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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1) India’s premier investigative agency- CBI, cannot be governed by British-era law. Do you agree. Comment.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

CBI has of late been in news for the controversy surrounding the removal of its director. In this context it is important to discuss the law governing the premier investigation agency and the need to reform the same.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether the law governing the CBI needs to be revised or not. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- Write a few introductory lines about the  CBI and the law governing it. E.g The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) owes its origin to the Special Police Establishment (SPE), which was established by the colonial government in 1941 through an executive order to deal with corruption involving war-time purchases and supplies. In 1946, the then government enacted the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act to give the organisation a statutory cover etc.

Body-

Discuss why the CBI cannot be governed by the anachronistic act. E.g The Act of 1946, which continues to govern the CBI, is a very small piece of legislation, comprising six sections. It permits the agency to investigate only those offences which are notified by the central government. The organisation cannot exercise its powers and jurisdiction in any area in a state without the consent of the government of that state. Without the state government’s invitation, the only way the CBI can work there is when the Supreme Court or some high court asks it to do so. The Act vests the superintendence of the CBI in the central government, though, now it vests partly in the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), too; India is no longer the country of 1946 and CBI is no longer what the Delhi Special Police Establishment was in those days. The size of the organisation has expanded, the pattern and incidence of crime which it is required to investigate have altered, its charter of functions has enlarged considerably, the political environment in which it is functioning has been transformed, citizens’ expectations from this agency have grown, and the norms and standards of police investigation work all over the world have seen a sea change etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic-  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2) Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) is the most ambitious health sector scheme since Independence. Critically analyze.(250 words)

Indianexpress

pib

Why this question

PM-JAY is one of the most important schemes of the government of India, launched recently. The scheme aims to revitalise the health sector in India but has also several limitations. In this context it is important to analyze the strengths and limitations of the scheme in detail.

Directive word

Critically analyze-  here we have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary. based on our discussion we have to form a concluding opinion on the issue.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the PM-JAY scheme and bring out its strengths/ potential as well as the criticism faced by it. Based on our discussion we have to form a personal opinion on the issue.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  PMJAY- e.g year of launch and its salient provisions.

Body-

  1. Discuss the strengths of the scheme. E.g  If implemented well, PM-JAY could dramatically change the picture of the health sector and directly benefit more than 50 crore poor people; Ayushman Bharat- Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PMJAY) will provide a cover of up to Rs. 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization; PMJAY will provide cashless and paperless access to services for the beneficiary at the point of service; PMJAY will help reduce catastrophic expenditure for hospitalizations, which impoverishes people and will help mitigate the financial risk arising out of catastrophic health episodes; Entitled families will be able to use the quality health services they need without facing financial hardships; When fully implemented, PMJAY will become the world’s largest fully government-financed health protection scheme. It is a visionary step towards advancing the agenda of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) etc.
  2. Discuss the limitations faced by it. E.g One, PM-JAY focuses on secondary and tertiary care, taking away the attention from primary care and public health-related investments. Two, in a supply-deficit environment, raising demand will not help. Three, the current package prices are too low to encourage private-sector hospitals to fully participate in the scheme. Four, hospital insurance addresses only a small amount of out-of-pocket expenditures. Finally, there is scepticism that either the required budget will not be available or provided at the expense of other critical needs etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic -Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and
issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3) Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana has managed to increase formalization in existing companies. Examine.(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

Government schemes are important for mains. There can either be a direct question on schemes or information about schemes can help in preparing filler material for answers. The article highlights the role played by PMRPY in increasing formalization in economy, which is a major gain and hence needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

Here, the first demand of the answer is to bring out the problem being faced currently – that of informalization of workforce and the issues faced along with it. Thereafter, we need to explain PMRPY and how it helps in tackling the issue of informalization of workforce. Next, we have to explain the impact of PMRPY and suggestions as to how to make it more effective.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the findings of Arjun Sengupta committee which highlighted the level of informalization of workforce in Indian economy.

Body

  • Discuss the problems faced as a result of informalization of workforce
  • Explain about PMRPY and how it helps in tackling the problem of informalization of economy – by dealing with the burden of EPFO and ESI for companies and the advantages that it has had including preventing tax evasion.
  • Thereafter, discuss the positive impact of this scheme and suggest ways of improvement

Conclusion – Highlight that creation of formal jobs is one of the biggest challenge and the scheme does well in addressing some of the issues.


