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[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 OCTOBER 2018

[Insights Secure – 2019] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 OCTOBER 2018

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Tomorrow’s Static Topic: Salient Features of Indian Society + Diversity (Click Here)


General Studies – 1


Topic– Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1) Do you think matrilineal family structure like the one practiced by Khasi tribe, disfavours men. Analyze.(250 words)

Insightsonindia

Directive word

Analyze-here we  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts, and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to dig deep into the matrilineal family system of the Khasis of Meghalaya and bring out whether it disfavours men or not.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– Define what is a matrilineal family structure.

Body-

  1. Discuss the matrilineal family structure of Khasi tribes in detail. E.g Women have a dominant role in the matrilineal society of Meghalaya. The youngest daughter of the family, the Ka Khadduh,[9] inherits all ancestral property. After marriage, husbands live in the mother-in-law’s home. The mother’s surname is taken by children. While the society is matrilineal, it is not matriarchal.  A woman inherits property from her mother and passes it on to her daughter, while a man controls his sister’s property and passes on control to his sister’s son. Thus, inheritance passes from mother to daughter whereas control passes from (maternal) uncle to nephew etc.
  2. Discuss whether it is discriminatory against men. E.g Khasi matriliny generates intense role conflict for men. They are torn between their responsibilities to their natal house on the one hand, and to their wife and children on the other. In a way, the strain generated by such role conflict affects Khasi women more intensely etc.

Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.


Topic -Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India

2) One of the most significant yet paradoxical changes in the caste system in the contemporary period is that it has tended to become ‘invisible’ for the upper caste, urban middle and upper classes. Comment.(250 words)

Insightsonindia

Wikipedia

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form an opinion about reducing importance of caste system in upper caste people and urban middle and upper class. We have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and present points, facts, arguments in favour of our opinion.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the weakening of caste institutions and structures with time.

Body-

Discuss how caste has become invisible for the upper caste, urban middle and upper classes. E.g For the majority of the upper caste, their status had been crucial in ensuring that these groups had the necessary economic and educational resources to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by rapid development.At the same time, they were also able to take advantage of the expansion of state sector jobs in the early decades after Independence. In this initial period, their lead over the rest of society (in terms of education) ensured that they did not face any serious competition. As their privileged status got consolidated in the second and third generations, these groups began to believe that their advancement had little to do with caste. For this group, it now seems that caste plays no part in their public lives, being limited to the personal sphere of religious practice or marriage and kinship etc.


Topic– Part of static series under the heading – “Salient features of Indian society and diversity”

3) The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate.(250 words)

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to provide origin of India’s diversity. Next, we need to illustrate how it was an interesting feature in early and mediaeval times. Thereafter, we need to bring out how love and tolerance is playing an important role in the current society, how it counters destructive forces and creates economic opportunities.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that India is a vast country with a lot of diversity in her physical and social environment. People of different racial stocks, ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs have settled down here. While their food habits, dress patterns and languages vary but the spirit of love and tolerance is common elements among all of them.

Body

  • Discuss how the spirit of love and tolerance developed in early times from Buddhism, Jainism to Sufism etc.
  • Discuss how spirit of love and tolerance played an important role in modern times in freedom struggle etc
  • Discuss the role played by this spirit in creating opportunities and economic benefits within India, the societal advantages it has etc. discuss how this spirit also extends to our diaspora.

Conclusion – mention that barring occasional incidents of violence and hatred, Indian civilization has always celebrated plurality and promoted love & tolerance. This spirit has countered the destructive forces within India and created opportunities for Indians both within and outside our country.


General Studies – 3


Topic –  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4) India has been identified as the country with the most expected damage from rising levels of carbon dioxide.  However, India has a large number of successful examples of transformative innovation around energy production and access, land, livelihoods and climate resilience. Discuss such examples.(250 words)

The hindu

Why this question

India is in an uneasy position where its economic growth and vast poverty favour a large scale exploitation of environment and natural resources while at the same time a huge number of vulnerable people in terms of environmental degradation and climate change favours green and on a short term expensive development. The article discusses the efforts made by India in balancing both these demands.

Directive word

Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to write in detail about some examples from India, of transformative innovation around energy production and access, land, livelihoods and climate resilience.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the  about the impending threats of global warming and climate change and mention India’s unique position in the world in terms of development needs, stable and fairly growing economy, status of environmental degradation and the proportion of vulnerable people.

Body-

Discuss some examples of transformative innovation around energy production and access, land, livelihoods and climate resilience, seen in India in recent years. E.g The Bureau of Energy Efficiency has showed how government ‘nudges’ are made effective through appliance labelling and large-scale procurement of efficient devices; In the building and cement industry, innovation around housing and new materials, including natural fibre composites, could make far-reaching changes in infrastructure through low-carbon modular technologies; India expects to reach its ambitious solar target of 100 GW capacity by 2022 ; Zero Budget Natural Farming; Sustainable approaches to land are evident in cases such as forest conservation in Mendha-Lekha village in Maharashtra and community delivery of public services in Nagaland etc.

Conclusion- based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue. Bring out to intensify such efforts on a large scale, community participation, budgetary and international support etc.


