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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 31 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 31 OCTOBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic:Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure(click here)

 


General Studies – 2


Topic– Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

1) What do you understand by constitutional morality in the context of Indian legal system. What are its sources. Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning of the term constitutional morality. We also have to write in detail about sources from which the term assumes its role and powers.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the term, constitutional morality. E.g while the word ‘morality’ has been used only four times in the Indian Constitution (twice in Article 19 and twice in Right to religious Freedom under Article 25 and 26), it continues to be invoked by the courts in many rights claim cases like surrogacy, speech, sexual orientation.

Body-

  1. Discuss the meaning of the term in detail. E.g Constitutional morality means adherence to the core principles of the constitutional democracy. In Dr. Ambedkar’s perspective, Constitutional morality would mean an effective coordination between conflicting interests of different people and the administrative cooperation to resolve the amicably without any confrontation amongst the various groups working for the realization of their ends at any cost; public conscience, moral order and constitutional morality- ethics of politicians, that constitute the core of policymaking, must be very sound and strong if democracy is to survive for the long period of progress and prosperity for the common people; Thus the scope of the definition of Constitutional Morality is not limited only to following the constitutional provisions literally but vast enough to ensure the ultimate aim of the Constitution, a socio-juridical scenario providing an opportunity to unfold the full personhood of every citizen, for whom and by whom the Constitution exists etc.
  2. Discuss the sources of constitutional morality in india. E.g (1) Text of the Constitution; (2) Constitutional Assembly debates; (3) Events that took place during the framing of the Constitution; and (4) Case Law History.

Mention a few cases where the concept has been directly or indirectly applied. E.g the Naz Foundation case which used the concept of constitutional morality to strike down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code and decriminalise homosexuality; Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic– Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

2) CBI has been called a caged parrot by none other than the SC. In recent days, we have seen the kind of controversies related to independence if CBI. Explain the measures in place, if any, to ensure independence of CBI and discuss the nature of institutional reforms required by CBI?(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

CBI has been in the eye of a storm the past few days which have raised serious questions over the functioning of CBI. This question would enable you to explain the controversy in greater detail and also enable you to prepare the kind of institutional reforms required in CBI.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the details of the controversy in CBI and discuss the systems and processes put in place in terms of appointments to CBI to ensure that it maintains its independence. Post discussing that, we need to bring out the nature of institutional reforms further required to insulate CBI from all political interference.

Directive word

Discuss – here, your discussion should bring out the form, nature and content of the institutional reforms required in CBI to insulate it from political interference.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain the controversy in CBI in brief which has brought the issue in news.

Body

  • First, highlight the meaning of caged parrot and why is CBI called so
  • Discuss the safeguards brought in the appointment process – directions laid out in Vineet Narain case, and the changes brought in by Lokpal act
  • Discuss why despite these measures CBI has not been able to perform without external interference
  • Discuss the nature of institutional reforms required in CBI – recommendations of LP Singh committee, 2nd ARC Committee, other reforms eg. 24th report also expressed itself in favour of CBI taking suo motu cognisance of crimes, and said that this would in no way affect the essentials of our federal structure. It is high time that the CBI is vested with the required legal mandate and is given pan-India jurisdiction. It must have inherent powers to investigate corruption cases against officers of All India Services irrespective of the assignments they are holding or the state they are serving in

Conclusion – Discuss the importance of maintaining institutional integrity in CBI and discuss way forward.


Topic – Part of static series under the heading – “Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure”

3) Examine why 42nd Constitutional Amendment is called a mini Constitution?(250 words)

Key demand of the constitution

The question expects us to paint a macro picture of the changes brought about by 42nd constitutional amendment act and the impact of those changes. We also need to bring out how its effects were nullified.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief backdrop of the developments pre 42nd CAA

Body

  • Discuss the macro changes brought about by the 42nd Amendment Act such as the changes to fundamental rights, almost made parliament the supreme law making body etc
  • Discuss the impact that these changes would have – threaten the balance between the three organs of government, dilute FRs etc
  • Discuss how the changes proposed by 42nd CAA were nullified.

