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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

 


General Studies – 1


Topic – Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India, Social empowerment

1) Discuss the threats and challenges faced by the tribes such as Sentinelese in India and how they need to be protected?(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

An American national was killed allegedly by the Sentinelese tribe in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands after he illegally entered the protected zone on November 16. This brings into question who are sentinelese and the threats and challenges faced overall by such tribes.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain who the Sentinelese are. Next we need to bring out the reasons why they are vulnerable, discuss the steps taken by the government to ensure their protection. Thereafter, we need to bring out the lacunae in the government policies and suggest steps which needs to be taken.

Directive word

Discuss – Here in your discussion you need to bring out the reasons such tribes are vulnerable and then explain the steps that have been taken and the lacunae therein for their protection.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight why this question is in news

Body

  • Explain who are the Sentinelese – The Sentinelese are a negrito tribe who live on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans. The inhabitants are connected to the Jarawa on the basis of physical, as well as linguistic similarities. Their numbers are believed to be less than 150 and as low as 40
  • Explain the reasons why they are vulnerable
    • they have made little to no advancement in the over 60,000 years and still live very primitive lives, surviving mainly on fish and coconuts
    • vulnerable to germs since they have not had contact with the outside world
    • Efforts to reach out to them has failed
  • Discuss the measures in place for their protection – The Govt. of India issued the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation, 1956 to declare the traditional areas occupied by the tribes as reserves. It prohibited entry of all persons except those with authorisation. Photographing or filming the tribe members is also an offence. The rules were amended later to enhance penalties.
  • Explain however that off late restricted area permits were relaxed for some islands. In a major step earlier this year, the Indian government excluded this island and 28 others in the Union Territory from the Restricted Area Permit or RAP regime till 2022. The lifting of RAP means foreigners can go to the island without permission from the government

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion on the steps that government should take to tackle this situation.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

2) High Growth Firms have a beneficial spillover effect on MSMEs. Analyze in the context of Indian economy.(250 words)

Livemint

Directive word

analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the importance of HGFs in India and their relationship with MSMEs; how the latter benefit from the former; and factors affect this relationship.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  HGFs. E.g The OECD defines high-growth firms (HGFs) as those that employ more than 10 workers, with employment growing at an average annual rate of 20% or more over at least three consecutive years

Body-

  1. Discuss the importance of HGFs for an economy.. E.g HGFs affect upstream and downstream enterprises positively i.e when small, informal enterprises and large, formal enterprises are able to integrate effectively in supply chains, the barriers that the former face in achieving high productivity growth are lowered.
  2. Discuss the inadequacies of such relationship vis a vis India. E.g Given their smaller balance sheets and less scope for accessing credit, micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) depend to a large extent on timely cash payments from the large companies they supply to in order to function effectively. It often doesn’t work out this way. Given their poorer bargaining power and the costs of using the legislation for tackling delayed payments—the MSME Development Act, 2006—micro and small enterprises frequently face inordinate delays in receiving payments. And goods and services tax kinks related to input tax credit are further complicating the picture etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Indian economy : Issues related to employment.

3) What do you think are the major challenges related to employment in India? Analyze the reforms brought by the government to address the issue of informalization of workforce ?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article discusses the major challenges with respect to employment of people and principles through which the government has tried to deal with this situation. Since employment is such a burning issue, this article will help us become aware of the major areas where work is needed going forward especially when it comes to informalization of workforce.

Key demand of the question

The question expects to us to first give a general picture of the status quo with respect to employment. Post that, we need to discuss the major challenges with respect to employment. Once we bring out the challenges, we need to explain the steps taken by the government to address the issue of informalization of workforce and bring out the pros and cons of the impact it has had.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain with the help of data etc that employment is a major challenge facing India.

Body

  • Bring out the various challenges with respect to employment – the sheer number of the jobs that have to be created; issues of job security and social security; informalization of workforce etc
  • Explain the steps taken by the government to address the situation – efforts have been taken to promote formalisation and also the provision of social security to those remaining in the informal sector through steps such as fixed term contract employment , reducing the compliance cost for companies etc
  • Bring out the impact that such steps have had and what more needs to be done

Conclusion – give your view on how effective these steps have been and the way forward.