Topic – Environmental pollution and degradation

5) Pollution situation in Delhi is so grave that it can hardly be resolved by piecemeal steps such as the cracker ban. Discuss.(250 words)

Financial express

Why this question

The article discusses the grave situation of pollution in Delhi and analyzes the various steps taken by the government and the courts to tackle pollution and comments on their effectiveness. The article also touches upon the order of cracker bans in Delhi and whether such orders can salvage the situation in Delhi. Since pollution in Delhi remains in the news quite often, and there has been an important court judgement on this, hence this question needs to be prepared.

 

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to bring out the nature of scattered steps taken to tackle pollution, discuss pros and cons of such measures, examine whether such measures can help mend the situation and discuss the way forward.

 

Directive word

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Give a brief overview of the situation of pollution in Delhi.

Body – Discuss the various steps taken by the government to tackle pollution such as odd even, tackling stubble burning , ban and now regulation of sale on crackers etc. Examine whether the above series of scattered steps have helped resolve the problem of pollution in Delhi. Discuss the shortcomings of such measures as highlighted in the article. Discuss measures through which the situation can come under control in Delhi.

Conclusion – Give a fair and balanced view and discuss way forward.


Topic – Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life

6) What do you understand by Quantum computers and explain how will it revolutionize computing?(250 words)

Livemint

Why this question

The article discusses quantum computers and the advantages that it offers which is an important scientific development, yet in its nascent stage, that needs to be prepared.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain what quantum computers are, the principles based on which they function and highlight their potential and pitfalls.

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Mention that today’s smartphones have the computing power of a military computer from 50 years ago that was the size of an entire room. However, even with the phenomenal strides we made in technology and classical computers since the onset of the computer revolution, there remain problems that classical computers just can’t solve. Many believe quantum computers are the answer.

Body – Explain what quantum computers are – Quantum computers are not intended to replace classical computers, they are expected to be a different tool we will use to solve complex problems that are beyond the capabilities of a classical computer. mention that when we enter the world of atomic and subatomic particles, things begin to behave in unexpected ways. In fact, these particles can exist in more than one state at a time. It’s this ability that quantum computers take advantage of. Discuss the concept of qubits and how quantum computers ensure faster speed. Discuss the applications and constraints ( in terms of developing the technology) of quantum computers.

Conclusion – Give your view on what it means to have an exponential rise in the power of computing.


Topic– internal security

7) India might lose the cyber space face offs unless IT infrastructure of the military is indigenise soon. Examine.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question

The article brings out the problem of India’s lack of capability to indigenise the IT and digital infra in the military etc and the impact of this. Considering that several reports and books have talked about how countries like US, China etc are gearing themselves for a cyber space face off, India still is walking on the first step of the ladder. Examining this issue would be important for GS3 – Internal Security.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to discuss the status of digital infrastructure in India and compare it vis a vis other countries to understand our shortcomings. Next we need to discuss the reasons why we need to upgrade and highlight that other countries are fast taking lead. Next, we discuss the steps taken by government and military in India to modernize the cyber space and examine issues in it. Finally, we need to provide a way forward.

Directive word

Examine – When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

Structure of the answer

Introduction – Discuss some of the recent incidents of cyber space face offs such as the report that indicated that China placed microchips on electronics supplied to US, which indicates the kind of importance that must be given to such issues.

Body – Explain with the help of examples how the capability of other digital armed forces and espionage techniques are much more sophisticated than what we have. Discuss the steps taken by India to improve its current position such as the incorporation of BOSS OS in military etc through which India is trying to take baby steps in modernizing and indigenization. Highlight the lacunae in Indian approach and while discussing global best practices, mention the way forward for India.

Conclusion – Emphasize on the urgency of taking action and discuss way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


Topic– Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

8) If you don’t have a rational reason to adopt a rational ethics system, you’re failing before you begin. Do you agree. Comment. (250 words)

Reference

Wikipedia

Directive word

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to form an opinion on the given statement. We can form our opinion in favour of or against the statement but our opinion has to be based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.

Structure of the answer

Introduction– define rationalist ethics or moral rationalism/ ethical rationalism. E.g Moral rationalism, also called ethical rationalism, is a view in meta-ethics according to which moral principles are knowable a priori, by reason alone.

Body-

Discuss why there is a need to adopt a rational reason/ motivation before undertaking a rationalist ethics approach. E.g Rationality is a -means-, not an ends.  A “rational ethics system” is merely an ethical system based on logic, on reason; the very first step in adopting a rational ethics system is determining -why- you want to adopt a rational ethics system.  “I want to be more rational” is irrational. “I want to know the truth” is a better reason for wanting to be rational; illustrate your point with the example of truth having an inherent value; mention that A rational ethics system must have its axioms.   It is the values that your ethics system seeks to maximize which are its most important axioms etc.

Conclusion– sum up your discussion in a few lines and form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the above issue.

 



NOTE: 

We are giving hints for each question. Please use your creativity and originality to come up with answers that are unique to you. But do so without deviating from core demand of each question. Ultimately you should use your reason and judgement to write your own answer. 

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