[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 NOVEMBER 2018

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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 NOVEMBER 2018

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General Studies – 1


Topic – Modern Indian History.

1) Discuss the impact that World war I had on Indian national movement, its society and economy?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Role of India in world war 1 has received widespread news coverage in the past couple of years. While India’s role in world war 1 is important, also important is the impact that the war had on India’s polity, economy and society. This question would help you to prepare this aspect of world war 1.

Key demand of the question

The question is quite straightforward in its demand. It expects us to discuss the impact that the war had on India’s struggle for independence. It also expects us to discuss the impact of the war on the nation’s economy and polity and how it impacted the national movement.

Directive word

Discuss – here your discussion should bring out the impact world war 1 had on the freedom movement in India. We also need to highlight the impact of the war on India’s society and economy and relate these to the freedom movement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the magnitude of the war and India’s contribution to it.

Body

  • Discuss the view of political parties on support of India during world war 1. Explain that this was done with hope of getting semblance of self governance, what we got in fact was montague Chelmsford reforms.
  • Discuss the impact on society – rise in literacy, coercion by British for recruitment and resulting anger etc
  • Discuss the impact on economy – Requisitioning of food supplies, particularly cereals, led to rampant food inflation. Exports of cash crops like jute suffered due to the loss of the European market. Meanwhile, rising military demand for jute products compensated for the decline in civilian demand with jute mills in Bengal establishing monopolies; skewed income distribution grew even more so, shifting from jute farmers to capital. And as Amiya Kumar Bagchi has noted in “Indian Economy and Society during World War One”, the drain on the Indian economy in the form of cash, kind and loans to the British government came to about 367 million pounds.
  • Explain how all of this contributed to the freedom movement

Conclusion – Summarize, in your opinion ,the overall impact of war on India.


General Studies – 2


Topic -Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

2) Critically analyze the role Swachh Bharat has played in making India open defecation free?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

Several reports have analysed the performance of swachh Bharat mission, which is one of the flagship program of the government. Understanding the progress made and drawing lessons from its implementation is important to prepare this topic.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the aims and objectives of swachh Bharat mission, the status quo. Thereafter, we need to critically analyze how far the mission has succeeded in achieving its goal, considering that 2019 is promised to be the year when India becomes open defecation free.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that this mission is a  nation-wide campaign in India for the period 2014 to 2019 that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India’s cities, towns, and rural areas.

Body

  • Highlight the status quo such as no of villages and states declared ODF etc
  • Discuss the achievements under the scheme
    • 2017 Swachh Survekshan survey conducted by the Quality Council of India reports that 62% of rural households now have a toilet. This is an increase of over 20 percentage points since 2014.
    • More significantly, the survey concludes that more than 90% of the individuals who had access to toilets were using them. Etc
  • Discuss where the mission was found lacking
    • To truly make India open defecation free requires a sustainable change in societal mindset and behaviour which can be done through behavioural change
    • Focus on increasing number without addressing issues of behaviour change, water availability, waste disposal etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced account of the success of swachh Bharat and discuss way forward.


Topic–  India and its neighborhood- relations.

3) Peace remains elusive but India’s engagement demonstrates commitment to the idea of a stable, independent and peaceful Afghanistan. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Wikipedia

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our knowledge and understanding of the situation in Afghanistan at present and demonstrate that peace still remains elusive in Afghanistan. It also wants us to bring out India’s  role in Afghanistan and its pursuit for peace and development in the region.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – write a few lines about the India’s engagement with the multiple processes underway on Afghan reconciliation. E.g In a reconciliation process between the Taliban and the Afghan authorities, India was present at the meeting, making it the first time that all stakeholders were present in the same room.

BODY

  1. Discuss as to why peace remains elusive in Afghanistan. E.g The Afghan government controls barely half the country, with one-sixth under Taliban control and the rest contested. Most significant is the ongoing depletion in the Afghan security forces because of casualties, desertions and a growing reluctance to join; The Afghan war has already become the longest war in US history. With the passage of time, the conflict has not only become more intense – it has also become more complicated; The major challenge is the cooperation of regional players. Peace in Afghanistan and the wider region can only be achieved through a multilateral mechanism involving the US as well as major regional players, including Pakistan, Russia, Iran, China, India and Saudi Arabia. But in the end, it will be the dialogue among Afghans themselves which will determine the political future of their war-torn Afghanistan etc.
  2. Discuss India’s role in Afghanistan e.g India was the only South Asian country to recognize the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s, its relations were diminished during the 1990s Afghan civil war and the Taliban government. India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid to Afghanistan; India is the biggest regional donor to Afghanistan and fifth largest donor globally with over $3 billion in assistance. India has built over 200 public and private schools, sponsors scholarships and hosts Afghan students; Build Afghan Parliament building; Salma dam etc

Conclusion – Based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Investment models”

4) Critically analyze the hybrid annuity model which has recently found favour with the government for road construction?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

Here, we first need to explain hybrid annuity model, explain how it differs from the earlier toll model or annuity model. Thereafter, we need to bring out its pros and cons and give a fair and balanced opinion on whether the use of this model would start attracting private capital for road construction purposes.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that the government has recently awarded the construction of several road projects on hybrid annuity model.

