Topic– urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
3) Slums are a natural development of India’s economic and political structure. Do you agree. Comment. Also discuss why the various slum development strategies in India have not delivered the required results. (250 words)
Why this question
Slums are an omnipresent reality for most of the major cities of India and various efforts have been made by the government to address the issue. In this context it is essential to understand the relationship of India’s slums with its political and economical structure and discuss why the slum development and relocation strategies have not bore the results.
Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.
Discuss- this is an all-encompassing directive which mandates us to write in detail about the key demand of the question. we also have to discuss about the related and important aspects of the question in order to bring out a complete picture of the issue in hand.
Key demand of the question.
The question wants us to express our opinion as to whether slums are a natural development of India’s political and economic structure. We have to form our opinion based on a proper discussion and presentation of valid arguments and facts.
The question also wants us to write in detail as to why various slum development initiatives and strategies have failed in India.
Structure of the answer
Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the growth of urbanization in India and the problems this has led to.
- Discuss how slums are a natural development of India’s political and economic structure. E.g most of the nation is still rural and agriculture dominated; Seasonal nature of employment in agriculture and various other push and pull factors have led to migration of poor people from the rural areas and led to slums; urban India’s growth is built on the back of cheap labour in everything from construction to domestic work. Various combinations of rent control, opaque and distorted land markets, stifling regulation and laughably low floor space indexes have resulted in a severe lack of affordable housing in India’s premier cities. Slums are the natural outcome etc.
- Discuss why most slum development strategies have failed in India. E.g There are many hurdles, both major and minor. The lack of adequate data and land titles in slums meant expensive, time-consuming delays were common. Failure to take slum dweller representatives on board meant that the informal economic networks underlying the slum economy would be disrupted by the redevelopment. So would the community networks that fill the gaps left by missing social safety nets. Lack of common standards meant that the housing built for slum dwellers was often of execrable quality. As for the problem of slum dwellers selling or leasing the houses and returning to their previous housing, poor quality, unaffordable maintenance costs and disrupted networks often had a role to play here etc.
Conclusion– based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.