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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 03 NOVEMBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 03 NOVEMBER 2018

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2019: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 

Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

1) The recent tussle between the RBI and the government points out to the delicate balance RBI has to maintain in its functioning. Comment. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

The recent controversy surrounding the RBI and the central government revolves around sec 7 of the RBI act. However, interference in the functioning of the RBI will have a lot of repercussions for the economy as discussed by the article.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion on the need to maintain a fine balance RBI has to maintain in its functioning given the veto powers enjoyed by the government under sec 7 of RBI act.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  recent controversy between the RBI and the central government.

Body-

  1. Discuss the provisions of sec 7 of the RBI act and how it empowers the central government vis a vis the functioning of the central government.
  2. Discuss why RBI has to maintain a fine balance in its functioning. E.g the RBI Act allows the government to give written directives to the RBI in the public interest. On critical issues, often the choice for the Governor is to concede to the government with or without a written directive; the RBI is autonomous but within the framework of the RBI Act; at the same time the RBI is responsible for the country’s monetary policy and inflation targeting; Ultimately, it is the elected representative ruling the country who is answerable to the citizen every five years. The representative cannot split hairs before the voter while explaining the economy’s performance — he has to own up for everything, including the RBI’s actions, as his own; The Governor has to be conscious of the limits to his autonomy at all times, and the government has to consider the advice coming from RBI in all seriousness etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic: Part of static series under the heading – “Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries”

2) Do you agree with the statement that the scope of judicial review in India is much broader than that of what exists in US? Discuss comparing the judicial review in these two countries.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to compare judicial review in India and America and evaluate whether the nature and scope of judicial review is much broader in India compared to USA.

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what is judicial review.

Body – Explain the various points of differences between judicial review in the two countries

  • scope, of judicial review in India is narrower than that of scope of judicial review in USA where Supreme Court of USA the power to reject or abrogate any law which is made by Congress or states.
  • American constitution provides Due process of law which gives wide scope to the Supreme Court where as Indian constitution mentions about procedure established by law which gives narrow scope to the Supreme Court. But from Menaka Gandhi case onwards supreme court also using the concept of Due process of law by accepting the concept of natural justice in some times.
  • US constitution does not mention about judicial review in their constitution either explicitly or implicitly whereas Indian constitution explicitly mentions doctrine of judicial review etc

Conclusion – Give your view on the comparison of judicial review in the two countries.


Topic– Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

3) As the percentage of aged people in the country increases, improving the lives of people with dementia and their families and carers must become a national priority. Discuss.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The changing demography and the growing number of elderly in India is bound to result in the increase of people suffering from dementia. It is therefore necessary to make it a national priority to improve the lives of such persons who suffer from not only medical problem but also face social issues.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the plight of the elderly people suffering from the problem of dementia. It wants us to bring out the need to prioritise ameliorating the situation of such persons.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– mention that data from many parts of the world reveals age as a risk factor for dementia — though the debilitating condition, is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. Dementia is a form of cognitive impairment that affects memory and other cognitive abilities and significantly interferes with a person’s ability to perform daily activities.

Body-

  1. Mention that According to the WHO, it affects 50 million people worldwide; a number that is projected to increase to 82 million by 2030 and 152 million by 2050; discuss the problems faced by such patients- the stigma attached to the disease leads to the social isolation of patients, their families and careers; several of the needs of such people — social, economic or those related to health — remain unfulfilled. For instance, leave concessions at work, adaptable housing environments, adequate diagnostic facilities, treatment options, care provisions and risk reduction measures for people with dementia are not in place; Many require psychological support, biomedical facilities, appropriate medications, counselling services and end of life care. But these are not available etc.
  2. Mention India’s commitments in this regard. E.g the World Health Assembly in Geneva adopted the Global Action Plan on the Public Health Response to Dementia 2017-2025, which India has duly endorsed; The country’s commitment to Sustainable Development Goals — especially with respect to Goal 3 that deals with good health and well being — and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Indian Polity : Issues

4) Reservation in promotion is a contentious matter for which the absolutist position of states is to blame. Critically examine.(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article traces the judicial history of the issue of reservation in promotions and discusses how the states have been complicit in fanning the controversy by taking absolutist stands. The question will help you prepare the issue of reservation in promotions and th court verdict in depth.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out what the SC verdict in Jarnail Singh case was. Thereafter, we need to bring out how the states have, in the past, taken absolutist stands to nullify court judgement related to this. We also need to explain why it was important for states to do. Finally, we need to provide a fair and balanced stand as to whether absolutist stands taken by the state in this matter would lead to issues and discuss way forward.

