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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.


General Studies – 2


Topic- Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

1) Discuss the background and the judgement of the recent Sabarimala temple controversy.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The article provides a concise yet a complete picture of the recent Sabarimala Temple controversy which has raised severe criticism from political parties and civilians alike.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail the background to the Sabarimala controversy- bring out the legal and customary positions, reason behind the controversy and also write in detail about the observations of the SC in the recent judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  Sabarimala temple. E.g Sabarimala is considered to be one of the holiest temples in Hinduism, with one of the largest annual pilgrimages in the world etc.

Body-

  1. Discuss the background of the case. E.g The devotees believe that the deity’s powers derive from his asceticism, and in particular from his being celibate. Women between the ages of 10 and 50 are barred from participating in the rituals; The exclusion was given legal sanction by Rule 3(b) of the Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1965. The validity of the rule and other provisions restricting the entry of women was decided by the Supreme Court last month.

The Court, by a majority of 4:1, held that the exclusion of women between these ages was violative of the Constitution.

  1. Discuss the SC judgement and bring out its essence. E.g held that the practice of excluding women did not constitute an “essential religious practice”; the judgement also relied on Section 3 of the Act mentioned above which stipulates that places of public worship must be open to all sections and classes of Hindus, notwithstanding any custom or usage to the contrary. It was held that Rule 3(b) prohibiting the entry of women was directly contrary to this; the right of women (in the age bracket in question) to enter Sabarimala was guaranteed under Article 25(1) and Article 15(1) of the Constitution etc

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2) Environmental PIL has emerged largely because of the court’s interpretation of Article 21 of the Constitution. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the relationship between the Article 21 of the constitution and the emergence of PILs related to environment. We should also give examples of some related and important cases.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  emergence of PIL especially environmental PIL.

Body-

Discuss the important historical cases related to environmental PILs. e.g The court in Chhetriya Pardushan Mukti Sangharsh Samiti v. State of U.P. & Others AIR 1990 SC 2060 observed that every citizen has fundamental right to have the enjoyment of quality of life and living as contemplated by Article 21 of the Constitution of India. Anything which endangers or impairs by conduct of anybody either in violation or in derogation of laws, that quality of life and living by the people is entitled to take recourse to Article 32 of the Constitution.

The Supreme Court in Subhash Kumar v. State of Bihar & Others AIR 1991 SC 420 observed that under Article 21 of the Constitution people have the right of enjoyment of pollution free water and air for full enjoyment of life. If anything endangers or impairs that quality of life in derogation of laws, a citizen has right to have recourse to Article 32 of the Constitution for removing the pollution of water or air which may be detrimental to the quality of life.

In another important decision of the Supreme Court in the case of M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath & Others (2000) 6 SCC 213, the Court was of the opinion that Articles 48A and 51-A(g) have to be considered in the light of Article 21 of the Constitution. Any disturbance of the basic environment elements, namely air, water and soil, which are necessary for “life”, would be hazardous to “life” within the meaning of Article 21.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic–  Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

3) What do you understand by the writ of continuing mandamus. Discuss its importance in environmental protection measures in India.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

Environment has assumed a more pivotal role in the history of mankind. In the wake of environmental degradation, pollution the courts have actively intervened in many cases working through the principle of continuing mandamus.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to describe the meaning of continuing mandamus. It then wants us to bring out its relevance and importance in environmental protection on account of the invocation of the principle by the SC in various environment related cases.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few lines about the meaning of the writ powers of the SC and HCs. E.g Article 32 of the Constitution gives the Supreme Court the power to issue directions, orders or

writs including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari,whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of the rights conferred by part III. At the same time the High Court may issue the same writs under Article 226 of the Constitution.

Body-

  1. Discuss the meaning of the writ of continuing mandamus. E.g A mandamus is a writ that can be issued by the Supreme Court which can literally be construed as “we command”. It is a command issued by a court commanding a public authority to perform a public duty belonging to its office. It is generally issued to various authorities such as to a person; a corporation or an inferior tribunal requiring him or them to do a particular thing which pertains to his or their office in the nature of a public duty, subject to certain restrictions; the proper function of the writ of mandamus is to compel the doing of a specific act and is not an appropriate remedy for the enforcement of duties generally, or to control and regulate a general course of official conduct for a long series of continuous acts to be performed under varying conditions. This is because it would render the court a supervising and managerial body as regards the action to which the writ pertains as it would entail keeping the case open for an indefinite time to supervise the continuous performance of duties by the respondent etc.
  2. Discuss its importance vis a vis environmental PILs. e.g mention the Bandhua Mukti Morcha case; Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action case; T.N. Godavarman v. Union of India etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Investment model

4) Explain the difference toll and annuity model in PPP projects? Critically analyze whether adopting the hybrid annuity model for road construction would resolve issues associated with PPP projects?(250 words)

livemint

Why this question

The article very lucidly explains the difference between toll and annuity model of PPP projects and examines whether resorting to hybrid annuity model would resolve the issues faced by road construction sector. It also remains to be seen whether this move attracts private investment which had decreased post the problems with the previous concessionaire agreements became apparent. Hence this question would help you in examining all these issues in detail.