General Studies – 3


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and
irrigation systems storage”

4) India’s agricultural policy for the next decade should shift away from cereal (and quantity) centricity and be primarily focused on water effectiveness. Discuss. (250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss how the focus areas for promoting agriculture need to shift away from enhancing quantity of particular food crops and focus on enhancing effectiveness of irrigation system to tackle the problem of water scarcity. We have to debate this hypothesis by bringing out points both for and against the current focus area and how focussing on water effectiveness is likely to improve the situation. We need to conclude with way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain how critical agricultural sector and its growth is for Indian economy.

Body

  • Explain that the current focus area of the agricultural policies, since the time of green revolution has been to increase productivity and quantity. The focus has remained on certain food grains which has now become a part of the problem.
  • Thereafter, debate the advantages and disadvantages of the current approach. In advantages one can talk about legislation like right to food which require increasing cereal production, MSP and economic requirement dictates the crop choices if farmers etc
  • Thereafter, explain why water scarcity is going to be a huge hindrance to agricultural growth. Bring out points like climate change, salinity, groundwater availability etc. Explain the way forward such as focussing on drip irrigation etc

Conclusion – Highlight the urgency of the situation and give an overview of what needs to be done.

 


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “issues related to transport and marketing of agricultural produce”

5) A one nation, one market model is the reform required to deal with issues related to agricultural marketing. Discuss.(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to highlight the issues with current regime in brief, discuss what kind of model is being talked about, mention about the advantages and disadvantages of one nation, one market model. Finally, we need to provide our view on unified markets and way forward.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that the aim is to double farmer’s income within a time frame, for which marketing of agricultural produce needs to be looked at and reformed.

Body

  • Discuss in brief the issues with APMC regime. Not more than 2-3 lines.
  • Thereafter explain what do we mean by one nation, one market. Talk about e-NAM and steps taken by the government to promote it.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such a model.

Conclusion – give your view on whether it would turn out to be a panacea for agricultural sector and briefly mention way forward.


General Studies – 4


Topic– Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions

6) Evaluate whether in the current times, corporates and industrialist are pursuing their own interest over general welfare? What should be the role of government vis a vis capitalist class?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses the lack of concern shown by the philosophy of capitalism towards human welfare and evaluates the role of government in doing a balancing act between the interest of industrial class and the interest of the people. The question is important in today’s scenario where income inequalities, environmental degradation etc are major issues which are hardly given the attention they deserve.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to analyze the situation prevalent in society today and discuss whether the philosophy of capitalism and its inherent contradictions are responsible for the several issues with human welfare that we witness today. In the second part of the question, based on our opinion from the arguments made in the former section, we need to discuss the role of government in the present context.

Directive word

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss the plethora of problem ranging from income inequality, environmental degradation etc that afflicts the world.

Body

  • In the beginning, lay down the facts which cause such a debate to arise. Present facts about the status quo such as the Oxfam studies related to inequality, the problems of crony capitalism etc. Highlight that the philosophy of capitalism is motivated by profits and there is an argument made that in pursuit of profits, everything goes. Highlight that according to several research the trust of citizens in corporates is declining rapidly.
  • Thereafter, discuss the contradictions in capitalism as highlighted by thinkers like Mahatma Gandhi who said that if we continue living the way we do, 9 Earth will be required.
  • Highlight the problem with views of scholars like Milton Friedman who stated that the role of business should be just business. Explain that other considerations should also be factored in.
  • Post that highlight the current role of government with respect to industrialists and businessmen and bring out how an ideal relationship should be

Conclusion – Give your view and discuss way forward.


Topic– ; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;

7) Discuss some practical mechanisms for setting and institutionalising high standards of ethical conduct, integrity and good governance in public services. (250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to simply bring out in detail, as to what mechanisms can be put in place to ensure ethical behaviour and good governance in public services.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  need for improved governance and ethics and integrity in public services.

Body-

Discuss in detail about the mechanisms for setting and institutionalising high standards of ethical conduct, integrity and good governance in public services. E.g

  • Anticipating specific threats to ethics standards and integrity in the public sector.
  • effective laws which require civil servants to give reasons for their official decisions, (for example: a Freedom of Information law);
  • management approaches which encourage all public officials and civil servants to deal positively with corruption and unethical practice when they encounter it.
  • ‘whistleblower’ protection law to protect appropriate ‘public interest disclosures’ of wrongdoing by officials;
  • ethics audits to identify risks to the integrity of the most important processes (for example financial management, tendering, recruitment and promotion, dismissal

  and discipline);

  • new Human Resource Management strategies (which link, for example, ethical performance with entry and advancement, and ethical ‘under-performance’ with disciplinary processes), merit based promotion and recruitment, anti discrimination protections;
  • training and development in the content and rationale of Ethics Codes, the application of ethical management principles, the proper use of official power, and the requirements of professional responsibility, and
  • effective external and internal complaint and redress procedures etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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