Conclusion – Mention that sweeping changes were proposed by that Amendment which would have made the constitution unrecognisable.


TopicQuality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

4) What is social audit. What are its objectives and advantages.Discuss.(250 words)

Reference

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning and scope of social audit. We also have to write in detail about the objectives of doing a social audit and the advantages it offers.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a simple definition of social audit. E.g A social audit is a way of measuring, understanding, reporting and ultimately improving an organization’s social and ethical performance.

Body-

  1. Discuss the concept of social audit in detail. E.g A social audit helps to narrow gaps between vision/goal and reality, between efficiency and effectiveness. It is a technique to understand, measure, verify, report on and to improve the social performance of the organization; Social auditing creates an impact upon governance. It values the voice of stakeholders, including marginalized/poor groups whose voices are rarely heard. Social auditing is taken up for the purpose of enhancing local governance, particularly for strengthening accountability and transparency in local bodies.
  2. Discuss the objectives of social auditing. E.g Assessing the physical and financial gaps between needs and resources available for local development; Creating awareness among beneficiaries and providers of local social and productive services; Increasing efficacy and effectiveness of local development programmes etc.
  3. Discuss the advantages of social audit. E.g Trains the community on participatory local planning; Encourages local democracy; Encourages community participation; Benefits disadvantaged groups etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes

5) Critically analyze the performance of unnat Bharat abhiyan in transforming rural lives through technology and whether there is a need to alter the approach?(250 words)

Financialexpress

Why this question

The article critically analyzes the performance and the approach of schemes such as unnat Bharat abhiyan which seek to uplift the lives of vulnerable section of our population through technological changes. The question would enable you to analyze the impact of unnat Bharat abhiyan and role of technology in altering lives of rural population in India.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the strategy and details of unnat Bharat abhiyan and the positives and the pitfalls of the scheme. Thereafter, we need to give our view on whether technological changes without understanding the needs of population can lead to transformational changes in the lives of people and if not, what needs to be done.

Directive word

Critically analyse – When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – explain what unnat Bharat abhiyan is.

Body –

  • Discuss the strategy followed under UBA.
  • Discuss the positive impact of UBA – development of a biogas conversion kit for diesel engines by IIT Delhi, the utilisation of paddy straw into bio-power generation through biomethane and bioethanol production, the modified bio-sand water treatment plant by NIT Manipur and so on. Some of these have managed to solve real problems such as sewage disposal, waste and water management, energy sources, organic farming, provision of basic amenities, and convergence of remote technologies. Students get to learn the practical aspects of the sciences taught in the classroom, while communities benefit
  • Discuss the limitations of the approach – Many developmental organisations, apart from universities, are developing technological and social solutions for rural communities. But there is no concrete example of any such initiative changing lives, The problem with most of these programmes is they carry an urban bias and assume that benefits will trickle down to the masses. Social aspirations of these communities are not given due importance in technical applications. Most of these technologies are made with commonly available resources that aim to keep these ecosystems self-dependent. For example, there are easy-to-make chulhas and bullock carts. Comparable approaches in urban areas do not expect people to construct their own scooters or stoves. Also, developers of these technologies are only able to make minor improvements to existing systems.
  • Discuss what kind of a change in approach is requires ( you can also take a stand that no change is required)

Conclusion – give your view on the efficacy of such programmes and discuss the way forward.


General Studies – 3


Topic – Indian economy : Issues

6) Multidimensional Poverty Index shows that India’s BIMARU states have still not converged with the better off states in India is when it comes to social indicators. Examine why and suggest what needs to be done?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article highlights the data released by UNDP and how the BIMARU states in India have been unable to perform so as to reach the levels of social indicators of developed states in India. This is despite the developmental philosophy that thought that trickle down effect would happen and the BIMARU states would eventually catch up. In light of the MPI figures, it is important to understand the reason why these states have been unable to pick up their performance and what needs to be done.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the performance of these states in MPI index, explain what these index is and what it measures, as well as the reasons why convergence in development indicators is not seen. Finally, we need to provide suggestions as to what needs to be done to correct the situation.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Explain what MPI is and what BIMARU states are.

