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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 05 NOVEMBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.


General Studies – 1


Topic- Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1) A society that fails to internalise the value of gender justice is one that is lacking in self-respect.Comment in the context of the recent Sabarimala judgment and its aftermath.(250 words)

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Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.  

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on the given statement- whether a society that fails to internalise the value of gender justice is one that is lacking in self-respect. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent Sabarimala judgement- the background and the judgement of the SC.

Body- Mention that the recent Supreme Court judgment on women’s entry into Sabarimala temple has both supporters as well as opponents.The grounds on which the adversaries of gender justice seem to be opposing the judgment are not only ethically flawed, but constitutionally perilous.  Discuss the flaws in the arguments of the opposition to the judgement. E.g the question of equality and justice needs to be seen as existing independent of and prior to any legal intervention; The members of civil society, and more importantly the political parties that operate within the formal political sphere, who are supposed to take the lead in terms of orienting the recalcitrant public towards gender equality; Any society aspiring to be decent has to be both sincere and sensitive in making efforts to create the background conditions within which equality and justice can be realised; India needs to treat gender equality and justice as a common good that has to be enjoyed by everyone, irrespective of sex, race, and caste; We have to rationally acknowledge the need to create public opinion against entrenched patriarchy that seeks to deny women the right to temple entry that men themselves have been enjoying for ages. Hence, on moral and ethical grounds, temple entry for women needs to be seen as the primary concern of the society, before it is taken to the legal system for deliberation; creating a regressive public would ultimately aid the entrenched patriarchy to consolidate its hold over the temple establishment, which would not be well disposed towards gender justice etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.

2) Why did Stalin enforce the collectivization of agriculture in USSR. Also discuss the impact it had on USSR.(250 words)

Mastering World History by Norman Lowe; Communism- Rise and Decline.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to bring out the reasons as to why Stalin launched collectivization of agriculture in USSR. It also wants us to discuss the impact of this decision on the USSR society and economy of that time.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  rise of Stalin to power in USSR and mention his decision to collectivize agriculture.

Body-

  1. Discuss the reasons behind this decision. E.g The existing system of small farms was inefficient, and seemed unable to satisfy the increasing demand for food, especially in the growing industrial cities. However, large farms, under state direction, and using tractors and combine harvesters, would vastly increase grain production, or so the theory went; Stalin wanted to eliminate the class of prosperous peasants (kulaks), which NEP had encouraged, because, he claimed, they were standing in the way of progress etc.
  2. Discuss the impact it had on USSR. e.g It proved to be a disaster, and it took Russia at least half a century to recover. There was no problem in collectivizing landless labourers, but all peasants who owned any property at all, whether they were kulaks or not, were hostile to the plan, and had to be forced to join by armies of party members, who urged poorer peasants to seize cattle and machinery from the kulaks to be handed over to the collectives. Kulaks often reacted by slaughtering cattle and burning crops rather than allow the state to take them. Peasants who refused to join collective farms were arrested and taken to labour camps, or shot; it allowed greater mechanization, which did achieve a substantial increase in production in 1937. The amount of grain taken by the state increased impressively and so did grain exports: 1930 and 1931 were excellent years for exports, and although the amounts fell sharply after that, they were still far higher than before collectivization. On the other hand, so many animals had been slaughtered that it was 1953 before livestock production recovered to the 1928 figure, and the cost in human life and suffering was enormous etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


General Studies – 2


Topic: Part of static series under the heading – “Representation of People’s Act”

3) Many committees have recommended state funding of election.What is meaning of state funding of election and critically analyse the significance of state funding of election?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what state funding of elections is, the recommendations of various committees regarding state funding of elections and how it would impact the election process in India – whether it would tackle money power that is often displayed in electrons, or whether it would help make the elections cleaner.

Directive word

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what state funding of elections is.

Body

  • Discuss the recommendations of the committees regarding state funding of elections – Indrajit Gupta Committee on State Funding of Elections (1998), Law Commission Report on Reform of the Electoral Laws (1999), National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (2001) and the Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2008)
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of state funding of elections
  • Based on the arguments made above and views of ECI etc give your opinion on the desirability of state funding of elections

Conclusion – discuss what should be the way forward.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Representation of People’s Act”

4) Explain Section 123 of Representation of People’s Act 1951? Examine whether mass religious appeals for electoral gains can be categorised as a corrupt practice?(250 words)

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what RPA is in brief and section 123 of RPA in greater detail. We need to explain what corrupt electoral practices are and the impact of it. Thereafter, we need to bring out the issues surrounding section 123(3) of RPA 1951 and examine the view of SC in this matter, and discuss the ruling and its impact.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what RPA is along with  Section 123 of RPA,1951. Section 123 of the Representation of the People Act sets out certain “corrupt electoral practices”.

Body

  • Discuss the outcome of being found guilty for corrupt electoral practices.
  • Discuss section 123(3) of RPA, 1951 and explain the verdict of SC in this matter – that politicians cannot seek votes on the grounds of caste, creed or religion, state must always be secular, and that the word ‘his’ only in Section 123 (3) of RPA means complete ban on any reference or appeal to religion, race, community, caste and language during elections
  • Discuss the reasoning behind this verdict – underlying philosophy of India’s election regime was that, in order to maintain the “purity” of the electoral process, certain kinds of arguments had to be taken off the table. These included appeals to religion, caste, language etc., since they were inherently divisive and contrary to constitutional values.
    The court also held that the secular character of the Indian republic mandated excluding religion from public life altogether
  • Discuss the impact of the verdict

Conclusion – Give your view on what this means for appeals to identity for securing votes, going forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian economy : Issues

5) For MSME sector, access to credit is one of the most significant challenge amongst the several challenges that the sector faces. Analyze issues related to credit availability for MSME sector and the role government is playing?(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

This article discusses the issues plaguing MSME sector with an in depth analysis of issues related to credit availability for MSMEs. In the backdrop of IL&FS crisis questions have been raised over the credit worthiness of MSMEs as well as the availability of credit for them. This question would help you prepare this topic in detail.

