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2) Critically analyze the role Swachh Bharat has played in making India open defecation free?(250 words)

Topic -Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

2) Critically analyze the role Swachh Bharat has played in making India open defecation free?(250 words)


Why this question

Several reports have analysed the performance of swachh Bharat mission, which is one of the flagship program of the government. Understanding the progress made and drawing lessons from its implementation is important to prepare this topic.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the aims and objectives of swachh Bharat mission, the status quo. Thereafter, we need to critically analyze how far the mission has succeeded in achieving its goal, considering that 2019 is promised to be the year when India becomes open defecation free.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight that this mission is a  nation-wide campaign in India for the period 2014 to 2019 that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India’s cities, towns, and rural areas.


  • Highlight the status quo such as no of villages and states declared ODF etc
  • Discuss the achievements under the scheme
    • 2017 Swachh Survekshan survey conducted by the Quality Council of India reports that 62% of rural households now have a toilet. This is an increase of over 20 percentage points since 2014.
    • More significantly, the survey concludes that more than 90% of the individuals who had access to toilets were using them. Etc
  • Discuss where the mission was found lacking
    • To truly make India open defecation free requires a sustainable change in societal mindset and behaviour which can be done through behavioural change
    • Focus on increasing number without addressing issues of behaviour change, water availability, waste disposal etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced account of the success of swachh Bharat and discuss way forward.