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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 14 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Land reforms in India.


General Studies – 2


Topic- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1) The paucity of health infrastructure at the cutting edge level will be the biggest stumbling block for POSHAN scheme. Discuss.(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The poor performance of India on nutrition parameters has been a source of much charging for the country and off late Global Nutrition Reports erc established what we already knew. In this backdrop, there are certain challenges which POSHAN scheme needs to overcome to achieve its aims. The article highlights those challenges which will help you build a critical perspective.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what do we understand by health infrastructure at cutting edge level and how they might turn out to be the biggest stumbling block for POSHAN scheme. Thereafter, we need to discuss the other potential challenges that the scheme faces. Finally, we need to end on a hopeful vision as to how these obstacles can be overcome.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain POSHAN scheme.

Body

  • Explain what the question means when it uses the term that paucity of health infrastructure will be an obstacle. here discuss about the challenges faced by Anganwadi centres and workers
  • Examine whether there are other challenges also that the scheme will possibly face such as that there is much left to do in terms of achieving universalization of coverage and advanced service delivery
  • Thereafter, discuss the ways in which these challenges can be addressed

Conclusion – Emphasize on the importance of tackling the problems of under/malnutrition and discuss the way forward.


Topic – Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2) Government litigation places a huge burden on the citizens of India and there is a need for India to  take inspiration from other model litigant countries in this respect.(250 words)

Economictimes

Reference

The hindu

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  volume of government litigation out of all the litigation cases in the country’s courts. E.g According to the Ministry of Law and Justice, government departments are a party to around “46 percent” of court cases.

Body-

  1. Discuss how such a large volume of litigations places a burden on the citizens of India. E.g mention that it costs huge public funds to pursue such huge number of litigations; the number and nature of writ petitions filed before a High Court are indicative of the extent of friction between citizens and the government; it gives an idea about the violation of individuals’ rights, breach of contracts and abdication of obligations on part of the state etc.
  2. Discuss about the litigation models from other countries, which should be adopted in India. E.g discuss the French litigation model; mention that Brown & Garner have cleared the position of law in the French system in respect of government liability in the following words: “The activity of the state is carried on in the interest of the entire community; the burden that it entails should not weigh more heavily on some than on others. If then state action results in individual damage to particular citizens, the state should make redress, whether or not there be a fault committed by the public officers concerned. The state is, in some ways, an insurer of what is often called social risk etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic–  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability,

3) India recently slipped to number 6 in global RTI rankings despite the RTI statute in India remaining the same along with its legal framework. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the slip in India’s global RTI ratings from no. 2 in 2011 to no. 6 in 2018.

Body-

  1. Discuss about the nature of the index. E.g global RTI ratings is a programme founded by the Centre for Law and Democracy (CLD), a Canada-based non-governmental organisation, along with Access Info Europe; he global RTI rating is a system for assessing the strength of the legal framework for guaranteeing the right to information in a given country. It is, however, limited to measuring the legal framework only and does not gauge the quality of implementation etc.
  2. Discuss why India has slipped to a lower position. E.g The seventh indicator is the non-exclusion of executive and administrative units like ministries, local bodies, police, armed forces and bodies controlled or owned by the above. Our public authority definition covered these aspects, but CLD says that jurisdiction exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and broad exemption to 18 bodies under Section 24 reduced India’s points; Legal protections against imposing sanctions on those who, in good faith, release information which discloses wrongdoing (whistleblowers) is criterion 53. The rating agency maintains that in India there are no such protections, while Afghanistan and Serbia do have them. Section 21 of the Indian RTI Act says, “No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done under this Act or any rule made thereunder”. This gives immunity to all persons who give information under this Act. But this is ignored etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Land reforms in India.

4) What were the objectives of land reforms in independent india. Discuss. Also Discuss why those reforms have failed to achieve the desired results.(250 words)

Reference

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  land reforms done in post-independent India. E.g The Indian Government was committed to land reforms and consequently laws were passed by all the State Governments during the Fifties with the avowed aim of abolishing landlordism, distributing land through imposition of ceilings, protection of tenants and consolidation of land-holdings. One of the significant achievements of these acts was the abolition of absentee landlordism in several parts of India.