Key demand of the answer

The question expects us to list the various issues plaguing MSME sector and explain in greater depth the situation with respect to credit availability for MSMEs , the issues plaguing credit availability for the , and analyze the decision of the government to improve their situation. We need to provide a holistic view of the situation and discuss what needs to be done in conclusion.

Directive word

Analyze – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight the importance of MSME sector for the economy.

Body

  • List the various issues plaguing MSME sector such as poor infrastructure etc. Explain the problem of credit availability for the sector.
  • Discuss why such issues are being faced – the fact that banks are ill equipped, general problems with the economy, the problem with NBFC sector which are the major lenders to this sector etc
  • Discuss the steps taken by the government to address the situation and analyze how effective they are going to be

Conclusion – highlight that MSME sector need attention because of their immense significance for the economy and discuss way forward.


Topic – Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6) What do you understand by precision medicine and how can it help in cancer treatment and other various chronic and life threatening diseases? (250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The article discusses this novel method of precision medicine and how it can help in improving treatment of several chronic and life threatening diseases. UPSC in SnT section has a history of asking questions based on new developments in technology which come in news. Hence this question.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what exactly precision medicine is, the scope and nature of its application. Thereafter, we need to explain how it will be useful in treatment of cancer and other types of ailments. If there are any gaps, or criticism of the technology, it needs to be discussed as well.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that as diseases are becoming deadlier, technology is also developing to deal with them in a better, more systematic and organised manner.

Body

  • Explain what precision medicine is – precision medicine is “an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.” This approach will allow doctors and researchers to predict more accurately which treatment and prevention strategies for a particular disease will work in which groups of people. It is in contrast to a one-size-fits-all approach, in which disease treatment and prevention strategies are developed for the average person, with less consideration for the differences between individuals.
  • Discuss the technologies that make precision medicine possible – best of micro-physiological systems and gene chip technology, to garner in-depth genomic data on growth status, metastatic potential, and environmental catalysts relating to tumours. Leveraging key insights from this data, it can predict treatment outcomes etc
  • Discuss how will it be useful in treating cancer with advantages such as avoiding side effects, deciding dosages.
  • Discuss limitations and benefits of this technology

Conclusion – Give your view on how helpful this technology can become for treatment of deadly diseases.


Topic– Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

7) According to IPCC report, unless net carbon dioxide emissions are brought down to zero by 2050, warming above 1.5°C is practically inevitable. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Why this question

The recent IPCC report has highlighted the gravity of situation with regard to the impending climate and environmental disaster due to global warming. In this context it is essential to discuss the need to bring down carbon emissions by 2050.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question

The question wants us to write in detail about the recent IPCC report and its findings in connection with the need to bring down carbon emissions by 2050 so as to limit the global warming to 1.5 degrees celsius above pre industrial levels.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent IPCC report. E.g The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on 1.5°C (SR 1.5) is unequivocal in its assertion—unless net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are brought down to zero by 2050, warming above 1.5°C is practically inevitable.

Body– Discuss the related findings of the report in detail. E.g A 1.5°C warmer world will see higher sea levels, higher temperatures and increase in frequency and intensity of precipitation, floods, droughts and heatwaves. At 1.5°C, the world would reach some critical thresholds beyond which natural ecosystems would fundamentally change and, in some cases, take millennia to recover;  The thresholds for irreversible, multi-millennial loss of ice sheets in Greenland and the West Antarctica may also be breached. The warming and acidification of the ocean will cause 70-90 per cent loss of corals and will put the survival of many marine species in jeopardy; Simulations included in the SR 1.5 show that when considering global mean surface temperature, the world has a total remaining carbon budget of just 770 gigatonnes of CO2, starting from the beginning of 2018, before it breaches 1.5°C, according to the median value of the simulations. At current emission levels, without the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, this budget would be exhausted by 2040; The simulations also show that limiting global warming to 1.5°C with little or no overshoot would require net anthropogenic CO2 emissions to reduce by up to 45 per cent, relative to 2010 levels, by 2030 and attain net-zero CO2 emissions by 2050 etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic–  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

8) What do you understand by a Blue Bond. Discuss its relevance for a country like India.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Why this question

Seychelles has recently been successful in raising around 15 million dollars from its newly devised Blue Bonds. In this context it is essential to discuss the nature of Blue Bonds and its relevance for a country like India.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to describe the meaning of Blue Bonds. It then wants us to discuss the relevance of the blue bonds for India.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a simple description of a blur bond. E.g The blue bond is a debt instrument issued by governments, development banks or others to raise capital from impact investors to finance marine and ocean-based projects that have positive environmental, economic and climate benefits. The blue bond is inspired by the green bond concept, which people are more familiar with.

Body-

  1. Discuss the concept of blue bonds in detail and mention the initiative of Seychelles in this direction. E.g The bond, which raised US$15 million from international investors, demonstrates the potential for countries to harness capital markets for financing the sustainable use of marine resources. The World Bank assisted in developing the blue bond and reaching out to the investors etc.
  2. Discuss the relevance of blue bonds for India. Discuss the Indian fisheries sector- employment generated, livelihoods dependent on it, and also mention the issue of overexploitation faced by Indian fisheries sector. In this regard bring out the need for a blue bond like instrument for India.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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