Body – Discuss what the data suggests about the performance of BIMARU states. Discuss the reasons why these states have been unable to improve their performance so as to keep up with their developed counterparts. Highlight that it is not that improvement in indices is not being seen but that the pace of improvement is quite slow. Discuss the reasons such as institutional, financial, lack of infrastructure etc. Suggest what needs to be done to improve the situation such as allocation of resources, creation of infrastructure etc

Conclusion – give your view on the performance of BIMARU states and what needs to be done.


TopicIndian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

7) Having missed the first three industrial revolutions, India is now in a position to lead the fourth. Comment.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

India is at the critical junction of history. It is the fastest growing major economy with a huge demographic dividend. In the wake of the start of fourth Industrial revolution it is essential to discuss India’s strengths and limitations to become a leader of the 4G world.

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether India is rightly placed to lead the 4th industrial revolution. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction- write a few introductory lines about the  fourth industrial revolution.

Mention that India languished on the fringes during the first two industrial revolutions powered by coal and steam and electricity and oil, respectively, and only started playing catch-up in the computer-driven third industrial revolution.

  1. Discuss the scope of India leading the fourth industrial revolution. E.g mention the strengths of India. E.g a large demographic dividend and a huge tech savvy youth population; a democracy that is run on the model of equitable and inclusive growth; It is a rich and fertile ground for entrepreneurship and has emerged as the fastest growing startup base worldwide; the nation is home to the third largest number of technology-driven startups in the world etc.
  2. Discuss the limitations faced by India in this regard. E.g stiff competition from other countries; high unemployment levels and high incidences of poverty etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. E.g India needs to prepare itself for a period of information and digital abundance, adapt itself to the scorching pace of innovation and learn to collaborate on scale, quickly transform the idea into a breakthrough innovation, shift from a system of time-bound education to a mode of continuous learning and create more employment opportunities than what new and disruptive technologies take away.


Topic Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

8) What do you understand by the term, “Great acceleration”. Discuss how it has impacted the wild fauna across the globe.(250 words)

The hindu

 

Why this question

A recent report from WWF has highlighted the plight of our wild fauna. Their number has decreased drastically in the last few decades of the century all because of the great acceleration. Hence it is important to understand the term and how it has affected wildlife.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about the meaning of the term, great acceleration. It then wants us to write in detail as to how it has impacted the wild fauna across the globe.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Define great acceleration in a simple way. E.g It is the exponential growth over the last 50 years in the use of energy, water, timber, fish, food, fertiliser, pesticides, minerals, plastics — everything.”

Body-

  1. Discuss the great acceleration in detail. E.g The Great Acceleration refers to the most recent period of the Anthropology cene during which the rate of impact of human activity upon the Earth’s geology and ecosystems is increasing significantly. While the Anthropocene commenced with Industrial Revolution if not long before, the Great Acceleration begins in the 20th century with the acceleration rate dramatically increasing after the Second World War.This concept has been further extended to refer to the rate of change in technology and society as a whole etc.
  2. Discuss how it has impacted wild fauna across the globe. E.g From 1970 to 2014, 60% of all animals with a backbone — fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals — were wiped out by human appetites and activity, according WWF’s “Living Planet” report; For freshwater fauna, the decline in population over the 44 years monitored was a staggering 80%. Regionally, Latin America was hit hardest, seeing a nearly 90% loss of wildlife over the same period; Depending on which of Earth’s life forms are included, the current rate of species loss is 100 to 1,000 times higher than only a few hundred years ago; Back-to-back marine heatwaves have already wiped out up to half of the globe’s shallow-water reefs, which support a quarter of all marine life. etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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