Body-

  1. Discuss the objectives of land reforms. E.g (1) to enhance the productivity of land by improving the economic conditions of farmers and tenants so that they may have the interest to invest in and improve agriculture, (2) to ensure distributive justice and to create an egalitarian society by eliminating all forms of exploitation, (3) to create a system of peasant proprietorship with the motto of land to the tiller and (4) to transfer the incomes of the few to many so that the demand for consumer goods would be created.
  2. Discuss why land reforms could not achieve the desired results. E.g The act did not benefit sub-tenants and sharecroppers, as they did not have occupancy rights on the land they cultivated; Intermediaries were abolished, but the rent receiving class continued to exist; Many landlords managed to retain considerable land areas under the various provisions of the laws. Benami holdings became the order of the day in many States;The problems of transferring ownership rights from the actual cultivators of the land, the tenants, the sub-tenants, sharecroppers, therefore, remained far from resolved etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Basics of cyber security

5) Cyber-attacks have grown in terms of sophistication and reach in the recent times. Evaluate India’s performance in tackling cybersecurity threats and whether India needs an army of ethical hackers?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article discusses the risk posed by a bug in IRCTC website and the importance of beefening up our cybersecurity infrastructure. The sheer magnitude of the risk posed by this is immense and it’s a pressing problem for the country from an internal security point of view.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the status quo of incidents related to cybersecurity breaches that have plagued the country. Thereafter, we need to evaluate how has India responded to such breaches and how successful we have been in such efforts. Finally, we need to examine whether having an army of white hat hackers would help alleviate the problem.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – highlight the IRCTC incident to establish that this is a problem which needs serious consideration. Also explain who ethical hackers are.

Body

  • Discuss the current situation in India with respect to such attacks – India faces the highest number of cybersecurity threats in the Asia-Pacific region with over 500,000 alerts daily
  • Discuss the policy issues, infrastructural issues, capacity issues etc
  • Explain how can an army of white hat hackers help in preventing such security breaches. Highlight the examples of countries such as China which have already treaded on this path. Discuss any issues with this idea. You can also suggest a couple of other screws that need to be tightened for a holistic improvement.

Conclusion – Highlight that is an emerging and potentially crippling risk that the country faces and we should do everything possible to hedge ourselves against such risks.


Topic–   Conservation of man animal conflict to the fore. The issue has gained significance in light of the living planet report that highlighted the massive wildlife destruction we have caused, shrinking habitats etc. Devising a strategy for dealing with this issue is necessary.

6) In current times, man animal conflict is a reality we have to deal with and thus proactive measures are required for a healthy human animal interface. Examine.(250 words)

Indian express

Key demand of the question

The question first expects us to highlight the reasons why man animal conflict has risen so much in recent times. Next, we need to discuss the current steps being taken for dealing with the problem and how effective they are. Explain what do you understand by proactive measures and how can they help in reducing such incidents.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the incident of killing of Avni to highlight why the issue is in news.

Body

  • Discuss the reasons why such incidents of man animal conflict are on the rise – poor land management, land diversion, poor state of our forests, conservation efforts leading to increased numbers more than what we can sustain etc
  • Discuss how are we dealing with the situation or man animal conflict at present – designating areas as national parks etc and further protection accorded in such zones etc
  • Discuss the proactive measures that are required to deal with the situation – National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has brought out several Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to deal with various challenges of the human-tiger interface.

Conclusion – Conclude with how you think this problem can be tackled.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “land reforms in india”

7) Land reforms remain an unfinished agenda even after 70 years of independence. Do you agree? Critically analyse.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question first expects us to explain why land reforms are criticized so many years post its initiation as being incomplete. Discuss the reasons why the task of land reforms is still incomplete. Discuss the steps being taken to complete it.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain about the land reforms

Body

  • Discuss how land reforms were carried out post independence and their results. Discuss the fact that only some state implemented it properly while the other sought to preserve the status quo.
  • Discuss why land reform is an unfinished agenda – non modernization of land records, small size of land holdings
  • Discuss the steps being taken still to complete the task of land reforms – model land leasing law by Niti ayog etc

Conclusion – discuss the importance of completion of land reforms and highlight way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

8) Discuss how attitudes are formed. Also Discuss what are the categories of attitudes.(250 words)

Lexicon Ethics Booklet; Attitude

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  meaning of attitude. E.g Attitude refers to a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular object/ person/ situation/ problem/ issue with some degree of favour or disfavour.

Body

  1. Discuss how attitude is formed. E.g Discuss about the theories of

 

  • Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
  • Instrumental Conditioning
  • Observational Learning
  • Genetic Factors etc.
  1. Discuss about the categories of attitudes. E.g
  • Explicit vs implicit attitude.
  • Political and moral attitude etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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