Topic – economics of animal-rearing.

4) Blue Revolution aims at doubling the income of farmers in India but it faces several challenges. DIscuss. Also Discuss the steps taken by the government in this direction in recent years.(250 words)

PIB

Reference

Pib

Pib

Why this question

The Blue Revolution envisages transformation of the fisheries sector with increased investment, better training and development of infrastructure. It is an important part of the efforts of the govt. To double the farmers’ income by 2022. It is important to discuss the efforts of the govt in this regard and the challenges faced thereto.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the challenges in the way of realizing a blue revolution in India. It also wants us to write in detail about the steps taken by the government in this direction in recent years.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the size and potential of India’s aquaculture industry. E.g India has large natural resources, and water bodies such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, in addition to an 8,118km-long coastline. So it is well positioned to have a Blue Revolution. Blue Revolution will focus on construction of new fishing harbours, modernization of fishing boats, imparting training to fishermen, and above all promote fishing as a self-employment activity.

Body-

  1. Discuss the challenges faced by the sector. E.gresource quality issues; socio-economic issues around the resources; and techno-managerial issues connected with the production of fish; The resource quality issues pertain mainly to the length of time for which adequate water would be standing in a waterbody, alternate demands on the same waterbody and water quality problems resulting from these alternate demands; Socio-economic issues pertain to usufruct rights over the waterbodies; security and length of tenancy when these are leased; and poaching of fish; Techno-managerial issues pertain to the availability of spawn, seedlings and fingerlings on time, availability of necessary feed and medicines, access to markets and working capital etc

 

  1. Discuss the steps taken by the govt. E.g Realizing the immense scope for development of fisheries and aquaculture, the Government of India has restructured the Central Plan Scheme under an umbrella of Blue Revolution. The restructured Central Sector Scheme on Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries (CSS) approved by the Government provides for a focused development and management of the fisheries sector to increase both fish production and fish productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources of the inland and marine fisheries sector including deep sea fishing;  To give boost to the sector in recent years. E.g the present government released Rs. 64.32 crore during 2014-15 to 2018-19 as compared to Rs. 4.95 crore given during 2009-10 to 2013-14. Apart from this, as part of Prime Minister special package to Bihar, the fisheries sector was sanctioned Rs 279.55 crore under which the first installment of Centre’s share of Rs. 40.79 crore has been released.iit has been targeted to enhance the fish production from 107.95 lakh tonnes in 2015-16 to about 150 lakh tonnes by the end of the financial year 2019-20. It is also expected to augment the export earnings with a focus on increased benefit flow to the fishers and fish farmers to attain the target of doubling their income.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Indian Agriculture : Issues

5) The agriculture sector is changing rapidly and requires proactive policy management to be able to  maximize benefits for all stakeholders. Discuss.(250 words)

livemint

Why this question

Agricultural sector is under stresses of various kinds both due to natural reasons as well as due to policy issues. This article gives a general sense of the major policy challenges before the agriculture sector and the need for proactive policies to ensure overall benefit for such a critical sector of the economy. This question would help you revise your general concepts with respect to the contemporary issues facing agricultural sector.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the challenges facing agricultural sector and explain why the age old policy approach in agricultural sector needs some changes. We need to explain the nature of policy changes required and why they would be beneficial.

Directive word

Discuss – here your discussion should bring out the challenges facing agricultural sector and debate the nature or policy changes that are required.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain how significant agriculture sector is for the economy and the status quo of the sector.

Body

  • Explain the challenges facing the sector – natural issues caused droughts etc, and issues related to such as the problems facing marketing of agricultural produce, price discovery of agricultural produce, issues due to MSP, the supply demand mismatch such as in the case of pulses etc
  • Thereafter, we need to explain the current efforts that are being taken such as restricting exports, e-NAM etc.
  • Explain the reasons why such reforms are unable to address the issues and what more needs to be done

Conclusion – Explain how crucial the sector is for India and discuss the way forward.