Key demand of the question

In the first part of the question, we need to discuss the differences between toll model and annuity model of PPP projects. Thereafter, we need to explain hybrid annuity model which has now found favour with the policy makers. Next, we need to critically analyze whether this would resolve the issue. We need to provide a fair and balanced conclusion and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight that India has awarded the highest number of road projects among all countries through PPP. Explain that this is to leverage advantages and name the three popular models of PPP ie toll, annuity and hybrid annuity.

Body

  • Explain the difference between toll and annuity model. Use points from the article and based on your own reading.
  • Thereafter, explain what happens under hybrid annuity model and what advantages it provides over the model discussed previously.Government would provide upfront around 40% of the project cost to developer to start the work and remaining 60% would be borne by the private player. Once the project is completed, the NHAI will collect toll and refund the private players in instalments for 15-20 years. This implies that the toll collection job will be done by NHAI.
  • Explain that this model is being cited beneficial because of the following: Compared to the BOT Annuity / EPC projects, it would ease the cash flow pressure on the government. Compared to BOT Toll model, the traffic risk is not associated with the concessionaire, it gives him some comfort level to lend from the banks.
  • Point out the counter argument provided in the article

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss the way forward.


Topic–  Conservation

5) Man animal conflict is an issue that demands urgent attention. We need to find the right policy and regulatory mix to reflect that realization. Examine.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

This article talks about the often neglected issue of man animal conflict and establishes that it is a problem which requires immediate attention. The article also talks about the lacunae in the legislations and policies and what the way forward should be. In the backdrop of Avni case, this issue needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain why man animal conflict is an issue that requires urgent attention. Next, we need to highlight the legislative steps and policy decisions taken to prevent such man animal conflict. We have to bring out the lacunae in the existing mechanisms and suggest what is the right policy and regulatory mix to reduce man animal conflict.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight why the issue of man animal conflict is in news

Body

  • Bring out the seriousness of the problem and the fact that it impacts the vulnerable section the most. Explain that it is the negative externally of the kind of developmental model followed
  • Discuss the criticism of WPA, 1972 which is that the model of conservation enshrined in the WLPA is premised on creating human-free zones for the protection of rare species based on the erroneous notion that local people are the prime drivers of wildlife decline. This approach has been successful in protecting certain species, not all species
  • Discuss what is the right mix of policy and regulations which would enable the prevention of man animal conflict. Discuss the changes being thought of national forest policy and community management as envisaged in forest rights act.

Conclusion – Comment on the need to solve this issue as it is only likely to grow in future and discuss way forward.


Topic-Part of static series under the heading – “Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth”

6) We have seen landmark shift in Indian Economy since the adoption of new economic policy in 1991. Discuss the impact that it has had on different sectors of economy?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the impact of changes made in industrial policy since 1991 has had on different sectors of the economy viz. Agrarian, manufacturing and services sector. We need to discuss both the good and the not so good impacts.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain why adoption of new economic policy was such a landmark step.

Body

  • Discuss the impact on agriculture sector – share in economy, changes in cropping pattern, restriction on subsides, greater impact of global prices etc
  • Discuss the impact on manufacturing sector – share in economy increased, transitioned to be a service led economy, directly from an agrarian one, premature deindustrialization etc
  • Discuss impact on services sector – growth in IT and Banking sector, improvement in exports etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the overall impact it has had on the economy.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth”

7) Critically analyze the impact economic Liberalization has had on growth and trade for agriculture in India?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the positive and negative impact that economic Liberalization has had on growth and trading in agricultural sector.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention the objective with which the process of economic Liberalization was initiated and highlight that it has affected all sector including agricultural sector.

Body

  • Discuss the positive impacts such an influx of technology, greater availability of credit, investment in food processing sector, contract farming, opened up export market etc
  • Discuss the negative impact such as prove variability due to variation in global markets, share in economy decreased, shift in focus of policy makers, migration and farmers’ suicide in worst cases etc

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced opinion and discuss way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Social influence and persuasion.

8) You have been asked to devise an advertisement campaign for a development programme to be launched nationally. What are the principles on which you will focus to increase the social influence of your advertisement. Discuss.(250 words)

Lexicon ethics; Attitude

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the principles of social influence and persuasion and relate them practically to the situation at hand. You should give some examples on the type of audience, the message to be given etc and give practical solutions related to those principles.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Write a few introductory lines about the  social influence. E.g Principles of Social Influence play on fundamental human instincts and can be exploited both intentionally and unintentionally by professional influence agents.

Body-

Discuss in points the principles which you would use to increase the social influence of your advertisement. E.g discuss the principles of LSCARS and relate to your opinion

 

  • Liking
  • Scarcity
  • Consistency
  • Authority
  • Reciprocity
  • Social Proof


NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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