Body

  • Explain the model – is a mix of the EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) and BOT (build, operate, transfer) models. Hybrid Annuity Model (HAM) combines EPC (40 per cent) and BOT-Annuity (60 per cent).
    NHAI releases 40 per cent of the total project cost. It is given in five tranches linked to milestones. The balance 60 per cent is arranged by the developer. Here, the developer usually invests not more than 20-25 per cent of the project cost (as against 40 percent or more before), while the remaining is raised as debt.
  • Discuss the advantages that it offers such as
    • NPA-riddled banks were becoming wary of lending to these projects.
    • spreads the risk between developers and the Government
    • helps cut the overall debt and improves project returns etc
  • Discuss the issues such as it doesn’t take care of the cost and time overruns due to issues of administrative efficiency etc
  • Highlight how the model can be made better with steps such as efficient dispute redressal mechanism, faster environmental clearances etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion on hybrid annuity model and discuss way forward for this model.


Topic–  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5) Bans and fines can’t stop stubble burning. Do you agree. Also discuss how the issue should be handled. (250 words)

Indian express

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail as to why it is difficult if not impossible to stop stubble burning by imposing bans and fines. It also wants us to discuss as to what should be the way forward and what measures need to be take while dealing with this problem.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few line about the Stubble burning. E.g  Paddy stubble burning in the months of October and November is a major contributor to Delhi’s air pollution woes, which reached the highest this year, recently.

Body

  1. Discuss why there is a need to stop stubble burning in terms of cons of stubble burning. E.g It causes loss of nutrients,  smoke and particulate pollution that can move over long distance; Damage to electrical and electronic equipment from floating threads of conducting waste; Risk of fires spreading out of control; There is a perception that stubble burning contributes to atmospheric CO2. However carbon dioxide releases are only slightly greater than those from natural decomposition etc.
  2. Discuss why bans and fines won’t control stubble burning in terms of the pros of stubble burning. E.g It quickly clears the field and is the cheapest alternative; Kills weeds, including those resistant to herbicide; Kills slugs and other pests.Can reduce nitrogen tie-up etc.
  3. Discuss the way-forward e.g. The most efficient technology to counter crop burning at the moment, seems to be the Turbo Happy Seeder (THS); Another use of paddy straw will be as fuel in a power plant; to produce ethanol from paddy straw.

Conclusion – Based on your discussion form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6) Discuss the objective and the essential principles of the Draft National Forest Policy, 2018. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The Draft National Forest Policy, 2018 is an important policy document. It is important to know about the objectives and the principles of the document so that any further discussion can be taken thereupon.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the objectives of Draft National Forest Policy, 2018 and the essential principles envisaged under it.

Structure of the answer

Introduction: write a few introductory lines about the Draft National Forest Policy, 2018. E.g The main drawbacks of forest policies of 1894, 1952 & 1988 policy prescriptions were reduction in the diversion of forest land, increasing population, industrialization etc which became root cause for formation of Draft National Forest Policy, 2018

Body-

  1. Discuss the objective of the draft policy. E.g The overall objective and goal of the present policy is to safeguard the ecological and livelihood security of people, of the present and future generations, based on sustainable management of the forests for the flow of ecosystem services.
  2. Discuss the essential principles of the policy. E.g Existing natural forests should be fully protected and their productivity should be improved.Management of the natural biodiversity rich forests for maximising the ecosystem services for ecological security of the nation. For conservation of flora, fauna and total biodiversity, the network of national parks, sanctuaries,conservation reserves, community reserves, biosphere reserves and important wildlife corridors and biodiversity heritage sites will be strengthened and extended adequately.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Achievements of Indians in science & technology

7) Highlight the achievements of ISRO as a pioneer in space technology?(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The continued success of ISRO in the field of space technology, as demonstrated by yet another success discussed in the article makes ISRO an important organization for mains. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the achievements of ISRO since it’s inception to present date. We can adopt a timeline approach to answer this question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain about ISRO as an organization.

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established in 1969. Since its beginning, ISRO has created a niche for itself in the space technology world through continuous low-cost innovations.

Body – Discuss the achievements of isro ranging from launch of Aryabhatta, to INSAT, PSLV, Chandrakant, reusable launch vehicle etc. Emphasize on the achievements of ISRO in launching satellites on a commercial scale and also the frugal technology of ISRO.

Conclusion – Explain what ISRO’s success means for India.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Case study

8) One year after becoming CEO of Starbucks, You are faced with a leadership test when two black men were arrested in a Philadelphia Starbucks.  The men were waiting to meet a business associate, but they didn’t purchase anything while they were waiting. The store manager asked them to leave, and they refused, explaining that they were there to meet someone. The manager called the police because the men refused to leave, and the police arrested them.

 

Another patron at Starbucks recorded the arrest on her cell phone, and it quickly went viral. In an interview after the arrest, the woman who took the video mentions that she had been sitting there for a while, and she wasn’t asked to leave even though she didn’t order anything.  Additionally, the video shows the business associate of the black men show up during the arrest, and he asks the manager and the police what the men had done wrong. The general public and those who witnessed the arrest labeled it as discriminatory and racist.

 

  1. What should be your response in this matter.
  2. Discuss the ethical issues involved in the incident.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction

  1. Discuss the ethical issues at hand. E.g Bias and racism; lack of application of mind and retrieval of facts necessary for action etc
  2. Discuss what would be your response and how will you handle various ethical issues involved in the question.

Take the help of the article attached to the question and frame your answer.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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