance. India too, since 2011, has been focussing on the need to deliver accessible and affordable health insurance to weaker sections of society; A potential area of convergence in the realm of health care through joint public-private partnership agreements can be explored by the two countries; Internationally, Vietnam’s foreign policy is characterised by ‘multi-directionalism’, which addresses regional asymmetries of the power balance by engaging across a broad spectrum of states to achieve its interests. Increasingly, this asymmetrical power structure in the region, offset by the rise of China, is bringing regional and extra-regional states together to address the shifts in the normative order; Today there is increasing commonality of security concerns between Vietnam India particularly in the areas of maritime security and adherence to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic – environmental pollution and degradation.

7) The problem of air pollution can not be tackled by judiciary alone. Comment.(250 words)

epw

Why this question

The article highlights that courts have taken a lead in matters related to pollution and examines the effectiveness of judicial intervention. At a time when pollution has become a huge issue, and courts are taking a lead in ensuring that we enjoy the right to live in a safe environment, we need to critically analyze the role of courts.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the seriousness of the problem of air pollution and explain that courts have taken a lead in taking steps to ensure that the problem is contained. Give examples of the measures taken by the court and explain the impact of judgements of the court. Discuss the role of executive and legislature in tackling this problem. Finally, give a fair and balanced view on whether judicial intervention to tackle pollution would suffice and suggestion about what must be done.

Directive word

Comment – When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading. Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain that air pollution has become a big issue.

Body

  • Discuss the role played by judiciary in tackling the problem of pollution. Explain the role of NGT and Supreme court in this regard. Give examples of cracker ban in Delhi and several judgments of NGT through which they have tried to tackle the problem of air pollution
  • Examine the effective of those measures as discussed in the article. Also, analyze the role of NGT and issues faced by NGT in tackling air pollution
  • Discuss the lack of initiative shown by executive and legislature and why their support is crucial
  • Give suggestions as to what needs to be done to tackle air pollution

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss the way forward.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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