Topic – Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
7) The decentralisation of Environment Impact Assessment processes has improved the enforcement of environmental regulations and been successful in reducing polluting activities in India. Discuss. (250 words)
Why this question
Any programme, intervention that helps in better environmental management per se is an important issue as far as the health of the planet and UPSC exams are concerned. Therefore it is important to discuss how decentralisation of Environment Impact Assessment processes has improved the enforcement of environmental regulations and been successful in reducing polluting activities in India.
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to write in detail about the decentralised EIA process and how it has helped in enforcement of environmental regulations and reduced pollution.
Structure of the answer
Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the decentralized Environmental Impact Assessment process.
- Discuss how decentralization of EIA has happened.
- Discuss the advantages of the decentralised EIA and how it has helped in better environmental regulations enforcement and reduced pollution. E.g It helps to promote more transparent and efficient use of natural resources, as well as to increase local participation based on the homogeneity of common goals and priorities; the decentralisation process has led to an increase in the average regulatory stringency and has been successful in reducing the number of polluting activities. The effects are varied between states, wherein the majority of the high-enforcement states have accrued environmental benefits, while more needs to be done in other states etc.
- Discuss the cons/ limitations. E.g the decentralised powers could be futile if state governments intend to actively pursue industrialisation for their respective state, or be ineffective if state authorities lack technical and financial capacity.