Topic – Disaster management

6) The problems related to droughts are more a cause of lack of policies and mechanisms to drought-proof susceptible areas. Examine.(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The article highlights the drought like conditions in parts of Maharashtra. Year after year we see the problem of drought recurring and we react to the situation rather than proactively dealing with it. With climate change, such threats are bound to increase and we need to analyze how we respond to droughts.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain the causes of drought, whether lack of rainfall is the only reason that leads to droughts  or whether the fault lies in poor planning. Thereafter, we have to highlight the lacunae in governmental policy to tackle drought. We should briefly highlight the seriousness of the problem and end with a way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Bring out the fact through relevant data that drought is a recurring problem for India and needs deeper analysis.

Body – Examine the reasons of drought to evaluate whether lack of rainfall is the sole reason and how far mismanagement of drought by government is responsible for the current state. Delve deeper into the lacunae in governmental policies to prevent drought as well as in capacity building to withstand drought. Analyze whether we have been successful in creating natural assets, utilize our traditional water harvesting systems, our agricultural policies which have induced drought like situations in certain parts, our mismanagement of groundwater reserves etc. Discuss the impact of these gaps by emphasizing on how serious the situation has become.

Conclusion – Highlight the importance of urgently tackling this issue and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic–   Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7) What are the functions performed by our attitudes, as outlined by Katz. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the functions performed by our attitudes, as outlined by Daniel Katz in 1960.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the meaning of attitude. E.g “it is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor”

Body-

Discuss the functions performed by an attitude, as outlined by Katz-Knowledge, Expressive, Adaptive and Ego-defensive functions. e.g

  1. Attitudes provide meaning (knowledge) for life.  The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable.
  2. The attitudes we express (1) help communicate who we are and (2) may make us feel good because we have asserted our identity.Therefore, our attitudes are part of our identify, and help us to be aware through the expression of our feelings, beliefs and values.
  3. Attitudes then, are to do with being apart of a social group and the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group. People seek out others who share their attitudes, and develop similar attitudes to those they like.
  4. The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-esteem or that justify actions that make us feel guilty.  For example, one way children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced in P.E. lessons is to adopt a strongly negative attitude to all sports.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-    Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

8) Discuss the spectrum of political attitudes which are prevalent in today’s societies. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the spectrum of political attitudes prevalent in today’s societies across the world. We have to discuss briefly about each of the political attitude in the spectrum.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a simple definition of a political attitude.People at each point on the political spectrum have an attitude about changing the existing political system (the status quo) by adopting certain policies or by pursuing certain courses of action.

Body-

Discuss in points about the spectrum of political attitudes and briefly discuss each attitude in the spectrum. E.g

Radical- In general terms, a radical may be defined as a person who is extremely dissatisfied with the society as it is and therefore is impatient with less than extreme proposals for changing it. Hence, all radicals favor an immediate and fundamental change in the society.

Liberal- Liberals are placed closer than radicals to the status quo point on the continuum because they are less dissatisfied with the fundamentals of society. Indeed, the liberal supports the basic features of that society.

Moderate- Moderates are fundamentally satisfied with the society, although they agree that there is room for improvement and recognize several specific areas in need of modification. However, they insist that changes in the system should be made gradually and that no change should be so extreme as to disrupt the society

Conservative- Conservatives are the most supportive of the status quo and therefore are reluctant to see it changed. Conservatives are often accused of lacking vision, but this charge is unfair.The primary reason conservatives are suspicious about the prospects of improving society through deliberate political policy is that they do not believe human reason is powerful enough to even completely understand, let alone solve, society’s problems.

Reactionary- only the reactionary proposes retrogressive change; that is, reactionaries favor a policy that would return society to a previous condition or even a former value system. All reactionaries reject claims to human equality and favor distributing wealth and power unequally on the basis of race, social class, intelligence, or some other criterion.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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