Directive word

Critically examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any.When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Highlight why reservation in promotions is in news. give a brief explanation about reservation in promotions.

Body

  • Discuss the court verdict in Jarnail Singh case and whether and how the position of the court has changed from M Nagraj case.
  • Evaluate the role of states in implementing the judgments of SC in these cases and how the states have tried to nullify the effect of these judgments by making amendments. Also discuss the impact of such actions of states
  • Discuss why is it important for the states to ensure that the weaker section is well represented in higher jobs, matter of social equity etc.
  • Give your view on what should the ideal response of state should be to the current scenario judgement

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business,
powers & privileges and issues arising out of these”

5) Examine whether parliamentary privileges in a constitutional democracy like India is an antithesis to “equality before law”?(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what parliamentary privileges and equality before law mean, how it might appear that they are antithesis to each other. Examine why Parliamentary privilege are important. Discuss what happens if the privileges are codified.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .
Structure of the answer

  • Explain what Parliamentary privileges and what forms do they take
  • Examine what equality before law entails – absence of privileges, no person above law and equal subjection of law to each and every person. Mention in brief why they might appear contradictory
  • Highlight why Parliamentary privileges were conceived – efficiency, deal with unseen situation etc
  • Examine the issues that are being faced on account of parliamentary privileges

Conclusion – Summarize why the two are not at loggerheads.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian economy : issues

6) Examine the role played by NBFC sector in the Indian economy and issues plaguing the sector?(250 words)

Indian express

Why this question

The question discusses the role NBFC sector has played in the Indian economy and delves deep into the nature of liquidity issue that is faced by the sector in the backdrop of IL&FS crisis. The issue of NBFC has been in the news and is currently at the centre of alleged tussle between RBI and Govt. Hence this question is important.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to first explain what NBFCs are and the role they play in our economy. Thereafter we need to explain the problem of liquidity crisis in the sector and RBI’s position on it. Finally, we need to discuss what needs to be done to address the crisis.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what NBFCs are

Body

  • Discuss the role played by NBFC sector in the economy – NBFCs being financial intermediaries are supposed to play a supplementary role to banks. NBFCs, especially those catering to the urban and rural poor — including the micro-finance institutions (NBFC-MFIs) and asset finance companies — have a complementary role in the financial inclusion agenda of the country. Further, some of the big NBFCs — infrastructure finance companies — are engaged in lending exclusively to the infrastructure sector, and some are into factoring business, thereby giving a fillip to the growth and development of various sectors. In short, NBFCs bring diversity to the financial sector.
  • Discuss the issues plaguing NBFC – that of liquidity crunch, regulatory challenges etc. Explain the relevance of IL&FS crisis and how it is related to the problems being faced currently.
  • Discuss how government and RBI have responded to the situation and the steps taken by RBI to address the liquidity problem of NBFCs

Conclusion – Give your view on the way this problem should be dealt with.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic- Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7) “As more and more artificial intelligence is entering into the world, more and more emotional intelligence must enter into leadership.” Comment.(250 words) 

Reference

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether the progress and increased adoption of AI needs to be complemented by more emotional intelligence in the leadership. We can present our opinion for or against the statement but we have to back up our opinion with sufficient and valid arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  growing importance and adoption of AI technologies in our life.

Body-

Discuss why AI needs to be complemented with EI. E.g mention that the growth of AI will lead to job losses across almost all sectors. Those that want to stay relevant in their professions will need to focus on skills and capabilities that artificial intelligence has trouble replicating — understanding, motivating, and interacting with human beings; A smart machine might be able to diagnose an illness and even recommend treatment better than a doctor. It takes a person, however, to sit with a patient, understand their life situation (finances, family, quality of life, etc.), and help determine what treatment plan is optimal; Similarly, a smart machine may be able to diagnose complex business problems and recommend actions to improve an organization; A human being, however, is still best suited to jobs like spurring the leadership team to action, avoiding political hot buttons, and identifying savvy individuals to lead change; It’s these human capabilities that will become more and more prized over the next decade.  Skills like persuasion, social understanding, and empathy are going to become differentiators as artificial intelligence and machine learning take over our other tasks etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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